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the title-leaf of 1637, reprinted it with the list of The other editions contain the above songs, characters as then given - now ascribed to Rowe! with variations; also, “ Black spirits, and white,– and an advertisement of some of his own publi- &c. To read all the alterations and amendments cations, among which are six plays.

is a task beyond the reach of mortal patience ! It might be unsafe to adopt this conclusion from Malone was not aware that any of the above one instance, but other copies tell the same tale. specimens of witch-lore had appeared before 1674 It required more than twice seven years to sell off nor was Steevens. Others assert that the list an impression of the Merchant of Venice.

of characters to Macbeth was first supplied by I proceed to treat of Macbeth. A List of plays Rowe. Now it is given in each of the above altered from Shakspeare, formed by Steevens with editions. the assistance of Reed, was printed in the anno- Boswell is pleased to observe that the quarto tated editions of 1790, 1793, 1803, etc.

plays subsequent to the folio of 1623 are

adIn thąt list I find but one edition of Macbeth mitted on all hands to be utterly worthless." I before the year 1675. It is thus described - hope it will henceforth be admitted that they are Macbeth, a tragedy, with all the alterations, amend

worth examination,

BOLTON CORNEY. ments, additions, and new songs; as it is now acted at the Duke's Theatre. By Sir William D'Avenant. 1674. 4to.

CHARLES MARSHALL NOT THE INVENTOR OF Now, I affirm that there is no edition of Mac

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. beth so entitled, and that three altered editions of

In an article on the play were printed at that period -- which, to Telegraph," which appears in the Cornhill Maga

Electricity and the Electric speak bibliographically, are omitted. I transcribe

zine for the current month, the writer assumes, as the titles from copies in my own possession

a res adjudicata, that the name of the inventor of (1.) Macbeth: a tragedy. Acted at the Dukes-Thea

the electric telegraph was Charles Marshall, and tre. London, printed for William Cademan at the PopesHead in the New Exchange, in the Strand. 1673.40. indulges in a somewhat glowing eulogy on Charles pp. 4 + 68 = 72.

Marshall's merits. I am not in a position abso(2.) Macbeth, a tragædy. With all the alterations, amend- lutely to affirm that the writer is wrong, but ments, additions, and new songs. As it's now acted at the having given perhaps more attention to this subDukes Theatre. London, printed for P. Chetwin, and are ject than any other person, I am certainly in a to be sold by most booksellers, 1674. 49. pp. 4 + 66 = 70.

(3.) Macbeth, a tragedy: with all the alterations, position to prove that the name of the inventor amendments, additions, and new songs. As it is now

of the electric telegraph is still involved in mysacted at the Dukes Theatre. London: printed for A. tery; and tbat we have no more reason to believe Clark, and are to be sold by most booksellers, 1674. 4o. it was Charles Marshall, than that it was Charles pp. 4+60 = 64,

Mackenzie, or any other name beginning with the The edition reported by Steevens is anonymous. letters C. M. The name of Sir William Davenant, to whom That the writer of the letter, dated “Renfrew, Downes ascribes the alterations, should therefore Feb. 1, 1753,” which appeared in the Scots' Ma. have been printed within brackets. It is one of gazine of the succeeding month, is really entitled the indispensable rules of bibliography,

to the honour of this important invention, there The three editions of which I have transcribed can be no doubt; and from the fact that he asthe titles attest the popularity of this splendid sumes the above letters as his signature, there drama. Among the actors were Mr. Nath. Lee seems to be a strong probability that they were and Mr. Betterton. The editions of 1674 contain the initials of his name; but although that letter an argument of forty lines - which I have traced was first republished in the leading columns of the to the MIKPOʻKOZMOZ of Peter Heylyn. It is, of Glusgow Reformers' Gazette, in Nov. 1853, accomcourse, the story of Macbeth — “than which,” says panied with some remarks of my own strongly the ingenious author, "for variety of action, or urging investigation, and although in the interval strangeness of event, I never met with any more my pursuits have been much directed to these pleasing." – Neither of the three editions contains subjects, I have not been able from that time to the name of Shakspere, nor of Sir William Dave- the present to discover any farther clue to the nant, and it is due to the public to give some ac- name of the 'writer. count of the contents of each edition.

It is true that the letter, having been redisThe Macbeth of 1673 contains the received covered by Sir David Brewster (probably in context of Shakspere, with three lyrical additions. sequence of its appearance in the Reformers' At the end of Act II. Scene 2. we have “ Speak, Gazette), and republished at his request in the sister, is the deed done?” = 15 lines ; at the end Glasgow Commonwealth of the 21st January, 1854, of Act II. Scene 3., “ Let's have a dance upon the elicited, nearly five years afterwards, a communiheath,= 16 lines; and at the end of Act III. cation from Mr. Dick, giving what he considered Scene 5., " Come away Hecate, Hecate, Oh! come to be good reasons for believing that C. M. was away,"=34 lines.

none other than a Charles Marshall, who resided, towards the close of the last century, in Well the Scots' Magazine, and therefore not the invenMeadows, Paisley. Mr. Dick was led to this con- tor of the electric telegraph, I succeeded in ascerclusion by finding that name in a list of sub- taining positively about a year ago, on the highest scribers appended to a copy of Knox's History of possible authority. Through the kindness of a the Reformation, which was published at Paisley venerable friend in Paisley I traced out the fact in 1791, and which had remained in his family. that a Charles Marshall, who once resided in the His uncle's name was also in the list, and he re- Well Meadows, had come from Aberdeen ; and collected to have heard his mother say :

that a son of his, a clergyman, was still living. “ There was a very clever man living in Paisley at

Discovering the address of this gentleman, I applied that time, that had formerly lived in Renfrew. He asked

to him for information : and he states in his reply my uncle, as they were acquainted, to canvass for sub- that he had no doubt his father was the Charles scribers in Renfrew. The said clever man could light a Marshall who appears in Mr. Dick's list; but room with coal reek (smoke), and make lightning speak that he could not be the C. M. of the Scots' and write upon the wall,” &c.

Magazine. Mr. Dick plausibly argues that the man who About six or eight months ago an anonymous solicited his uncle to canvass for subscribers pro- letter appeared in the Glasgow Herald, the writer bably subscribed himself; and he says, " he thinks of which pretended to state, on good authority, it gives some probability to the name being Charles that C. M. was a Charles Morrison—who was born Marshall,” that he finds this to be the only name in Greenock, resided for some time in Renfrew, in the list of about 1000 subscribers which an- and finally emigrated to America. The story was swers to the initials C. M.

plausible; but, although the writer has been twice Mr. Dick's letter, prior to its publication, was called upon to produce either his name or authoforwarded by the editor of the Commonwealth to rities, he has hitherto declined to do so. And Sir David Brewster, who seems to have given it a from certain inconsistencies in his alleged facts, I very hasty and careless perusal; for, instead of have little or no doubt in my own mind that the even doubting the writer's “probabilities," he ac- letter was a deliberate hoax. tually assumes in his reply, as facts, that “Charles I have merely farther to state, that at the time Marshall was a resident in Renfrew about the time when C. M.'s letter was first disinterred from the when C. M.'s letter was written ;" that "Charles Scots' Magazine, and republished in the Reformers' Marshall was a clever man" — that“ Charles Mar. Gazette in Nov. 1853, the most diligent search shall was known as a person who could make was made by the schoolmaster of Renfrew, who is lightning speak," &c. - and that he was not only also session-clerk, not only in the records of the the inventor of the electric telegraph, but also of kirk-session, but also among the old people of the

parish, without a shadow of success : and, strange Now all this is pure assumption. Even Mr. as it may appear, the name of C. M. remains at Dick says nothing of the kind. He merely finds the present moment as great a mystery as that of Charles Marshall's name in a list of subscribers to Junius.

Geo. BLAIR. a work published at Paisley in 1791, or nearly Glasgow. forty years after C. M.'s letter was written; and he has reason to believe that a certain clever

STRANGE PASSAGE IN THE HISTORY OF THE man," who was conversant with chemistry and

DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM. electricity, and who had formerly resided in Renfrew, took. a special interest in the book. But The particulars of the following historical instance then even Mr. Dick's inference, that the man of the supernatural being very little known, we have who asked others to canvass for a book would thought it proper to supply the curious readers of probably subscribe himself, is little consistent with our publication with the account in extenso. It is our modern experience in these matters: for extracted as it appears in a very reverend old where do we find canvassers for publications put- volume now lying before the present writer, and ting down their own names as subscribers ? displaying the manuscript annotations of indivi.

I mention these things merely to sho:v how duals long deposited in their final homes, though readily even men of science and acute reasoners, their thoughts on these strange subjects, as like Sir David Brewster, may jump at unwar- equally as ours, still live. The old paper and rantable conclusions when they do not take the type, the rusty ink, the traces of the little acts as trouble to study their subject attentively; and the reader sat and marked, and more especially the article in the Cornhill Magazine for this the vivid notions of forgotten men, over whose month is sufficient proof how easily the public are graves more than two centuries and a half of misled by the authority of great names in matters grass has waved, and whose ideas, at this moment of scientific faith.

inspected, might have been those of any living That the Charles Marshall who resided at Well

man among us yesterday, are striking. What. Meadows, Paisley, in 1791, was not the C. M. of ever may be thought of the absolute fact of the

coal gas.

“ Advertisement concerning this same singular and well

attested Narration.

“ This story I certify that I heard (but a certain other name was put for that of Parker) with great assurance and with fuller circumstances from a person of honour. But I shall content myself to note only what I find in a letter of Mr. Timothy Lockett, of the same place as Mr. James Douche. That this apparition to Mr. Parker was, all three times, towards midnight, when he was reading in some book or otherwise quietly occupied. And he mentions that the Duke's expedition was hasty, and for the relief of Rochelle: then sore pressed. The rest is much what as Mr. Douche has declared. But I will not omit the close of Mr. Lockett's letter. I was confirmed in the truth of these extraordinary particulars, saith he, by Mr. Henry Seeley, who was then a servant with this Mr. Parker to the Duke. And he told me that he knew Mr. Parker to be a religious and sober person, no way given to extravagancies either of speech or thought: and that every particular related was, to his knowledge, of substantial fact, and true.”


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apparition, the historical vouchers are so cogent, the attestations so respectable, and, better than all, the vraisemblance, and, as a lawyer might say, the “inner persuasions of the evidence"

so perfect, that one might pause before really rejecting: Reappearing in various forms in biographical and historical accounts, which have come down to us from this period, we have never yet encountered the verification as produced very nearly at the time at which the appearance is stated to have taken place. In the coldest and most reluctantand, we may add, the most scientific of minds a feeling of awe will intrude as the fancy dimly glances at the possibility of such unbelieved-of matters : “ A Postscript of a Letter of Mr. Douche, concerning the

appearing of the Shade of Sir George Villiers, Father to the first Duke of Buckingham. SIR,

“Since the writing of the premises, a passage concerning an Apparition of Sir George Villiers giving warning of his son's (the Duke of Buckingham's) murder is come into my mind, which hath been assured, by a servant of the Duke's, to be a great truth. Thus it happened. Some few days before the Duke's going to Portsmouth (where he was stabbed by Felton), the appearance of his father, Sir George Villiers, made itself visible to one Parker (formerly his own servant, but then servant to the Duke) in his morning chamber-gown. He charged Parker to tell his son that he should decline that employment and design he was going upon, or else he would certainly be murdered. Parker promised the apparition to do it, but neglected it. The Duke, making preparations for his expedition, the apparition came again to Parker, taxing him very severely for his breach of promise, and required him not to delay the acquainting his son of the danger he was in. Then Parker the next day tells the Duke that his Father's Ghost had twice appeared to him, and had commanded him to give him that warning. The Duke slighted it, and told him he was an old doting fool. That night the Apparition came to Parker a third time, saying: Parker, thou hast done well in warning my son of his danger. But, though he will not yet believe thee, Go to him once more however, and tell him from me by such a token (naming a private token), which nobody knows but only he and I, that if he will not refuse his journey such a knife as this is (pulling a long knife out from under his gown) will be his death.' This message Parker also delivered the next day to the Duke, who, when he heard the private token, visibly changed countenance in the sight of Parker, and inwardly believed that he had it from his Father veritably. Yet he even now said that his honour was utterly at stake, and that he could not go back from what he was so sworn and engaged to, come life, come death! This real visitation Parker, after the Duke's murder, with infinite wonder, communicated to his fellow-servant, Henry Seeley, who told it to a reverend divine, a neighbour of mine. From whose mouth, indeed, I have it. This Henry Seeley has not been dead above twenty years : and bis habitation, for several years before his death, was at North-Currey (North Cray), but three miles from this place.

“My friend, the divine aforesaid, was an intimate acquaintance of this Henry Seeley's, and assures me he was a person of known truth and integrity,



SCOTLAND TO THE KING OF ENGLAND. In Michaelmas Term in the thirty-fifth year of K. Edward I., the Lord Treasurer delivered into the Court of Exchequer an instrument made under the signatures of two Public Notaries, and under the seal of James Steward of Scotland, concerning the homage and fealty done to the King by the said James. The import of the said instrument was this. On the 23rd day of October, 1306, James Steward of Scotland appeared before the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, Lord Treasurer,

and several other persons hereunder named, and did fealty to King Edward I. for all his lands, and confirmed his said fealty in all its articles and points by his corporal oath, taken upon the consecrated body of Christ, and upon the two holy crosses, to wit, the Cross Neytz and the Blake, rode, and other holy reliques; and that the said James made a patent letter under his seal, declaring the manner and form of this transaction, in the following terms :

“ To all who shall see or hear this letter, James Steward of Scotland wisheth health. Whereas lately, for the great trespasses and misdeeds which we had done, in divers manners, against our Lige Lord, the Lord Edward by the grace of God King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine, contrary to the Ilomage and Fealty which we did to him, and contrary to our Ligeance, we rendred and submitted ourself, fully and wholly, our Body, lands and tenements, and all that we have or can have, to the Will of our said Lord, and he hath since, of bis special grace, restored to us our said lands and tenements which we hold in Scotland. Wherefore, we have now done to him Homage and Oath of Fealty anew. We being quitted and delivered, and in our full power, do promise loyally and in good Faith, that from henceforth for ever we will be Faithful and Loyal to our Lord the King of Englund, and to his heirs Kings of England, and will bear to them good faith, for Life and Member, and for Earthly honour, against all men that may live



and dye; and we will not be against them at any time, meron (v. 24.), tells of a murder at Antioch which upon any terms, either in aid or counsel, where any thing

was detected by a dog ; and Giraldus Cambrensis may be treated, ordained, compassed or done, which may (about A.D. 1200), who refers not only to Amthat we will hinder it with all our power, and we will make brose, but to Suetonius, De Animantium Naturis, it known to them without delay. And to the performance adds the circumstance of the duel :of all these things in all points, we have sworn upon the “ Hinc cane dentibus armato, illinc baculo cubitali miBody of God, and upon ile Holy Gospels, and upon the lite munito; tandem cane victore victus homicida sucCross Neytz, and upon the Blakerode of Scotland, and cubuit, et ignominiosam publico patibulo pænam dedit.” upon several other Reliques. And furthermore, to the -Itinerur. Cambriæ, i. 7. firm holding and keeping of the said Homage and Oath

J. C. R. in all points, we do bind our body, our heirs, all our lands and tenements, and all that we have or can have de alto

ORDINATION Fees. — At p. 203.* of the Essay et basso, and wholly, at the will of our said Lord the King, on Ecclesiastical Economy by the late Rev. W.J. and of his beirs : And we do will and grant for us and Conybeare, we find two instances specified of a our heirs, that if it happens, which God forbid, that we

remarkable variety in the fees exacted by the or our h eirs shall ever be in war against our said Lord

several bishops' secretaries for the documents nethe King, or his heirs, or in aid or counsel to any of their enemies, privily or openly, that our body, our lands and cessary at the two ordinations. It would be our tenements, and all that we have or can have, be from curious to have a full list of the varieties in such thenceforth forfeited to our said Lord the King, and to exactions, and some information on the principle, his heirs, in such manner that we or our heirs may never or rather want of principle, on which they are be able to claim or chalenge any right to the same. Fur

made. I give Mr. Conybeare's instances below, thermore, we will and grant for us and our heirs, if it

and add a third variation from my own experience. happens that we be at any time hereafter against our said Lord the King, or his heirs, as is said before, that then Mr. Cony beare's Essay was published in 1855 ; the Archbishops, Bishops, and any other Prelates of Eng- my own knowledge dates from a year later. Is land and Scotland, such and as many as it shall please there any change ? our said Lord the King of England, or his heirs Kings of


91. 4s. 6d. England, without any manner of tryal, monition or warn


7 10 6 ing, and without any man's gainsaying, may give sen


5 tence of excommunication upon us and upon our heirs, and may excommunicate us, and put us out of the com

P. J. F. GANTILLON. munity of all Christians, and may put our lands under A NOTE ON Cairns. -- It is, I suppose, geneinterdict. In witness of which things we bave put our Seal to this Letter. Given in the Priory of the Canons rally considered that cairns were sepulchral meof Lantecost, the twenty-third day of October in the year morials, and were raised by every passer-by casting of Grace one thousand three hundred and six, and in the a stone on the heap, " which would be regarded four and thirtieth year of the reign of our said Lord the as an honour to the dead, and as acceptable to King. Which things being thus done, the said Lord his manes." The custom reminds us of the request James, on the same day, came into the presence of his Lord the said King of England, and maie Homage to the

of Archytas, in Horace (lib. i., ode xxviii.), to said King for his the said James's lands in Scotland, in

the sailor not to leave his body unburied : the due and usual form. These things were done in the “Quamquam festinas (non est longa mora) licebit, Prioury of Lanrecost, in the diocese of Carlile in the Year,

Injecto ter pulvere curras."
Indiction and day aforesaid, in the presence of Adomar de
Valence, and of several other persons of Distinction

It is said that to this day there is a proverbial (named hereunder). And straitway the said Publick expression among the Highlanders allusive to the Instrument was, by the Treasurer's command delivered to old practice. A supplicant will tell his patron, Adam de Osgoteby, Keeper of the Rolls of the Chancery to “Curri mi cloch er do chorne," "I will add a be enrolled." Madox's Baronia Anglica, Book iii. chap stone to your cairn;" meaning, " when you are vi. 267, 268.

no more I will do all possible honour to your meThe other persons of distinction were John de

mory.” Hastyng, John Boteturt, Robert de la Ward,

Now this seems to have been a wide-spread John de Sulleye, Barons; John Hastang, John custom; at least it is an interesting fact that it de Dunedale, knights; and John de Sandale, Wil

exists at this present time in Burmah. In a small liam de Bevercote, Robert de Cotyngham, and work published last year, entitled The Gospel in John de Wynton, clerks. John Pavin PHILLIPS., Burmah, containing accounts of the American Haverford west.

missions in that country, is the following extract

from a journal :Minor Notes.

“On the way I noticed a large rock on the side of

the mountain piled up with small stones, and in asking THE DOG OF MONTARGIS. Everyone has how these stones came there, they told me of a custom heard of the conviction of a murderer by this that prevails among all the Burmese. Every one who famous animal, “which," as we are told in Mur

passes by picks up a stone, and throws it on the cairn : ray's Handbook of France, " is said to have taken

if they fail to do it, they believe sickness and other ills place in the presence of Charles VI.". The story,

* As included in the volume of Collected Essays (Longa however, is far older. St. Ambrose, in his Hexaë

mans, 1855).

will befall them. It seems to be a species of worship to striking memorandum ; not only as to population, the spirit of the mountain, and they say the custom is

but in regard to the increase of our national very ancient. I stopped to see if my coolies observed


Y. S. the tradition, and lo, each one as he passed stooped down, and picked up a stone, and threw it on.” – P. 218.

S. S. S.

Queries. French Puzzles. - A mother gives her child

NISBET'S CÆSAR'S DIALOGUE: GOD AND a cup of tea to cure a cough. She then, in the

THE KING following words, inquires if the tea has produced the desired effect. Of course the child is tutoyé:

Amongst the very many curious books which “ Ton thé t'a-t-il oté ta toux ? "

belonged to the late Principal Lee, anil which

were sold by Mr. Thomas Nisbet last winter, was I have never yet found a person, however pro- a little volume containing three separate works, ficient in the French language, who, hearing this viz. : for the first time rapidly pronounced, could tell

1. “Manuductions to the Pallace of Trueth, by F. B. the meaning.

Observant, Mackline, 1616." In consequence of final consonants being gene- 2. “Cæsar's Dialogue, or a Familiar Communication rally not pronounced, the French language has containing the first institution of a Subject in Allegiance more words than any other which, being spelt dif

to his Soveraigne. London, Purfoot, 1601." Black letter, ferently, are alike in sound: thus affording great back of title.

with beautiful portraiture of Elizabeth cut in wood on scope for the lover of calembourgs, or puns. For 3. “God and the King, or a Dialogue shewing that instance :

our Soveraigne Lord King James being immediate under Sain, sound.

God within his Dominions doth rightfully claim whatSaint, holy.

soever is required by the Oath of Allegiance. Cambridge, Sein, bosom.

imprinted by his Majesties speciall privilege and com

mand, 1616.” Black letter.
Ceint, girt.
Seing, seal or signature.

It is in reference to the second work that I am
Cing, five.

anxious for information, for the address to “all Sin, one of the Arabic letters.

sound members of that bodie whereof her sacred And I suspect there is another, but it does not Majestie is supreme head,” is subscribed “ E. N.," at present occur to me. Thus again, the sound of and has been filled up in an old hand Nisbet. Say, a proper name, is identical or nearly so with ink “R. Nesbit, May 1, 1649." Below, in a some

On the boards of the volume is written in pale that of many words of different meaning. The following may exemplify this, though it is not ele. what darker ink, a sort of pedigree occurs :gant French :

“Sir Patrick Nisbet, Lord Eastbank.

Robert Nisbet.
“ Je sais que c'est sur ces sept saies que Say

Rerd John Nisbet or Nesbit, 1660.
Cessait ses essais."

Dr Robert Nesbitt vel Nisbet, M.D., 1700.
These are trifles, but

John Nisbitt, Barister, 1732-3.

James Nisbit vel Nisbet, 1778."
“ Dulce est desipere in loco."

Then follows this notandum :
Arno's Court.

" The pedigree of my family for 6 generations, whose

portraits are in possession of the writer hereof. POPULATION OF OUR Chief CITIES AND Towns


There are several curious matters connected In The General Evening Post of March 20, 1781, with this genealogy. 1. As to the writer of the following is given as the

sar's Dialogue. The insertion of the name of “ Number of Houses in certain Towns, luid before the Nisbet as author in an old hand, connected as it

House of Commons by the Tax Office, by Order of the is with the fact of the book having belonged to House, viz. :

a family of that name, affords a reasonable pre“ Exeter, 1474 ; Norwich, 2302 ; Cambridge, 1925; sumption of the correctness of the assertion. 2. Plymouth, 1510; Lynn, 602; Oxford, 2316;. York, 2285; Lord Eastbank, a paper lord, as the Scotch used to Yarmouth, 682 ; Ipswich, 1246; Hull, 1370; Newcastle, 2239; Dover, 1193; Sheffield, 2022; Bristol, 3947 ; Not- call their judges, was the father of the celebrated tingham, 1583; Liverpool, 3974; Bath, 1173; North- Sir John Nisbet of Dirleton, whose Doubts on the ampton, 706; Manchester, 2519; Birmingham, 2291 ; law of Scotland are deservedly held, even at this Shrewsbury, 904.”

date, in great estimation. Now was Robert NisThis statement, having been laid at the time bet a brother of Sir John's ? The MS. pedigree before the House of Commons, must be presumed would indicate he was. 3. The spelling of the to be correct; and on that account is worth re- name shows, if farther proof were requisite, that newed preservation in the pages of “ N. & Q." there was not any fixed rule, and that the names

A return of the increase in each city and town of persons might be spelt differently in the same to the present time, would, no doubt, form a document. 4. What has become of the “por

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