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“This Government suggests that the international conference proposed for the immediate future could have the following objectives:
“I. (a) The establishment of provisional world route arrangements by general agreement to be reached at the Conference. These arrangements would form the basis for the prompt establishment of international air transport services by the appropriate countries.
“(b) The countries participating in the conference would also be asked to agree to grant the landing and transit rights necessary for establishing the provisional route arrangements and air services referred to above.
“(It would be highly desirable if each delegation were sufficiently familiar with its country's plans for international air services to permit formulation of an international air transport pattern referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) above.)
"II. The establishment of an Interim Council to act as the clearing house and advisory agency during the transitional period. It would receive and consider recommendations from each of the working committees referred to in item III; it would report upon desirable revisions in routes and services during the interim period, subject to the approval of the countries served by these routes and services; it would maintain liaison with each of the participating countries; it would supervise studies and submit information to the interested governments concerning the development of air transport during the transitional period; and would make recommendations to be considered at any subsequent international conference.
“III. Agreement upon the principles to be followed in setting up a permanent international aeronautical body, and a multilateral aviation convention dealing with the fields of air transport, air navigation and aviation technical subjects; and, for the purpose of developing the details and making proposals for carrying into effect the principles so agreed, the establishment of the following working committees, which would be under the supervision of the Interim Council:
“(a) A committee to follow developments relating to the establishment of the routes and services to be established under item I, to correlate traffic data, to study related problems and to recommend desirable revisions in routes and services. This committee would also make studies and recommendations concerning the future pattern of these routes and services.
"(b) A central technical committee, with subordinate sub-committees, which would work closely with the committee described in subparagraph (c) below, to consider the whole field of technical matters including standards, procedures, and minimum requirements, and to make recommendations for their application and adoption at the earliest practicable time.
"(c) A committee to draft a proposal with respect to the constitution of a permanent international aeronautical body and a new multilateral aviation convention.
"Having in mind the foregoing considerations as a basis for discussion, the Government of the United States extends a cordial invitation to your Government to participate in an international conference along the above lines, to take place in the United States
beginning November 1, 1944; and in view of the time element would appreciate receiving an early response as to whether your Government can arrange to have a delegation at such conference.
“This invitation is being extended to the following governments and authorities:
“(a) all members of the United Nations;
"(c) the European and Asiatic neutral nations, in view of their close relationship to the expansion of air transport which may be expected along with the liberation of Europe.
"The Danish Minister and Thai Minister in Washington will be invited to attend in their personal capacities.” LIST OF GOVERNMENTS AND AUTHORITIES TO WHOM INVITA
TIONS WERE EXTENDED
Union of South Africa
Union of Soviet
The Danish Minister
in Washington Ethiopia Panama
The Thai Minister French Delegation Paraguay
in Washington Great Britain
MESSAGE FROM PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT 1
NOVEMBER 1, 1944 On behalf of the United States, I offer a hearty welcome to the delegations of the fifty-one nations represented at this International Conference on Civil Aviation. You were called to undertake a task of the highest importance. I am very sure that you will succeed.
The progress of the armies, navies, and air forces of the United Nations has already opened great areas to peaceful intercourse which had been closed for more than four black years. We can soberly hope that all Europe will be reclaimed for civilization before many months have passed.
Steadily the great areas of the Pacific are likewise being freed from Japanese occupation. In due time, the Continent of Asia will be opened again to the friendly intercourse of the world.
The rebuilding of peace means reopening the lines of communication and peaceful relationship. Air transport will be the first available means by which we can start to heal the wounds of war, and put the world once more on a peacetime basis.
You will recall that after the First World War, a conference was held and a convention adopted designed to open Europe to air traffic; but under the arrangements then made, years of discussion were needed before air routes could actually be flown. At that time, however, air commerce was in its infancy. Now it has reached maturity and is a pressing necessity.
I do not believe that the world of today can afford to wait several years for its air communications. There is no reason why it should.
Increasingly, the airplanes will be in existence. When either the German or the Japanese enemy is defeated, transport planes should be available for release from military work in numbers sufficient to make a beginning. When both enemies have been defeated, they should be available in quantity. Every country has airports and trained pilots; and practically every country knows how to organize air lines.
It would be a reflection on the common sense of nations if they were not able to make arrangements, at least on a provisional basis, making possible the opening of the much needed air routes. I hope, when your Conference adjourns, that these arrangements will have been made. Then, all that will be needed will be to start using the air as a great peaceful medium, instead of a battle area.
You are fortunate in having before you one of the great lessons of history. Some centuries ago, an attempt was made to build great empires based on domination of great sea areas. The lords of these areas tried to close these seas to some, and to offer access to others, and thereby to enrich themselves and extend their power. This led
1 Read by the President of the Conference at the opening plenary session Nov. 1.
directly to a number of wars both in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. We do not need to make that mistake again. I hope you will not dally with the thought of creating great blocs of closed air, thereby tracing in the sky the conditions of possible future wars. I know you will see to it that the air which God
gave to everyone
shall not become the means of domination over anyone.
As we begin to write a new chapter in the fundamental law of the air, let us all remember that we are engaged in a great attempt to build enduring institutions of peace. These peace settlements cannot be endangered by petty considerations, or weakened by groundless fears. Rather, with full recognition of the sovereignty and juridical equality of all nations, let us work together so that the air may be used by humanity, to serve humanity.
DEFINITIVE AGENDA OF THE CONFERENCE
(Approved at the Second Plenary Session, November 2, 1944) I. Multilateral aviation convention and international aeronautical body. 1. Formulation of principles to be followed in:
(a) Drawing up a new multilateral convention on air navigation and related subjects.
(b) Establishing such permanent international aeronautical body as may be agreed on, and determining the extent of its jurisdiction.
2. Arrangement for and selection of a Committee on Multilateral Convention and International Body to serve during transitional period and to draw up definitive proposals for submission to the interested governments.
II. Technical standards and procedures.
1. Recommendations for setting up and adopting standards and procedures in the following fields: (a) Communications systems and air-navigation aids, including
(j) Customs procedure. 2. Arrangements for and selection of a Technical Committee and subcommittees to serve during transitional period, and to draft definitive proposals for submission to the interested governments.
III. Arrangements covering transitional period: Establishment of air-transport services on a provisional basis.
1. Arrangements for routes and services to operate during a transitional period.
2. Drafting of agreements to implement the provisional route pattern and to guide operations during transitional period. (a) Landing and transit rights to permit establishment of
provisional air services as soon as possible.