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municated without delay to the person in command of the aircraft and the operations officer.

31. In-Flight Procedure (a) Liaison

(1) The closest liaison shall be maintained between the forecaster and the air traffic control officer to insure that:

(i) The air traffic control officer is kept informed of the meteorological conditions in his control area;

(ii) The forecaster is kept informed of the movement of all aircraft for which he is responsible for provision of meteorological protection.

(2) The air traffic control officer shall visit the meteorological office prior to taking over watch and at such other times as he may consider necessary to satisfy himself regarding meteorological conditions in his control area.

(3) The forecaster shall keep the air traffic control officer informed of all changes in the meteorological information previously provided. (b) Action

(1) Immediately after the departure of an aircraft, the initial meteorological office shall furnish the final flight forecast, in the standard form for transmission of flight forecasts, for the other meteorological offices concerned.

(2) Decoded copies of this forecast shall be provided to each participating flight watch.

(3) The responsible meteorological offices, in turn, shall maintain a continuous check on the accuracy of the final flight forecast, changes in off-course weather and conditions at cruising altitudes not named in the flight plan, and at the departure, destination, intermediate, and alternate airports of the air route:

(i) Initially, from the time that the final flight forecast is issued until the aircraft has passed from the initial control area; or until the point of no return has been passed, if it lies beyond the control area boundary;

(ii) Thereafter, by the other meteorological offices concerned, from the time they receive the final flight forecast until their responsibility ends, with due regard to the possibility of an aircraft returning to its point of departure, or diverting to an alternate airport.

(4) From time of take-off, until the aircraft passes beyond the initial control area, all meteorological offices concerned shall transmit necessary amendments to the forecast for their route-sections and airports to the meteorological office responsible for that area, for action by the flight watch at the initial air traffic control station.

IMPORTANT NOTE. Due to the fact that amendments to forecasts for succeeding route-sections may have a bearing on continuance of a flight past the point of no return, the above provision shall be followed explicitly. If an amendment made by a meteorological office, other than the one currently responsible, cannot be transmitted point-to-point in time to reach the aircraft before the point of no return is reached, it may be transmitted direct to the aircraft first, and then to the currently responsible flight watch, with notification of action taken.

(5) After the aircraft passes beyond the boundary of the initial control area, the meteorological offices of the remaining control areas shall transmit necessary amendments to the currently responsible meteorological office for action by the flight watch at the currently responsible air traffic control center.

(6) When information supplied to the flight watch indicates that meteorological conditions at the destination airport, or any of the alternate or intermediate airports specified in the flight plan, will change by ETA to or below specified meteorological minima, forecasts for new alternate airports shall be issued, if deemed necessary by the flight watch, for action by the flight watch at the currently responsible air traffic control center.

(7) The flight watch shall be responsible for authorizing the transmission to the aircraft of all amendments. Other relevant meteorological information to be transmitted by ground/air telecommunications shall be supplied to the aircraft under the authorization of the flight watch or on request of the person in command of the aircraft.

(8) When the point of no return of the aircraft lies between the airports of departure and destination with no intermediate landing facilities, a message shall be transmitted to the aircraft from the currently responsible flight watch, at a sufficient time before the point of no return is reached,

containing either suitable amendments to the forecast for the remainder of the flight or a positive statement that no amendment to the forecast is foreseen with respect to zones yet to be traversed.

(9) Meteorological reports from airports along air routes shall be broadcast in standard form at routine times. They shall also be transmitted to the aircraft at the request of the person in command of the aircraft or at the discretion of the flight watch.

These transmissions may also include reports from stations not located at airports.

(10) In case of failure of communications with the air traffic control center, the person in command of the aircraft may request, from any other air traffic control center he can contact, such meteorological information as he considers necessary for the safety of the flight. The air traffic control center supplying such information to the aircraft shall also repeat this information to the air traffic control center in whose area the aircraft is flying.

(11) When an aircraft turns back, is diverted, or is in an emergency or distress condition, the flight watch at the currently responsible air traffic control center shall request from its meteorological office such meteorological information as may be necessary to insure maximum assistance. (c) Aircraft Meteorological Reports

(1) The person in command of the aircraft shall be instructed to record meteorological observations at hourly intervals and, in addition, at intermediate times when marked meteorological changes are observed during flight. The observations shall be entered on the standard aircraft meteorological report form.

(2) Meteorological reports shall be transmitted during flight to the appropriate air traffic control center in the standard report

form. The reports of the hourly observations shall be transmitted as requested by the currently responsible flight watch. The reports of the observations made at intermediate times shall be transmitted as soon as possible, if, in the opinion of the person in charge of the aircraft, the condition observed is such as would affect the safety of other aircraft.

(3) These reports shall be disseminated as provided for in Section III of this Annex. 32. Post-Flight Procedure

(a) Action at Destination Airport. The meteorological office at the destination airport shall obtain from the person in command of the aircraft, as soon as possible after arrival, the flight forecast folder, the completed aircraft meteorological report form, and any other pertinent meteorological information.

(b) Action at Intermediate Airports. If a flight is delayed at an intermediate airport, the meteorological office at that airport shall obtain from the person in command of the aircraft the aircraft meteorological report form and any other pertinent meteorological information.

(c) Dissemination of Reports. These reports shall be disseminated as provided for in Section III of this Annex.

33. Simplification of Procedures. For short flights or for flights on routes possessing special ground facilities the meteorological services concerned may dispense with such parts of these procedures as may be mutually agreed upon, subject to the approval of the international organization for air navigation.

SECTION VI

Climatological Information 34. Pressure, Temperature, Wind, Weather. The basic information concerning pressure, temperature, wind, and weather shall be furnished by the monthly and annual summaries published by the different meteorological services in the forms recommended by the International Meteorological Organization.

35. Tables of Frequencies and Means. Owing to their great importance to aeronautics, the summaries listed below shall be prepared for each month of the year by each contracting State, using observations made at certain selected meteorological stations. These summaries shall indicate:

(a) The frequency of occurrence at each station of different degrees of horizontal visibility, for the four principal synoptic hours, or at least three times daily, as near as possible to 0600, 1200, and 1800 hours standard time of the station;

(b) The frequency of occurrence, at each station, of the different heights of base of clouds, for the same times as those chosen for the

visibility;

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(c) The frequency of occurrence, at each station, of the different directions and speeds of winds at the surface, for the same times as those chosen for the visibility;

(d) The frequency of occurrence, at selected stations, of the different directions and speeds of winds at upper levels, at standard times;

(e) Tables of means for a period of at least five years of pressure, temperature, wind, weather, visibility, heights of base of clouds, surface and upper level wind directions and speeds, shall be provided when possible.

These summaries shall be prepared in the forms and for the heights and limits specified by the International Meteorological Organization.

36. Exchange of Climatological Information. Climatological information shall be exchanged between the official meteorological services of the contracting States. Agencies desiring this information all make application for it to an official meteorological service of its State,

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ANNEX J

AERONAUTICAL MAPS AND CHARTS

DEFINITIONS (a) Air Information Plate. Upon this plate all aids and hazards to air navigation, as outlined on the approved specification sheet of symbols, shall be shown.

(b) Aeronautical Chart. A representation of the earth, its culture and relief, specifically designed to meet the requirements of air navigation, and upon which have been overprinted in magenta the various aids and hazards (excepting relief) to air navigation.

(c) Airway. A path through airspace, identified by an area on the surface of the earth, designated by a competent authority,

(d) Culture. Culture applies to all facilities constructed on the surface of the earth by man such as cities, railways, canals, et cetera.

(e) Isogonic Line or Isogonal. An imaginary line on the surface of the earth at all points on which the magnetic variation is the same.

(f) Relief. The inequalities in elevation of the surface of the earth; represented on the aeronautical charts by contours, gradient tints, shading or spot elevations. Elevations are generally expressed in feet above mean sea level, the one exception on aeronautical charts being that the shore line is the line of high water.

INTRODUCTION Aeronautical charts to be produced for international use shall conform to the general principles outlined herein.

The detailed specifications are to be used in the production of a series of aeronautical charts of the world. They are applicable particularly to the basic charts, scale 1:1,000,000, but apply also to charts of the other series, except as noted.

No rules are prescribed for national aeronautical charts which will, it is assumed, be produced by the respective countries in accordance with their individual and peculiar needs. Aeronautical symbols shall, however, conform to the symbols specified in this Annex.

Acceptance of the chart series listed herein shall not preclude any nation from producing any type or series of charts which it may require for its own domestic purposes.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Standardization of the aeronautical charts listed below shall represent a minimum international requirement.

(a) A basic aeronautical chart for general operation, contact flight, and related aeronautical purposes on a scale of 1:1,000,000.

(b) Air navigation charts for use in long flights.
(c) Air route charts covering the major airways.

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