« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
h, m. s.
2 01 3200
h. m. s.
2 09 Time, commencement 1 50 50
3 02 24
2 12 1800
2 18 Whole interval 1 11 34 1900
2 24 The weight employed was 250lbs. of pig ballast. The first 500 fathoms of line was Massey's deep-sea; the second 500 fathoms common hand-lead line; the next 1000 fathoms two strands of deep-sea line; the next 500 fathoms one strand of deep-sea, and the remainder cod line.
The line broke at about 3250 fathoms.
Abstract of deep-sea soundings, between the Western Islands and Newfoundland Bank, August 3rd, 1848, lat. 41° 19', long. 44° 16' W., current N.W.b.W. two knots an hour. h. m, 8.
1 27 2900
line fouled 2 55
3 38 1600
2 02 1700
2 02 1800
2 06 Commenced 10 52 28
12 07 55
2 11 2100
2 17 Whole interval 1 15 27
h. m. s.
• Probably here there was an error in the marks.—+ Th sudden increase of
the interval here is very remarkable, and cannotbe accounted for.
The line was placed on the reel very nearly in the same proportion as to size, as in the previous experiment. The whole of the line having run out, a boat was dispatched to the ship for more; but before her return it broke about 300 fathoms below the surface, after holding the boat with the reel for nearly half an hour against a current of two knots. This is noticed because the reeling of the small part of the line on last, is, I believe, directly contrary to the mode hitherto adopted.
The same weight was also employed as before.
On the same day the following experiment was made with a line of iron wire, 4000 fathoms in length, varying in size from No. 1 to 5, the total weight of which was 661 Ibs. wound on a small iron reel in a similar manner; that is, the smaller part of the wire being reeled on first, (the suggestion of Lieut. Mooney,) and with a weight attached to it of 61 lbs. A hand lead would have been better.
h. m. s.
100 fathoms interval
The great difficulty to overcome in these experiments, more particularly with the iron wire, is the increased impetus given to the reel, when the weight is let go, whereby the line is thrown off more rapidly than it is carried down, and if great care be not taken, is broken by the jerk it will receive, when the impetus of the wheel is stopped, or nearly so. To avoid this we have employed men pressing on the fore part of the reel, with paddings of old canvass for the protection of their hands, which answers the purpose tolerably well, and with a little attention will prevent the too rapid motion of the wheel. But a better contrivance is wanting, especially when a correct notice of the intervals is required.
With the iron line, the difficulty of regulating the motion is still greater, from the extreme rapidity with which it is carried off, and which of course increases instead of diminishes, as in the case of the experiment with the hempen line, although the wire is not so readily thrown off. In this case it broke by the jerk, from our not being prepared with the means of regulating the motion, the wire cutting through everything
We may remark that the wire had been prepared and placed on the reel previously to our leaving England for the West Indies in November, 1844, and remained there untouched for a period of three years and a half, when on being examined preparatory to its use on the homeward voyage, nearly 500 fathoms of it was found rusted and unserviceable.
The idea of employing iron wire instead of rope is entirely due to Lieut. Mooney, the assistant-surveyor, and although but one opportunity occurred of testing its value, I am of opinion it will be found a ready way of obtaining deep-sea soundings.
On the latter occasion the following temperatures at different depths also were obtained.
Barometer 30:49, air 75°, surface water 70°.
600 do. 46 200 do.
Visit oF H.M.S. SAMARANG TU BORNEO in search of the crew of
the Premier,-extract of a letter from Capt. Sir E. Belcher, K.C.B. Quitting Manila on the 10th of December, I shaped a course to shave the Apo Islands, and was becalmed thirty-five hours in that region, but soon made up for lost time by a smart breeze which brought us to Sooloo on the 15th. I mentioned in my former letter, I think, that I noticed a very dangerous rock and several islands, not marked on the charts, on my passage past the Calamianes. I now passed within a mile of a low rock near the Cuegos not placed on the charts, and which might* have brought me up at night. These two dangers render this channel awkward until explored.
Much jealousy and party feeling at present exist at Sooloo. I had invited the Sultan and Chiefs to visit the Samarang. The former can, not
go afloat by law and usage, but the prime minister was instructed to accept the invitation for the latter. On the day appointed he excused himself until the following, and then on the latter day sent a message, stating, “ That the sultan had forbidden him.” I had contracted a friendship with one of the chiefs, (Datu Danielle,) and visited him at his country-house, and he, in return promised to pay me a quiet visit on board.' This Datu is a non-opiumist, and endeavours to lead all his adherents in the same laudable course. He is the leader of the indepen. dent party, and powerful, although not more than 26 or 28 years of age. They are endeavouring to weaken his influence by cross-marriages,
* This rock in the fairway of this passage, if accurately fixed might be made the keystone of the channel
. It is very low, not more than six feet above water, and possibly about fifteen feet diameter. A good look out would almost ensure it being seen in fine weather at night by the luminous appearance of the ripples about it, and in bad weather by the sheet of spray. It is as unfortunate that previous bad weather prevented my having sufficient data to fix it well.
viz. by his brother and a sister of the sultan's; and again by the son of the prime minister to his sister*. In the first case the brother must go to his wife, she being of higher blood. In the second, his sister goes over to the prime minister's son. This would weaken his party by the loss of two-the females, perhaps, the most important.
Datu Danielle was not weak enough to be put off by the tricks of the sultan, or his prime minister, but came to the house of Mr. Wyndham, in state,) where I was, and embarked in my boats. I foresaw that this would cause a stir; and hardly were we seated at a cold collation, adapted to the taste of Mahomedans, when the prime minister and all the chiefs of his party were reported " alongside.” So public and official had been his refusal, backed by the denial of the sultan in my presence, that I deemed it improper to wait on him. However, he rapidly found his way to the cabin, evidently labouring to hide his chagrin, and made himself quite “ at home.”
The ship was literally crammed with the various retinues of the different chiefs, dressed in all their gorgeous finery, which I can only compare to what you see at the theatres; silk, gold, and velvet, from head to foot; and withal exhibiting great taste on the part of their wives or sisters, who pass the greater part of their time working at embroidery. After inspecting the ship they retired to the shore, where I accompanied Datu Danielle, in order to ascertain how the sultan would deal with him, as well as to give them a hint that I was on the alert. They summoned him, and tried to browbeat him for visiting me “without the sultan's permission;" but he very boldly replied, “ That he was not a slave, and knew of no law which forbade him to return the civility which he had received from the captain of the British ship-of-war.” This stopped the affair: finding him resolute they then changed their course to caressing, and persuaded him to tell all he had seen to the sultan, and others, who had not been so fortunate as himself, in not only viewing quietly, but having all matters clearly explained to him. Great fear prevailed amongst the better halves, when all the chiefs were afloat, as a rumour which had reached the shore that they had been made prisoners; and, I was informed that the principal ladies were wo-maning their boats to release them!
Several suspicious piratical prahus took their departure about the same moment. This diversion produced a very salutary effect, by expediting the prahu intended to accompany us, and rendering the people more civil. Something very decisive ought to be done in their neighbourhood. The island of Bang-en-ini, a little to the eastward, is the noted pirate nest throughout the Eastern Archipelago. At Sooloo they assert that they have no connexion with these pirates, (generally termed Balligninis,) but during our stay several of their boats came in to sell slaves, captured among the Phillippines, and to buy rice for their future cruizes. I have a sufficient clue to their haunts and connexions, to punish them if
* By the custom of the island the higher by blood, male or female, takes precedence.
the Government approves, but it will require caution, secrecy, and the aid of steamers. They are a desperate race, and prefer destroying themselves to submitting to capture. The honest party here would aid by information, and if the evil have root in Sooloo, as the sultan denies all knowledge or participation, their punishment or expulsion could not be assumed by him as an insult.*
On the 20th we were joined by our prahu, decorated with the Sooloo colours, and on the following morning sailed from Sooloo. The pace of the Samarang soon jeopardized our prahu (in tow), and we were compelled to make a jolly-boat of her, hoisting her up to two heavy spars we projected over the stern. I found her crew to consist of ten persons; the captain and one of his crew very intelligent and good pilots. She had also a chargé on board entrusted with a letter to the Sultan of Curan: this personage proved to be a young priest, who had performed his pilgrimage to Mecca, but who, nevertheless, could not keep the 7th or Toth commandments, and was thus undergoing a kind of transportation very much against his stomach.
After experiencing light variable airs we sighted the Island of Maratua about eleven on the night of the 24th. Our pilots mistook it for Pulau Panjang, and fortunately were too timid to allow me to run. At daylight we bore away, and as they were still in error, passed round its eastern dangers, which carried us a day to leeward at least. The safer channel is also past the western sides of Maratura and Kakuban, where very slight coral fringes project. The breeze having freshened from the northward, compelled us to beat up towards Curan mouth.
On the 26th, about noon, we had reached the great bar, the water shoaling quickly from 30 to 15 and 5 fathoms, soft creamy mud, but the land more than ten miles within us. This rather puzzled me, as I had been led to believe that the Samarang could enter the river with ease. I determined, however, to disencumber myself of the prahu, and having re-equipped her, sent one of the barges to tow her into the river's mouth, and suffer her to proceed. The other barge I employed sounding for a channel, but after several times leading up to 2 creamy mud, and observing her signals for 3 fathoms within, I found that nothing but a dash would help us to a berth before dark. I therefore made up my mind, it being still young flood, to cut our own channel; and about five o'clock not having had properly less than a quarter less 3, found the depth increase to 5, 7, and 10 fathoms, and before sun-set the Samarang was anchored in a safe land-locked berth, within the river, in 7} fathoms. Here another difficulty presented itself. All the sides of the river were thick mangrove and mud, and to obtain a position for observing, I had to cut down the largest mangrove trees, by saws, and driving three strong nails in an equilateral triangle, into the stumps, place my heavy three-inch plates of slate on them, and the instruments above all. (This may prove an useful hint to others to provide themselves with such slates and nails for such dilemmas.)
* Since this was written the Spaniards have annihilated this nest of pirates.