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AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS FOR CIVIL AIRCRAFT
ENGAGING IN INTERNATIONAL AIR NAVIGATION
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR AIRWORTHINESS
TYPE AND SERIES AIRCRAFT Every aircraft engaging in international air navigation shall conform to a type design permitting its identification in detail. The type design shall consist of such drawings, specifications, reports, and other documentary evidence as, in the opinion of the authorities of the State concerned or their authorized representatives*, are necessary to enable them to satisfy themselves that the design fulfills all the requirements laid down in these regulations.
The first complete aircraft constructed in accordance with a type design for which an airworthiness certificate is issued will be considered as a type aircraft. Every other complete aircraft, constructed in accordance with the type design of a type aircraft, will be considered as a series aircraft.
ISSUANCE OF AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE FOR
1.10 The airworthiness certificate of an aircraft shall be issued
by the State whose nationality the aircraft possesses. Its issuance shall be based on satisfactory results obtained by
the following procedure: 1.11 The said authorities shall obtain all information necessary
to show compliance of the aircraft with the airworthiness
requirements. 1.12 During the course of construction, the aircraft and its
parts (and, when static strength tests are required, the components or parts for that purpose) shall be inspected by the authorities of the State concerned or by a system of inspec
tion recognized by the said authorities as effective. 1.13 This inspection shall be such as to insure that the aircraft
conforms in all essential respects with the particulars contained in the type design, and particularly, that:
(a) All materials and products are in accordance with the (b) All parts of the aircraft are constructed in accordance with the drawings contained in the type design;
specification given in the type design; *Hereinafter referred to conjointly as “the said authorities”.
(c) All the manufacturing processes employed are in accordance with approved methods;
(d) The construction and assembly of the aircraft are satisfactory throughout.
When various provisions in regard to checking and testing on the ground have been satisfied, the said authorities shall proceed with the official flight tests. These tests shall show the aircraft to comply with all requirements for which demonstration in flight is specified.
ISSUANCE OF AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATES
FOR SERIES AIRCRAFT
When the authorities of a State receive an application for an airworthiness certificate for a series aircraft, they shall ascertain whether the airplane conforms with the type design and is airworthy and, if so, shall issue the certificate.
EFFECTIVENESS OF AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFI
The airworthiness certificate of an aircraft shall be rendered effective by the State whose nationality it possesses.
The duration of effectiveness of an airworthiness certificate shall be a maximum of 12 months. Any failure to maintain an aircraft in an airworthy condition, as defined by the minimum requirements laid down in these regulations, shall render the airworthiness certificate ineffective until the aircraft is restored to an airworthy condition.
When an aircraft changes its nationality during the period of effectiveness of its airworthiness certificate, the State whose nationality it acquires may render this certificate of airworthiness effective until the end of such period, without being obliged to require new technical investigations to be carried out.
When an aircraft during the period of effectiveness of its airworthiness certificate has suffered damage, it will be for the authorities of the State whose nationality the aircraft possesses to judge whether such damage is of such a nature as to prevent the aircraft from fulfilling the minimum requirements of safety laid down in these regulations.
When such an aircraft is in a foreign country at the time when the damage is suffered or is ascertained, the authorities of the foreign country shall have the power to prevent such aircraft from resuming its flight, on condition that they immediately advise the authorities of the State whose nationality the aircraft possesses, communicating to them all details necessary to enable them to formulate the judgment
referred to in Section 1.33 above, 627038-45- -12
When the authorities of the State whose nationality the aircraft possesses consider that the damage suffered by the aircraft is of such a nature as to prevent its fulfilling the minimum requirements of safety laid down by these regulations, they shall suspend the certificate of airworthiness of such aircraft and prohibit it from resuming its flight until it once more fulfills the minimum safety requirements.
They may, however, in exceptional cases permit the aircraft to proceed in flight without passengers to the nearest airport at which it can be repaired and once more made to fulfill the minimum safety requirements.
When the authorities of the State whose nationality the aircraft possesses consider that the damage suffered by said aircraft is not of such a nature as to prevent the aircraft from fulfilling the minimum safety requirements, the aircraft shall be allowed to resume its flight.
Any State may delegate its power of decision, in particular, to another State or a technical organization which it recognizes.
It shall be the duty of the authorities of the State which issues the airworthiness certificate for a type aircraft to transmit all technical orders, specifications, et cetera, deemed necessary for the continued airworthiness of aircraft of that type, to the authorities of all other States who are a party to this agreement.
RENEWAL OF AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATES
The duration of effectiveness of each renewal of an airworthiness certificate shall be a maximum of 12 months.
To enable an aircraft to continue to engage in international navigation at the expiration of the period of validity shown on its airworthiness certificate, the renewal of the said certificate must be applied for by the owner.
Such renewal shall not be granted unless the aircraft fulfills the minimum safety requirements laid down at the time of its original certification as a type and, in addition, complies with mandatory changes specified in the data issued in accordance with Section 1.38.
The renewal of the airworthiness certificate of an aircraft shall be effected by the authorities of the State whose nationality the aircraft possesses, or, if need be, by their duly accredited representatives.
If at the time of a renewal the aircraft is outside the State whose nationality it possesses, the authorities of such State may apply to the authorities of the State in which the aircraft is situated, requesting them to proceed, by delegation, with the necessary technical investigations for the renewal in question.
AIRPLANE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS 2.0
GENERAL 2.00 Scope. The airworthiness requirements set forth in this
Part are the minimum requirements which must be met by a civil airplane type design for airplanes engaging in international air navigation. If any of these requirments becomes inapplicable to a particular airplane because of increased knowledge of aeronautics or of the development of unforeseen design features, the said authorities shall establish appropriate requirements providing an equivalent standard
of safety. 2.01 Airplane Categories. Airplanes are divided into the following categories, for the purposes of design and operation:
Normal Suffix “N”
as otherwise specified. 2.010 The requirements for normal and transport category air
planes cover non-acrobatic operation. Transport category* airplanes are required for use in all scheduled passenger transportation, except that single engined airplanes meeting the requirements of the normal category may be used in scheduled passenger service under special conditions of route and terrain which are deemed sufficiently safe by the registering State. The requirements for training category airplanes cover limited acrobatic maneuvers essential to primary training. These airplanes will, however, be restricted against snap and inverted maneuvers. Acrobatic category airplanes will have no specific restrictions as to type of maneuvers, unless the necessity therefor is disclosed by the required flight tests. The “Special” category is provided for special purpose aircraft which will not logically fall into any of the above-mentioned categories. The requirements for this category shall be specified by the said authorities and shall be based on the intended operational purpose. Requirements thus imposed shall be transmitted to the other
contracting States for their information. 2.02 Definitions 2.020
General *A cargo subdivision of the transport category is now under consideration and requirements therefor may be incorporated at some future date.
Standard Atmosphere. The standard atmosphere shall be based upon the following assumptions:
(a) The air is a dry perfect gas.
(d) The temperature gradient from sea level to the altitude at which the temperature becomes - 67° F. (-55° C.) is -0.003566° F/ft. (-0.0065° C/meter (ft.]) and zero thereabove.
(e) The density/p, at sea level under the above condi-, tions is 0.002378 Ibs. Sec.?/ft.4 (0.12497 kg. Sec.?/M4).
Airplane Configuration. This term refers to the position of the various elements affecting the aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane, such as landing gear, flaps, et cetera.
sections Maximum Weights. (a) Take-off, (b) En route, 2. 111 (c) Landing. The maximum weights at which the 2. 111 airplane may operate in accordance with the air- -T worthiness requirements.
2.611 Weight Empty. The actual weight used as 2. 112 basis for determining operating weights.
2. 611 Minimum Weight. The minimum weight at which 2. 113 compliance with the airworthiness requirements need be demonstrated.
Design Take-Of Weight. The maximum weight 2. 210 used for the structural design of the airplane in the flight load conditions.
Minimum Design Weight. The minimum weight 2. 210 condition investigated in the structural flight load conditions, not greater than the minimum weight specified in 2.113.
Design Landing Weight. The maximum weight 2. 240 used for the structural design of the airplane in the 2. 240 landing conditions.
6 lbs. per U. S. gallon (7.206 lbs./
Imp. gal.) (.72 kg. /liter)
Imp. gal.) (0.9 kg./liter)
170 lbs. per person (77.2 kg./pergers.
One Horsepower. 33,000 ft. lbs. per minute (4562.4 kg. m./min.).
Take-Off Power. The take-off rating of the engine established in accordance with Part 3.
Maximum-Except-Take-Off Power. The maximum-excepttake-off rating of the engine established in accordance with Part 3.