« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
materials, and with them their manners and prin: ciples. The loss by the transportation of com. modities across the Atlantic will be made
in happiness and permanence of government. The mobs of great cities add just so much to the support of pure government, as sores do to the strength of the human body. It is the manners and spirit of a people which preserve a republic in vigor. A degeneracy in these is a canker wbich soon eats to the heart of its laws and con: stitution.
A NOTICE of the commercial productions particular to the state, and of those objects which the inhabitants are obliged to get from Europe and from other parts of the world?
Before the present war we exported, communibus annis, according to the best information I can get, nearly as follows: Orbis 37
Price in Dollars. Amount ia Dollars.
55,00ohhds, of 1000 lb. at 30 d. per hhd. 1,650,000
at 5-6 d. per bush. Indian corn 600,000 bushela
66,666 2 3
at i 1:3 d. per bar. 40,000
180 hhds. of 600 lb. at 5-12 d. per lb. 42,000
at 10 d. per barrel 40,000 Flax-seed, hemp, cotton
- 8,000 Pit-coal, pig.ijon
6,66623 at 2-3 d. per bush.
3,333 1-3 Beef
This sum is equal to 850,0001. Virginia money, 607, 142 guineas. 2,833,333 1-3 Dols.
In the year 1758 we exported seventy thousand hogsheads of tobacco, which was the great.
est quantity ever produced in this country in one year. But its culture was fast declining at the commencement of this war and that of wheat taking its place: and it must continue to decline on the return of peace. I suspect that the change in the temperature of our climate has become sensible to that plant, which to be good, requires an extraordinary degree of heat. But it requires still more indispensably an unconi. mon fertility of soil: and the commands at market will not enable the planter to produce this by manure. Was the supply still to depend on Virginia and Maryland alone, as its culture becomes more difficult, the price would rise, so as to enable the planter to surmount those difficulties and to live. But the western country on the Mississippi, and the midlands of Geor gia, having fresh and fertile lands in abundance, and a hotter sun, will be able to underi sell these two states, and will oblige them to abandon the raising tobacco altogether. Anda happy obligation for them it will be. It is a culture productive of infinite wretchedness. Those employed in it are in a continual state of exertion beyond the power of nature to support. Little food of any kind is raised by them ; so that the men and animals on these farms are badly fed, and the earth is rapidly impoverished. The cultivation of wheat is the reverse in every circumstance. Besides clothing the earth with herbage, and preserving its fertility, it feeds the labourers plentifully, requires from them only a moderate toil, except in the season
of harvest, raises great numbers of animals for food and service, and diffuses plenty and happiness among the whole. We find it easier to make an hundred bushels of wheat than a thou. sand weight of tobacco, and they are worth more when made. The weavil indeed is a for. midable obstacle to the cultivation of this grain with us.
But principles are already known which must lead to a remedy. Thus a certain degree of heat, to wit, that of the common air in summer, is necessary to hatch the egg. If subterranean granaries, or others, therefore, can be contrived below that temperature, the evil will be cured by cold. A degree of heat beyond that which hatches the egg we know willkillit.But in aiming at this we easily run into that which produces putrefaction. To pro. duce putrefaction, however, three agents are re. quisite, heat, moisture, and the external air. If the absence of any one of these be secured, the other two may safely be admitted. Heat. is the one we want. Moisture then, or exter. nal air, must be excluded. The former has been done by exposing the grain in kilns to the: action of fire, which produces heat, and extracts moisture at the same time : the latter, by putting the grain into hogsheads, covering iti with a coat of lime, and heading it up. In this situation its bulk produced a heat sufficient to kill the egg; the moisture is suffered to romain indeed, but the external air is excludeda A nicer operation yet has been attempted; that is, to produce an intermediate temperature of heat between that which kills the egg, and that which produces putrefaction. The threshing
the grain as soon as it is cut, and laying it in its chaff in large heaps, has been found very nearly to hit this temperature, though not perfectly, nor always. The heap generates heat sufficient to kill most of the eggs, whilst the chaff commonly restrains it from rising into putrefaction. But all these methods abridge too much the quantity which the farmer can manage, and enable other countries to undersell him which are not infested with this insect. There is still a desideratum then to give with us decisive triumph to this branch of agriculture over that of tobacco... The culture of wheat, by enlarging our pasture, will render the Arabian horse an article of very considerable profit: Experience has shewn that ours is the particular climate of America where he may be raised without dege neracy. Southwardly the heat of the sun occa sions a cleficiency of pasture, and northwardly the winters are too cold for the short and fine hair, the particular sensibility and constitution of that race. Animals transplanted into unfriendly climates, either change their nature and acquire new fences against the new difficulties in which they are placed, or they multiply poorly and become extinct. A good foundation is laid for their propagation here by our possessing slready great numbers of horses of that blood, and byia decided taste and preference for them established among the people. Their patience of heat without injury, their superior wind, fit them better in this and the more southern cli. mates even for the drudgeries of the plough and waggon, Northwardly they will become an objçct only to persons of taste and fortune, for the