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REV. JOHN CUMMING.–Let it be CANON I. “If any shall deny. distinctly understood, in opening that in the sacrament of the most the following discussion, that I have holy Eucharist, there is contained no political or party ends to sub- truly, really, and substantially the serve-no personal animosities to body and blood, together with the indulge–no end, save the glory of soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Him whose I am, and whom I serve. Christ, but shall say that he is only My adversary appeared at one of in it in sign or figure, or power, let our meetings, and then, and twice him be accursed." since, challenged me to discuss the CANON II. “If any shall say, awfully momentous points that are that in the holy sacrament of the at issue between us. As he is a Eucharist there remains the submember of the Committee of the stance of bread and wine, together Roman Catholic Institute, officially with the body and blood of our sanctioned, and, de facto, an expo- Lord Jesus Christ, and shall deny sitor of his faith, I have this day that wonderful and remarkable conmet him, to contend, not for victory, version of the whole substance of Dor in a display of mere gladiator- the bread into the body, and the ship, but for the faith once deli- whole substance of the wine into vered to the saints.

the blood, while only the appearance The doctrine of Transubstantia- of bread and wine remains, which tion is so extravagant to my mind, conversion the Catholic Church most that I could have wished my anta- aptly calls Transubstantiation, let gonist had opened the discussion. him be accursed.” To be sure of the very words, the CANON VI. “If any shall say, ipsissima verba of both Churches in that in the holy sacrament of the reference to the Eucharist, as I Eucharist Christ, the only-begotten mean to repeat and adhere to these Son of God, is not to be adored, words, I will quote from the autho- and that outwardly with the worship rized and recognised canons, arti- of Latria, and therefore that he cles, and formularies of either com- ought neither to be venerated by any munion.

especial festive celebration, nor car. Council of Trent, Holy Sacrament ried solemnly about in processions, of the Eucharist :

I according to the universal and laud

able rite and custom of the Church, Jepitome of Catholic doctrine and or that he ought not publicly to be belief." p. 145. Coyne, Dublin, 1826. exhibited to the people that he may “Jam vero hoc loco a pastoribus be worshipped, and that the wor- explicandum est non solum verum shippers of him are idolaters, let Christi corpus et quidquid ad veram him be accursed.”

corporis rationem pertinet VELUTI Canon VIII. — “If anyone OSSA ET NERVOS sed etiam totum shall say, that Christ, as exhibited Christum in hoc sacramento conti. in the Eucharist, is only spiritually neri.”De Sacramento Eucharistia, eaten, and not also sacramentally p. 241. Venetiis, apud Aldum, 1582. and really, let him be accursed.” “It is also in this place to be

After these authentic and bind- explained by the pastors, that there ing documents from the canons of is contained not only the true body the Council of Trent, I beg leave to of Christ and whatever belongs to add an extract from the creed of a true condition (or definition) of a Pope Pius IV., which my learned body, such as BONES AND NERVES, opponent professes :-“And that in but also a whole Christ." the most holy sacrifice of the Eucha- In these documents we have the rist there is truly, really, and sub- full and unshrinking explanation of stantially, the body and blood, toge- Transubstantiation. In my referther with the soul and divinity of our ences to the doctrine, therefore, I Lord Jesus Christ, and that there will adhere to these authorized terms is made a conversion of the whole as closely as possible, in order that, substance of the bread into the if offence may be taken at my phrasebody, and of the whole substance of ology, the Church of Rome may the wine into the blood, which con- have, as is most justly due, the version the Catholic Church calls credit or discredit of it. Transubstantiation.”

I now extract from the ConfesThe next authorized document of sions of the Reformed Catholic the Church of Rome from which I Churches of England and Scotland shall quote is THE CATECHISH OF our views of the Eucharist :THE COUNCIL OF TRENT. On this Thirty-nine Articles.-" The supdocument Dr. Doyle, in his “ Essay per of the Lord is not only a sign on the Catholic Claims," makes the of the love that Christians ought following remarks :-“ This Cate- to have among themselves one to chism is a most authentic exposition another; but rather is a sacrament of our faith, inasmuch as it em- of our redemption by Christ's death : bodies and explains not only the insomuch that to such as rightly, doctrinal decisions of that Council, worthily, and with faith, receive the . but also the several articles of the same, the bread which we break is creed commonly called the Apostles' a partaking of the body of Christ; Creed-the commandments of the and likewise the cup of blessing is decalogue — the precepts of the a partaking of the blood of Christ. Church, the mass, and the sacra- "Transubstantiation (orthechange ments as they are receired and of the substance of bread and wine) understood by all Catholics. This in the supper of the Lord, cannot be catechism has also been approved of proved by holy writ, but is repug. and published by the Pope, and nant to the plain words of Scripture, assented to by all the bishops in overthroweth the nature of a sacracommunion with the see of Rome, ment, and hath given occasion to so that it may be considered an many superstitions. The body of

Christ is given, taken, and eaten, in doctrine which maintains a change the sapper, only after a heavenly and of the substance of bread and wine spiritual manner. And the means into the substance of Christ's body whereby the body of Christ is re- and blood (commonly called Tranceived and eaten in the supper is substantiation) by consecration of faith. The sacrament of the Lord's a priest, or by any other way, is resupper was not by Christ's ordi- pugnant not to Scripture alone, but nance reserved, carried about, lifted even to common sense and reason, up, or worshipped.

overthroweth the nature of a sacra* « The wicked, and such as be void ment, and hath been, and is the of a lively faith, although they do cause of manifold superstitions, yea carnally and yisibly press with their of gross idolatries.” teeth (as St. Augustine saith) the Thus I have laid before you the sacrament of the body and blood of bane and antidote. Let me now Christ, yet in nowise are they par- proceed a step further towards the takers of Christ, but rather, to their discussion of this question, and condemnation, do eat and drink the glance at what I expect to be a sign or sacrament of so great a favourite field with my opponent. thing."

I am perfectly persuaded that my Confession of the Church of Scot- learned opponent, too conscious land. "In the supper, rightly used, of there being no proofs for TranJesus Christ is so joined with us, substantiation in the Scriptures, that he becometh the very nourish- will have recourse to what are ment and food of our souls. Not called the Fathers, and amid their that we imagine any Transubstan- mutilated and contradictory fragtiation of the bread into Christ's ments, he will fish up, as from natural body, and of wine into his muddy waters, many a specious natural blood, as the Papists have pretext. It is, therefore, most imperniciously taught and damnably portant, in the outset of this disbelieved; but this union and concussion, to lay down the precise junction which we have with the amount of authority due to the body and blood of Christ Jesus, in FATHERS, in order that my oppothe right use of the sacrament, is nent's quotations may always go for wrought by the operation of the what they are worth. . Holy Ghost, who, by true faith, 1. These writers of the third, carrieth as above all things that are fourth, and fifth centuries, are pot visible and carnal and earthly, and the fathers strictly so-called. The maketh us to feed upon the body apostles and evangelists are the and blood of Jesus, which was once fathers of the Christian Church. broken and shed for us, which now The so-called fathers were mere is in heaven and appeareth in the voluntary recipients and distributors presence of his Father for us.” of the waters of life received from

Westminster Confession, adopted by the original fountain, and, most unthe Church of Scotland.-“ Worthy fortunately, the contents have not receivers outwardly partaking of the only caught the taint and flavour of visible elements in this sacrament, the earthen vessels, but have bedo then also inwardly by faith, really come miserably diluted by human and indeed, yet not carnally, and speculations, coloured by Eastern corporeally, but spiritually receive philosophy, and, ere they reach us, and feed upon Christ crucified, and filtered of their more vital and preall the benefits of his death. That | cious ingredients.

2. The fathers are universally ad-| that can be quoted, or appealed to, mitted to be fallible. Both the are a mere fragment of the writings Church of Rome and the Protestant of those who actually composed on Church admit this.

doctrinal subjects, or who were 3. Many of them have erred, and better employed. Those lost may that too on fundamental points, in have held opinions contrary to those the opinion of the Church of Rome. that are left, so that if all the fathers

I call the most serious attention that remain were, as they are not, of every Roman Catholic in the room unanimous in favour of Transubto the following extract of one of stantiation, it would not avail. The their own chief doctors, Delahogue, opinions of the remaining fathers in proof of this:-“ In order that on this doctrinal point, even if unone may be called by the name of animous, would not, from these facts, father, it is not required, indeed, weigh a feather with me; for what that he shall have committed no are the opinions of a thousand fallierrors; since St. Justin holds an| ble books against the contrary judg. honourable place among them, who ment of one inspired and infallible thought that the happiness of the penman? pious dead was to be postponed till On this tenet of Transubstanthe day of the final judgment. St. tiation, the fact is, the fathers Irenæus, who patronized the error held three distinct and antagonist of the Millennarians; St. Cyprian, / opinions. This I am ready to prove who believed that the baptism con- by references, the moment my oppoferred by heretics was to be re- nent requires them. One section peated. Moreover, Origen and Ter- holds the opinion of the thirty-nine tullian, who have erred in so many articles and the Westminster Conpoints, have been constantly reckoned fession. A second section holds conamong the fathers.”—Treatise on substantiation and a third section, Ch, 3d edit. 1829..

partly from scholastic mutilation This opinion of Delahogue is of partly from hyperbolic phraseology itself sufficient to shake the pro-1-partly from their application of fessed confidence of Roman Catho- the name of the thing signified to lics in writings partly mutilated— the symbol, is twisted by the Church partly corrupted-partly erroneous, of Rome to the countenance of a and wholly uninspired and fallible. dogma of the ninth century-Tran

4. The fathers contradict each substantiation. other. The Council of Trent, ch. I am prepared, this evening, if i. sess. 21, admits that they give required, to show that Augustine, various interpretations on the 54th Ignatius, Clemens Alexandrinus, verse of the 6th chapter of John; Tertullian, and Theodoret, mainand Bellarmine (De Sac. Euch. lib. tain the doctrine of the Reformed i. ch. v.) gives a catalogue of doc- churches on the Eucharist; in other tors and learned Romanists who give words, I am prepared to quote pasthe Protestant interpretation to sages from each of these fathers, in the above verse.

which they proclaim the doctrine of 5. The fathers were nerer deputed the Protestant Church in reference to give forth the voice of the church to the Lord's Supper. This is my on Transubstantiation, or on any first position. In the second place, other dogma. They were neither I am ready to prove that others of authorized nor delegated to do so. the fathers maintained Consubstan.

6. In the next place, all the fathers tiation.. Irenæus and Chrysostom

are the advocates of Consubstantia- fathers, has positively anathemation, if their language be taken tized the opinions of some of the literally. And, in the third place, most distinguished of them. Cy. I candidly admit that a remnant of prian holds that all the apostles the fathers, whose sentiments my were equal in power, but the Church learned antagonist will quote to- of Rome holds the man anathemaday, employ language which may be lized that does not give to Peter pleaded as strongly in favour of the supremacy. St. Jerome excludes Transnbstantiation. At the same the Apocrypha, and therefore IE time, I would add, that Bellarmine, comes under the anathema of the a distinguished advocate of the Church of Rome. Augustine oppoChurch of Rome, says, it is not ses appeals to Rome, and therefore wholly improbable that there is not up comes under the anathema of a passage in the Word of God so the Church of Rome. Ambrose espress as to compel the admission of deprecates the judicial power which Transubstantiation, and he quotes the Church of Rome assumes for several distinguished scholastic di- her priests, and therefore he is anaFines, who admit that it may not be thematized by the Church of Rome. in the Word of God, and, that there Irenæus gives the creed as the only is not, in the Word of God, a pas-tradition. St. Chrysostom advosage that goes to compel the doc- cates the indiscriminate reading of trine of Transubstantiation. the Word of God. St. Athanasius

Again, I may also repeat that the holds the sentiments of the ProtesCouncil of Trent admits that, on the tant Church, and not of the Churcl: 54th verse of the 6th chapter of St. of Rome, in reference to the sacre'l John, which probably my learned canon. These fathers all come under friend will bring forward this even the curses of Trent. The fathers ing, and which I will require him hold sometimes, some of them, the to prove to be descriptive of the doctrines of the reformed churches; Lord's supper at all, there are vari- sometimes, some of them, the docbas interpretations. I may mention trine of Consubstantiation, and are en passant, that Justin Martyr did by the Tridentine fathers anathemanot know of certain ceremonies tized for it; and sometimes, some essential to the worship of Roman of them, in different passages, are so Catholics, such as the ringing of highly oriental and figurative, that bells, the eleration, and the adora- they have given occasion to the tion of the Host, and many other doctors of the Church of Rome to similar rites. I am prepared to show, deduce from them the doctrine of in the next place, that the Church Transubstantiation. of Rome has, contrary to the prac- Now, I ask, what does this impay? tice of the fathers, withdrawn the Whyit amounts to this: that if these cup from the laity, maintaining that fathers are so contradictory of each the officiating priest alone ought to other, and of themselves if they partake of the cup, and that it is are admitted on both sides not to be quite sufficient for the rest to par- inspired, and by the Church of Rome take of the bread alone, as contain- not only to be fallible, but also to ing the whole body and blood, soul have erred, and thereby are virtually and divinity of the Son of God. under the anathemas of Trent,-if

Iam prepared to show, from docu- it has been admitted by the Roman Inents, that the Church of Rome, Catholic Church that they have erred who professedly makes much of the in points that go directly to the

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