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IN spite of the very modest scale on which this book has been written, I trust that it may be of some use to students of European History. Though there are several excellent monographs in existence dealing with various sections of the period 476–918, there is no continuous general sketch in English which covers the whole of it. Gibbon's immortal work is popularly supposed to do so, but those who have read it most carefully are best aware that it does not. I am not acquainted with any modern English book where the inquirer can find an account of the Lombard kings, or of the Mohammedan invasions of Italy and Sicily in the ninth century, or of several other not unimportant chapters in the early history of Europe. I am in hopes, therefore, that my attempt to cover the whole field between 476 and 918 may not be entirely useless to the reading public. I must acknowledge my indebtedness to two living authors, whose works have been of the greatest possible help to me in dealing with two great sections of this period, Doctor Gustav Richter, whose admirable collection of original authorities in his Annalen des Fränkischen Reichs makes such an excellent introduction to the study of Merovingian and Carolingian times, and Professor Bury of Dublin, whose History of the Later Roman Empire has done so much for the knowledge of East-Roman affairs between 476 and 800. Nor must I omit to express my indebtedness to the kindly and diligent hands which spent so many summer hours in the laborious task of compiling my index.

A word ought, perhaps, to be added on the vexed question of the spelling of proper names. I have always chosen the most modern form in speaking of places, but in speaking of individuals I have employed that used by contemporary authorities, save in the case of a few very well known names, such as Charles, Henry, Gregory, Lewis, where archaism would savour of pedantry.

Oxford, Wovember 1893.

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION

THE author has to acknowledge much kind help in the revision of this second edition given him by the Rev. Dr. Bright, Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History; by Mr. C. H. Turner, Fellow of Magdalen College; by the Rev. F. E. Brightman, of University College; and by the unwearied compiler of the index. They have materially improved the accuracy of the book by their suggestions.

October 30, 1894.

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PAGE
ODoACER AND THEoDoRIC, 476-493, - - • I
THEoDoRic KING of ITALY, 493-526, . - . I9
THE EMPERORS At CoNSTANTINoPLE, 476-527, . • 33
CHLoDovech AND THE FRANKS IN GAUL, 481-51 1, • 55
JUSTINIAN AND His WARs, 528-540, - - . 65
JUSTINIAN–(continued), 540-565, - - . 89
THE EARLIER FRANKish KINGs AND THEIR ORGANISA-
TION OF GAUL, 51 1-561, - ... III.
THE VISIGOTHS IN SPAIN, 531-603, - . I28
THE Successors of JustiNIAN, 565-610, . I45
Decline AND DEcAy of the MeRovingians, 561-656, 158
THE LOMBARDS IN ITALY AND THE RISE OF THE
Papacy, 568-653, - . 181
HERACLIUS AND MoHAMMED, 610-641, . 204
THE Degline AND FALL of THE VISIGOTHs, A.D. 603-
7II, . - - - - - . 22O
THE Contest of the EASTERN EMPIRE AND THE
CALIPHATE, 641-717, • , - - - • 234
THE HISTORY OF THE GREAT MAYORS OF THE PALACE,
656-720, . - - - - . 256
THE LOMBARDS AND THE PAPAcy, 653-743, . 272
CHARLEs MARTEL AND HIs WARs, 720-41, - . 289
THE Iconoclast EMPERoRs—state of the EASTERN
EMPIRE IN the Eighth CENTURY, 717-802, . 300
Pippi N THE SHORT-WARS OF THE FRANKS AND LOM-
BARDS, 741-768, - - - . 322
. CHARLEs the GREAT—EARLY YEARs 768-785—Con-
QUEST of LoMBARDY AND SAxony, - - . 335
THE LATER WARS AND CONQUESTs of CHARLES THE
GREAT, 785-814, . - - - . 357
CHARLES THE GREAT AND THE EMPIRE, - . 369
LEWIS THE PIOUs, 814-840, - - - . 383

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