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First class pilot may serve

in the capacity of

1st pilot (aircraft rating

required)

1st pilot (aircraft rating

required)

1st pilot (aircraft rat

ing required)

1st pilot (aircraft rating

required)

1st pilot (aircraft rat

ing required)

1st pilot (aircraft rat

ing required)

Second class pilot may

serve in the capacity of

1st pilot (aircraft rating

required)

1st pilot (aircraft rating 2d pilot (see note)

required)

1st pilot (aircraft rating 3d pilot

required)

2d pilot (aircraft rat

ing required)

2d pilot (see note)

3d pilot

Third class pilot may

serve in the capacity of

1st pilot (aircraft rating 2d pilot (see note)

required)

3d pilot

1st pilot (aircraft rating

required), day contact only

Note: Pilot need not be rated but shall satisfactorily demonstrate his ability to make three take-offs and landings in the model aircraft in which he is to serve.

13. Recent Experience

(a) Contact Flight, With Passengers. An airline transport pilot shall not pilot aircraft carrying any person other than the members of the crew thereof, certificated airmen carried in air carrier aircraft in furtherance of their official duties, or a certificated instructor rated for the aircraft operated, unless within the preceding three calendar months he shall have made and logged at least three take-offs and landings to a full stop in an aircraft of the same type and class as that of the aircraft in which such person is carried. An airline transport pilot shall not pilot such aircraft during the hours of darkness unless he has made at least one of the three required take-offs and landings during the hours of darkness.

(b) Instrument Flight. An airline transport pilot who, within the preceding 60 days, has not flown and logged at least 2 hours of flight time solely by reference to instruments under either actual or properly simulated instrument flight conditions, shall not pilot aircraft under such conditions.

Section IV. Miscellaneous 14. Log Books. An airline transport pilot of any class is responsible for the maintenance of a pilot log book. Such log book must be accurate, legible, and a permanent record. It must include, but need not be limited to, the date of each flight, the make and model of the aircraft flown, its type, and, in the case of an airplane, its airplane class and horsepower, the aircraft identification mark, a statement of solo, dual instruction, instrument and night flying time, the duration of the flight, and the points between which such flight was made. All solo flying time must be certified to by the pilot and the entries with respect to dual instruction certified to by his instructor.

15. Logging Flight Time

(a) A first pilot may log the total flight time elapsing during his command of the aircraft.

(b) A second pilot holding an airline transport pilot certificate indicating competency to pilot the aircraft flown may log the total time during which he serves as second pilot.

(c) A second pilot not holding a pilot rating indicating competency to pilot the aircraft flown may log 50 percent of the total flight time.

(d) Additional pilots when required, and serving as such, may log 50 percent of the total flight time. Not over 400 such hours may be accepted as qualifying for an airline transport pilot certificate; Provided, That after 400 such hours have been logged such additional pilot may log the time he is on duty at the controls when it is certified by the pilot in command.

(e) Instrument Flight Time. Instrument flight time may be logged as such by the pilot actually manipulating the controls only when the aircraft is flown solely by reference to instruments either under actual or properly simulated flight conditions.

(f) Other than in scheduled air transportation, flight time shall be logged in accordance with Chapter I.

CHAPTER III

FLIGHT ENGINEER CERTIFICATES

Section 1. General 1. Certificates. A flight engineer certificate shall be issued to any applicant who demonstrates compliance with the minimum requirements described below.

2. Ratings. Ratings shall be issued in connection with any flight engineer certificate prescribing the type, class, and horsepower of the aircraft on which the holder has demonstrated his competency.

Section II. Minimum Requirements 3. Age. Applicant shall be at least 21 years of age.

4. Physical Requirements. Applicant for a flight engineer certificate shall meet physical standards to be decided later.

5. Aeronautical Knowledge. Applicant for a flight engineer certificate shall pass an examination on the following subjects:

(a) Such provisions of the rules and regulations governing civil aviation as are pertinent to the duties of a flight engineer in the operation of air carrier aircraft.

(b) Aircraft performance with respect to placard speeds and operation in the case of partial power plant failure.

(c) Theory of economical operation and mathematical computations of fuel consumption, horsepower of the engine.

(d) Basic meteorology with respect to engine operation. (e) Aircraft load distribution. (f) A general knowledge of operating manuals and a detailed knowledge of the operating manual or manuals relating to at least one of the aircraft models for which he has a rating.

(g) Applicant shall have completed an approved basic course of training in the duties of a flight engineer.

6. Aeronautical Experience. Applicant for a flight engineer certificate shall have had at least the following aeronautical experience:

(a) Applicant shall hold currently effective mechanic certificates in both the categories specified in Chapter VI, Section I, paragraph 1, subparagraphs (A) and (C).

(b) Applicant shall have had at least 50 hours' flight training or the equivalent in the performance of the duties of a flight engineer during the most recent 12 calendar months;

(c) Applicant shall have at least 2 years' practical experience in the maintenance and minor repair of airframes and aircraft engines of the type or equivalent upon which a flight engineer rating is desired;

(d) Applicant shall demonstrate his ability in the performance of the flight engineer's duties during a flight test in the aircraft upon which à rating is desired and in addition thereto the following:

(1) Emergency duties in connection with a simulated engine failure in a multiengine aircraft.

(2) Solely by reference to instruments and engine power charts, demonstrate his ability accurately to calculate fuel consumption.

(e) Applicant shall demonstrate his ability, solely by reference to aircraft load manifests and aircraft loading charts, accurately to maintain equal aircraft load distribution during flight.

Section III. Privileges and Limitations 7. General. A flight engineer, when serving as such, shall have in his possession his flight engineer certificate.

8. Operation During Physical Deficiency. A flight engineer shall not serve as such on any aircraft during the period of any known physical deficiency or increase in physical deficiency which would render him, during that period, unable to meet the physical requirements prescribed for the issuance of his currently effective medical certificate.

9. Privileges. A flight engineer may exercise all the privileges in accordance with the ratings held.

10. Service Limitations. A flight engineer shall not engage in the performance of the duties of a flight engineer on any aircraft otherwise than in accordance with the rating limitations prescribed in his certificate; Provided, That he may serve as a flight engineer on an aircraft of a class or horsepower range other than that specified in his certificate if he is under the direct supervision of a flight engineer holding a valid flight engineer certificate with ratings for the airplane.

11. Recent Experience

(a) A flight engineer shall not serve as such on an aircraft in scheduled air transportation unless within the preceding 3 calendar months he shall have logged experience as a flight engineer on the type of aircraft or equivalent for which he is to be qualified.

(b) A flight engineer who has not served as such within the 12 preceding calendar months shall not be considered qualified until he has familiarized himself with any changes in the aircraft to be used and any changes in the maintenance, repair, and operating procedures for such aircraft.

Section IV. Miscellaneous 12. Log Books. A flight engineer is responsible for the maintenance of a flight engineer log book. Such log book shall be accurate, legible, and a permanent record. It shall include, but need not be limited to, date of each flight, the make and model of aircraft flown, its type and horsepower, the aircraft identification mark, and the duration of each flight.

13. The Logging of Flight Time. A flight engineer may log the total time during which he serves as a flight engineer.

CHAPTER IV*

NAVIGATOR CERTIFICATE

Section 1. General 1. Certificate. A navigator certificate shall be issued to any person who demonstrates compliance with the minimum requirements prescribed below.

* This Chapter not discussed in detail by Subcommittee 3 of Committee II. See report of Subcommittee 3, dated Nov. 15, 1944. [Not printed.]

Section II. Minimum Requirements 2. Age. Applicant shall be at least 18 years of age.

3. Physical Requirements. An applicant for a navigator certificate shall meet the physical standards to be decided later.

4. Aeronautical Knowledge. Applicant for a navigator certificate shall pass an examination on the following subjects:

(a) Such provisions of the rules and regulations governing civil aviation as are pertinent to the navigation of aircraft.

(b) The fundamentals of air navigation including the use of formulae, instruments, and other navigational aids, both in aircraft and on the ground, which are deemed necessary for the navigation of aircraft by instruments.

(c) The general system of weather collection and dissemination, including the use of such government weather bureau circulars and instructions for airway meteorological service as are pertinent to the navigation of aircraft.

(d) Weather map, weather forecast, and weather sequence abbreviations, symbols, and nomenclature.

(e) Practical meteorology, including polar front and air mass theories.

(f) Air navigation facilities and procedures currently in use, such as rotating beacons, course lights, radio ranges, and radio marker beacons.

(g) The calibration and use of instruments used in flight navigation. (h) Dead reckoning. (i) Celestial navigation. (j) Radio navigation. (k) Pilotage, map reading, and visual signaling. (1) International Morse Code, at a speed of five words per minute.

5. Aeronautical Experience. Applicant for a navigator certificate shall have had at least the following navigation experience:

(a) Applicant shall have completed an approved basic course of training in the duties of a flight navigator.

(b) Applicant shall have had not less than 100 hours of celestial navigation experience within the 12-month period immediately preceding the date of application for a flight navigator certificate.

6. Aeronautical Skill

(a) Applicant shall satisfactorily pass a practical examination in the use and adjustment of navigational equipment.

(b) Applicant shall satisfactorily accomplish practical day and night flight tests to demonstrate his competency in the navigation of aircraft by (1) dead reckoning and (2) by reference to celestial and other navigation instruments.

Section III. Privileges and Limitations 7. General. A navigator when serving as such shall have in his possession his navigator certificate.

8. Operation During Physical Deficiency. A navigator shall not navigate aircraft during the period of any known physical

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