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ROUTLEDGE'S

PBONOUNCING DICTIONAKY

OF THE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE:

POUNDED OS THE LABOURS OF

WALKER, WEBSTER, WORCESTER, CRAIG, OGILVIE,

AJfD OTHER DISTINGUISHED OBTHOLOGISTS;
AND ENRICHED WITH

MANY THOUSAND MODERN WORDS CONNECTED WITH
SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND ART.

EDITED BY

P. AUSTIN NUTTALL, LLC,

KDITOR OP THE SCHOOL EDITIONS OF "WALKER'S PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY,
AND NUMEROUS EDUCATIONAL WORKS.

[graphic]

LONDON:

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE & SONS, BEOADWAT, LUDGATE.

NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.

18C7.

Is the compilation of this Dictionary, one of the primary objects of the

Editor has been to compress within reasonable limits the many thousand terms

which Science, Polite Literature, and Modern Art are constantly bringing into

daily use. Numerous words, which, previous to the time of Johnson and

Walker, were current, are now becoming obsolete; while many others, owing

to the progress of knowledge, the extension of literature, the discoveries in

science and art, or the usages of fashion, have sprung into existence:—

Multa renasceotur, quae jam cecidere, cadentque

Qua: nunc sunt in honorc vocabula, si volet usus.—Hor. Ars Poet. 70.

"Those who have much leisure to think," says Johnson, " will always be enlarging the stock of ideas; and every increase of knowledge, whether real or fancied, will produce new words or combinations of words."

In the ample range of science and art, there are words innumerable, which are mostly if not altogether overlooked even in our best and most popular dictionaries; especially those terms connected with the Military, Nautical, or other sciences; as, for instance, Circumvallation, Counterscarp, Curtain, Escalade, Embrasure, Enceinte, Epaulement, Escarp, Fascine, Fraise, Genouillere, Glacis, Gallery, Gabion, Gazon, Ravelin, Traverse, &c, which have become in some measure Anglicized, and are now often used in ordinary conversation. These, with numerous terms connected with Anatomy, Astronomy, Botany, Chemistry, Geology, Ichthyology, Meteorology, Mineralogy, Music, Natural History, Ornithology, Pathology, Physiology, Surgery, Zoology, and the various sciences, have been duly incorporated, and briefly explained.

There are also numerous words of a derivative or formative character, such as Participial Adjectives, Preterites, Perfect Participles, tenses of Irregular Verbs, Auxiliaries, Adverbs, &c, which are usually omitted in our ordinary vernacular dictionaries; but as these formatives are of constant occurrence, the great bulk of them have been duly appended to their parent roots.

In addition to the vast store-house of words contained in the works of his predecessors, the Editor has added upwards of 7000 more; thus making a total of about 80,000; but in order to compress this vast accumulation within reason, able limits, he has adopted a system of grouping or classifying each derivative or formative under its primitive word, which may be either a substantive, a verb, or an adjective; and that primitive being fully explained, enables the reader clearly to comprehend the derivative parts of speech appended thereto; for instance (as an illustrative example), under the term " Phonocraphy " we have the following entry:—

Pho-nogr'ii-plijf, t. (Gr.) The art of expressing sounds by characters or symbols;—a. Phono

Thus the adjective Phonographic expresses some quality relating to Phonography ; the adverb, the manner how or according to j and the substantive, terminating in er, denotes the agent, or one versed in the science.

There can be little difficulty in perceiving the true meaning of each formative, when the primitive is clearly defined; but still a few explanatory remarks may be useful.

Derivative or Formative words may be either Substantives, Adjectives, Verhs, or Adverbs. The usual kinds of derived Substantives, or Nouns, are either Abstract or Verbal. Abstract Substantives are regularly formed by adding the termination nets, as kind, kindness; but those borrowed from the Latin end variously, as justice, fortitude, liberty, Sec. Substantives of the Actor or Doer are generally formed by adding the termination er to the verb, as teach, teacher; but in words borrowed from the Latin we usually keep the Latin termination or, as in governor, orator, &c. Substantives signifying action are formed by adding the termination ing to a verb, as singing, from sing. Many substantives derived from the Latin end in lion, as instruction. Nouns that signify office, state, condition, &c. are usually formed by adding skip to the primitive substantive, as stewardship. Nouns that denote state or condition are formed by adding head or hood, as manhood. Those that signify profession are generally formed by adding the termination ian; as from music comes musician. Nouns which express particular belief, opinion, doctrine, &c. are formed by the termination ism added to the substantive or verb, as puritanism, from Puritan. Substantives in ist express the maker or writer, as Phonotypist, from Phonotype, &c.

Adjectives, or Qualities, are generally derived from substantives, by adding y, ous, ful, ly, like, or en; as Wealthy, from Wealth; Righteous, from Right; Joyful, from Joy ; Manly, or Manlike, from Man; Golden, from Gold, &c.

Verbs are frequently derived from substantives or adjectives; as from Salt comes the verb to salt; from Warm, the verb to warm.

Adverbs, of a qualifying character, are generally formed by adding the termination ly to the positive adjective; as sinfully, from sinful; in which case the adverb is equivalent to " the manner how."

The Compounds of the English language are very numerous, and frequently of indispensable utility; but often omitted by our first lexicographers. These also have been generally grouped, with brief definitions, under their primitives. Thus, under the word Water we have 136 useful compounds, which, if entered under distinct heads, would occupy nearly double their present space.

By the classification and grouping of these derivative words and compounds, the Editor has been enabled to superadd vast numbers of useful terms; but if the participles of regular verbs ending in ing and ed, the adverbs terminating in ly, and the formatives which are rarely brought into use, had been inserted increased the bulk and cost of the volume, without any material advantage;
whereas, by their being appended to their original or parent roots, which are
always fully explained, their meaning becomes clear and obvious.

In order to demonstrate the advantages gained by the system of classifying
families of words (partly in the manner of Smart and Richardson), we have
only to compare this Dictionary with two others of similar bulk; the one, Dr
Johnson's 8vo edition, published in 1827, and the other Dr Longmuir's "Walker
and Webster combined in a Dictionary!" published by Tegg in 1864. On
referring to page 3 of the present Dictionary, we find (from the word Able to
Absentee) I:i words; in Dr Johnson's edition, 74 words; and in Longmuir's,
48: and these proportions appear to be about the average throughout. Thus
the modern " Walker and Webster combined in a Dictionary '." does not give
half the number of words contained in our present edition,—many useful and
important ones being entirely omitted.

As to the general principles of Pronunciation, which in this edition are
cleariy shown by a new and simplified system of orthoepic notation, the reader
is referred to the succeeding article on " Phonotypy."

In conclusion, the Editor has only to observe that, notwithstanding every
care, there are doubtless many oversights which may be detected by a critical
eye. No amount of labour or knowledge can render an English dictionary
perfect; "for perfection," as our great lexicographer observed, "is altogether
unattainable; but nearer and nearer approaches may be made ,-" and when the
great variety of words, and the extensive research required in their collection,
are taken into consideration, every allowance, it is hoped, will be made for un-
avoidable omissions or occasional inadvertencies.

CONTENTS.

Origin And History Of The English Language vi

Phonotypy ; Or, Key To English Pronunciation viii

General Rules For The Corrf.ct Pronunciation Of The Euro-
Pean Languages.French, German, Italian, &c x

Abbreviations.The Parts Of SpeechScience, Literature, And
Modern ArtLanguages Whence Words Are Derived . . . . xii

Alphabetical List Of The Cities, Boroughs, And Principal Towns
In England And Wales, Containing Above 3500 Inhabitants;
With The Counties In Which They Are Situated, The Days When
Their Markets Are Held, And Distances In Miles From London 753

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