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Each State so elected to the Interim Council shall Taking seat on take its seat in the Council upon acceptance by that State of this Agreement or upon the entry into force of this Agreement, whichever is the later date, and it shall hold its seat until the end of the two years following the coming into force of this Agreement: provided, that any State so elected to the Council which does not accept this Agreement within six months after the above-mentioned election shall not become a member of the Council and the seat shall remain vacant until the next meeting of the Assembly.
SIGNATURES AND ACCEPTANCES OF AGREEMENT
The undersigned delegates to the International Civil Signing the Aviation Conference, convened in Chicago on November 1, 1944, have affixed their signatures to the present Interim Agreement with the understanding that the Government of the United States of America shall be informed at the earliest possible date by each of the governments on whose behalf the Agreement has been signed whether signature on its behalf shall constitute an acceptance of the Agreement by that government and an obligation binding upon it.
Any State, a member of the United Nations and any Agreement State associated with them, as well as any State which remained neutral during the present world conflict, not a signatory to this Agreement, may accept the present Agreement as an obligation binding upon it by notification of its acceptance to the Government of the United States, and such acceptance shall become effective upon the date of the receipt of such notification by that Government.
The present Interim Agreement shall come into force Coming into when it has been accepted by twenty-six States. Thereafter it will become binding as to each other State indicating its acceptance to the Government of the United States on the date of the receipt of the acceptance by that Government.
The Government of the United States shall inform all governments represented at the International Civil Aviation Conference referred to of the date on which the present Interim Agreement comes into force and shall likewise notify them of all acceptances of the Agreement.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, having been duly authorized sign this Agreement on behalf of their respective governments on the dates appearing opposite their signatures.
DONE at Chicago the seventh day of December 1944, in the English language. A text drawn up in the English, French, and Spanish languages, each of which shall be of equal authenticity, shall be opened for signature at Washington, D. C. Both texts shall be deposited in
the archives of the Government of the United States of America, and certified copies shall be transmitted by that Government to the governments of all the States which may sign and accept this Agreement.
[This document was opened for signature at Chicago on December 7 and, by February 28, 1945, had been signed by representatives of the following countries: Afghanistan Honduras
Poland Australia (subject to Iceland
Portugal confirmation by the India
Spain Australian Govern- Iran
Venezuela (ad refer-
endum) France Norway
The Danish Minister Greece Peru
The Thai Minister] Guatemala
CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION
PREAMBLE WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and
WHEREAS it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that cooperation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends;
THEREFORE, the undersigned governments having agreed on certain principles and arrangements in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically;
Have accordingly concluded this Convention to that end.
PART I-AIR NAVIGATION
GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION
OF THE CONVENTION
The contracting States recognize that every State Sovereignty has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory.
For the purposes of this Convention the territory of a Territory State shall be deemed to be the land areas and territorial waters adjacent thereto under the sovereignty, suzerainty, protection or mandate of such State.
(a) This Convention shall be applicable only to civil civil and state aircraft, and shall not be applicable to state aircraft.
(b) Aircraft used in military, customs and police services shall be deemed to be state aircraft.
(c) No state aircraft of a contracting State shall fly over the territory of another State or land thereon with
out authorization by special agreement or otherwise, and in accordance with the terms thereof.
(d) The contracting States undertake, when issuing regulations for their state aircraft, that they will have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft.
Misuse of civil aviation
FLIGHT OVER TERRITORY OF CONTRACTING STATES
Right of nonscheduled flight
Each contracting State agrees that all aircraft of the other contracting States, being aircraft not engaged in scheduled international air services shall have the right, subject to the observance of the terms of this Convention, to make flights into or in transit non-stop across its territory and to make stops for non-traffic purposes without the necessity of obtaining prior permission, and subject to the right of the State flown over to require landing. Each contracting State nevertheless reserves the right, for reasons of safety of flight, to require aircraft desiring to proceed over regions which are inaccessible or without adequate air navigation facilities to follow prescribed routes, or to obtain special permission for such flights.
Such aircraft, if engaged in the carriage of passengers, cargo, or mail for remuneration or hire on other than scheduled international air services, shall also, subject to the provisions of Article 7, have the privilege of taking on or discharging passengers, cargo, or mail, subject to the right of any State where such embarkation or discharge takes place to impose such regulations, conditions or limitations as it may consider desirable.
Scheduled air services
No scheduled international air service may be operated over or into the territory of a contracting State, except with the special permission or other authorization of that State, and in accordance with the terms of such permission or authorization.
Article 7 Each contracting State shall have the right to refuse permission to the aircraft of other contracting States to take on in its territory passengers, mail and cargo carried for remuneration or hire and destined for another point within its territory. Each contracting State undertakes not to enter into any arrangements which specifically
grant any such privilege on an exclusive basis to any other State or an airline of any other State, and not to obtain any such exclusive privilege from any other State.
No aircraft capable of being flown without a pilot shall Pilotless aircraft be flown without a pilot over the territory of a contracting State without special authorization by that State and in accordance with the terms of such authorization. Each contracting State undertakes to insure that the flight of such aircraft without a pilot in regions open to civil aircraft shall be so controlled as to obviate danger to civil aircraft.
(a) Each contracting State may, for reasons of military Prohibited areas necessity or public safety, restrict or prohibit uniformly the aircraft of other States from flying over certain areas of its territory, provided that no distinction in this respect is made between the aircraft of the State whose territory is involved, engaged in international scheduled airline services, and the aircraft of the other contracting States likewise engaged. Such prohibited areas shall be of reasonable extent and location so as not to interfere unnecessarily with air navigation. Descriptions of such prohibited areas in the territory of a contracting State, as well as any subsequent alterations therein, shall be communicated as soon as possible to the other contracting States and to the International Civil Aviation Organization.
(b) Each contracting State reserves also the right, in 'exceptional circumstances or during a period of emergency, or in the interest of public safety, and with immediate effect, temporarily to restrict or prohibit flying over the whole or any part of its territory, on condition that such restriction or prohibition shall be applicable without distinction of nationality to aircraft of all other States.
(c) Each contracting State, under such regulations as it may prescribe, may require any aircraft entering the areas contemplated in subparagraphs (a) or (b) above to effect a landing as soon as practicable thereafter at some designated airport within its territory.
Article 10 Except in a case where, under the terms of this Con- Landing at vention or a special authorization, aircraft are permitted to cross the territory of a contracting State without landing, every aircraft which enters the territory of a contracting State shall, if the regulations of that State so require, land at an airport designated by that State for the purpose of customs and other examination. On departure from the territory of a contracting State, such