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it was with difficulty secured for further service by lashing and strapping it together with hawsers and studding-sail booms. The main-sail, fore and main top-sails were split, and almost every man in the main top more or less injured; several men were struck down off the bunt of the yard and the cap into the top, but happily no lives were lost. She returned to Plymouth for a new mast in August following.
The Annual Report of the R.N. Annuitant Society, for the last year is out. From it we learn that the society prospers, that it has now a capital of upwards of £148,000, and that it pays annually to its claimants no less than £8,000, thus in the space of 26 years, a body of Officers, the greater part having little or nothing but their pay, have accomplished an unparalleled task -they have, from the formation of the Society, managed to subscribe, from their slender incomes £266,650, and to have relieved the Widows, Orphans, and other relations of their deceased brother Officers with Annuities amounting to £110,288. The total expenses of this society amount to £9,374, or about £360 per annum, which shews management of most admirable economy.
2,458 Members have been enrolled, of whom 1,412 have died or left the Society, leaving only 1,034 to uphold the establishment.
Surely such an Institution deserves the support of every Naval Officer; if he be in affluence, he does not require its aid, for himself or his family; but the young ones of some poor relative may, and if he has none of those, he may extend his kind sympathy, and subscribe for the good of the Widows or others of his poorer Brother Officers.
LIGHTS IN PILOT BOATS.-A notice to mariners is contained in Tuesday night's Gazette, ordering that on and after the 1st of March next, all the boats in the service of pilots licensed by the Trinity Board, in the several ports in the English Channel, on the east coast of England, and in the river Thames, shall be distinguished by a green light at the mast-head, and in addition thereto by a flare-up light, shown at intervals of fifteen minutes. Pilot-boats in the service of the said pilots, at the several ports in the Bristol and St. George's Channels, by a white light at the mast-head, and a flare-uplight, at intervals of fifteen minutes.
BRITISH V. AMERICAN OCEAN STEAMERS. A passage across the Alantic against the strong winds and heavy seas which prevail in the depth of winter is sure to try the strength of sailing capabilities of steamers. Whatever the success in summer, with light and favourable breezes, it is only when the waves are "lashed by storm" that vessels are fairly put upon their trial. The British and North American Royal mail steam-ship Europa, Captain Lott, which sailed from New York on the 10th instant, and Halifax on the 13th, reached the Mersey yesterday morning a little after nine o'clock, making the passage from New York to Liverpool, at this boisterous season of the year, in less than twelve days! This, all things considered, is the most astonishing passage on record. The Europa, on her passage out, left the Mersey on the 16th December, four days after the American steamer, 'Hermann, sailed from Southampton for New York. The Europa, after mak
ing the detour to Halifax, reached New York on the afternoon of the 31st of December, but the Hermann only arrived at Boston (for which port she was compelled to run, being short of coals) on the 4th of January, four days after the Europa reached New York! Again, the American steamer, Washington, sailed from Southampton on the 20th of December, and did not reach New York till 19 days after she started. The British and North American steamer, America, which sailed hence on the 30th of December, reached Halifax on the 10th instant-a very rapid passage, considering the season of the year and the difficulties to contend with. Instances of superiority of British steam vessels over those yet built in America now so frequently occur, that we should think that Brother Jonathan was pretty well satisfied that he is no match for Uncle John in this department. We are glad to see a friendly rivalry in these matters, for by it the public are sure to benefit, and talent, skill, and enterprise, meet with their due reward. The public will be gratified to learn that two new vessels, which will surpass all the others in size, splendour, and speed, are about being laid down by the British and North American Company, to replace the Acadia, and Britannia, which have been sold.
THE following is an extract from a letter from Panama. "New Granada Panama, Dec. 24, 1848.-Some persons appear to doubt the truth of the Californian discoveries; we were also very sceptical three months ago, but the arrival of her Britannic Majesty's frigate Constance at Valparaiso last month (November), confirmed all the startling prior reports, with many additions. For example, a gentleman (to whom Captain Courtenay, of the frigate, had given a passage), a botanist, went from the bay of San Fransisco in search of plants or bulbs; in the course of his journey he came on the diggings, trowel in hand. He at once set to, and with his own hand and so small an instrument took out 1,500 dollars worth of gold in three days. One of his largest pieces, weighing 1 ounce, he presented to Capt. Courtenay. That you may not think I have made a mistake in figures, I will give it you in words-fifteen hundred dollars in three days. The Governor of California reports 40,000 dollars worth the average daily arrival at San Francisco. The fanatic Mormons, about 1,200 in number, first discovered the precious metal during their march, and are said to have extracted an immense quantity of it before it became known. Governor Mason, in his report of August last, says, from all he has learned he believes 13,000,000 dollars or 14,000,000 dollars worth had been extracted to that date. The vessel that brought the messengers was supplied, through the good offices of the governor, with a new mainmast. The carpenters who made the spar, upon some complaint of the captain, during the operation, threw down their tools, exclaiming indignantly," We are losing money by you." They were then receiving three dollars per hour. They have already grog-shops; the price of a glass is a pinch, so you may imagine the state of things there. The pinch must be worth at least two dollars. The sensation and commotion created all along the coast, from the north to the south, even to the most insignificant interior towns and villages, is without precedent. Numbers of vessels started-from Valparaiso, 9; Pisco, 1, with aguadiente; Callao, 4; Payta, 3; Guayaquil 3; Buenaventura, 1, of 50 tons; Panama, and many others going from all the aforesaid ports. It is supposed by some that they are supplied with goods
for the present, consequently many are now going there with small coin, from 20,000 to 200,000 dollars, to purchase the gold. The last account of sales was from 7 dollars to 8 dollars the ounce, which has sold in all cases at 18 dollars, 18 dollars 1 cent, and 18 dollars 2 cents at Valparaiso. This fact is proof of the purity of the metal. Several commercial houses are writing to England for clerks-their old ones having cleared out for the diggings at California.
LUXURY OF A VOYAGE TO CALIFORNIA.-We copy the following account of a vessel preparing to sail for California, from the N. Y. Sun of the 20th December.
"Music and Literature are not to be outdone by prosy toil in migration to the gold regions." A band of musicians have organized to go out in the packet ship Apollo, lying at the foot of Chambers Street, also several printers who take with them press, types, and paper, and will publish a weekly journal during the voyage. A place is to be set apart in the Apollo for various amusements and exercises, for the recreation of the passengers. A debating club is also forming, with several other projects, which will agreeably divide the time which otherwise passes heavily at sea. We had a peep yesterday at this vessel carpenters and painters were up to their eyes in adding every possible convenience and comfort above and below decks. Her between decks are unusually high, light and airy, even for vessels of her tonnage, which is over 800 tons. Besides ample provisions for the passage out and back, and the four or six months she is to remain as the passengers' home at San Francisco. She will be able to take about 400 tons freight, which is being rapidly contracted at easy rates. She is to be towed by a small steamer up the Sacramento near to the heart of the gold regions, and will be anchored there as a general depot for those who go out in her. Five physicians are enrolled among her passengers. As she sails in a few days, probably the first ship from this port, those who wish a chance in her will have to apply at once or miss the chance. The price of passage by her, out and back, with board, and all privileges for several months at California, is only 250 dollars."
MURDERS ON BOARD THE SHIP AMELIA.-Last week the Daily News published a short account of a horrible catastrophe which to k place in the midst of the Pacific Ocean, on board the Amelia, bound from California to China, with gold for the purchase of silks. Extracts from a private communication from Hanavoora Bay in Woahoo, one of the Sandwich Islands (on which stands the town of Honolulu), received via Mazatlan per the last West India Mail, by a mercantile house in Manchester, corroborate every main fact of the account already published, giving, however, fuller particulars, and the dates of the horrible tragedy:-"On the night of the 3rd October, in the middle watch, three of the crew, namely, Jose Cabrero, Jose Torres, and Andres Boldevio, mutinied, attacked the mate, and killed him. Captain Alva (a Spaniard), and Mr. Francis Cooke, passenger, hearing the noise, came on deck. Two of the ruffians attacked them, killed Mr. Cooke, and immediately threw him overboard, and badly wounded the captain, but who, nevertheless, succeeded in getting down into the cabin to arm himself, and came on deck again with a cutlass, but the murderers stabbed him in the neck with a knife, and he fell a corpse. Mrs. Cooke, her maid-servant,
Mary Hudson, and the flag-captain, M'Nally, (a native of Dublin), who were below when the murderous scene commenced, were confined to their state rooms; and the mutineers, who were all Peruvians, shaped their course for Peru. On the following morning Captain M'Nally offered, with the assistance of the carpenter, to leave the ill-fated ship, with the females, provided the mutineers would give him one of the boats and the necessary provisions. This they seemed to assent to, but on his going on deck he was seized, bound, and thrown overboard. They then threw the papers and documents also overboard, and getting out a large quantity of gold, divided it amongst the remainder of the crew, compelling each to take a part. On the night of the 5th, the murderers having drunk freely, two of them went to sleep, when the carpenter, in accordance with a plan arranged by some of the crew, killed them with his axe, while others attacked the third murderer, who resisted, but was likewise despatched by Smith, and the vessel brought to these islands (the Sandwich) by the apprentices, Thomas Gannon and Charles M'Donald. Smith, the carpenter, is a native of Rotterdam. Gannon and M'Donald are from London. The specie, about 300,000 dollars, has been secured by her Majesty's consul-general. Mrs. Cooke and servant are living on shore, and it is expected will return to the coast of Mexico, when an opportunity offers.
EXAMINATION OF MASTERS AND MATES.
A List of all Masters and Mates who have voluntarily passed an Examination, and obtained Certificates of Qualification for the Class against each assigned under the Regulations issued by the Board of Trade, to the 30th of November last.
Nov. 1st.-W. M. Phillips, class 2nd, age 28, ship Henry, 310 tons, South Shields; J. Minikin, 2nd, 34, Fama, 279 t.; P. Deslandes, 3rd, 23, Royal Sovereign, 573 t. Portsmouth.-2nd.-F. A. Levin, 2nd, 23, Lady Amherst,* 446 t., No. of regitser ticket 30876, London; A. P. Honeyman, 3rd, 29, Osprey,* 768 t., 27.6627.—3rd, B. P. Everson, 2nd, 24, George the IV.,* 236 t. 424011, S., Shields; E. Crouch, 2nd, 24, Resource, 219 t. 417283-6th, W. Perry, 3rd, 21, City of Adelaide*, 327 t. 23209, London; J. Newlands, 1st, 46, St. Lawrence' Liverpool; A. M'Pherson, 1st, 42, Flora M'Donald, 666 t.; F. Boyce, 1st, 35, Salacia, 353 t.-9th, R. Fawckner, 1st, 33, Science, 184 t. London; G. Gate, 2nd, 26, Rosalind, 305 t.; G. Long, 2nd, 23, Athenian*, 673 t. 195610; R. S. Norris, 2nd, 36, Vanguard, 257 t. 10019-10th C. J. Grimmer, 1st, 26, William and Henry,* 62 t. 306792, Yarmouth; J. Lunn, 3rd, 24. Useful,* 214 t 92527, South Shields; J. Johnson, 3rd, 32, Thetis,* 160 t. 107665; A. Dengle, 2nd, 33, Pakenham,† 660 t. 189978, Liverpool.-13th, E. Le Lievre, 2nd, 31, London,* 554 t. 418742, London; G. W. Lowdy, 3rd, 47, Orestes,* 700 t. 400240; G. W. Pearson, 3rd, 43, Ranger, 162 t.-14th, J. W. Gordon, 1st extra, 34, Atalanta, 672 t. Glasgow.-15th, R. C. Wilson, 2nd, 44, Warrior. 205 t. London; J. Richards, 3rd, 28, Fair Arcadian,* 319 t, 34042; W. J, Dougal, 3rd, 34, Valleyfield, 343 t. 2597.-17th, W. Thompson, 3rd, 24, William and Sarah,* 226 t. 159509, S. Shields; W. B. Taber, 2nd, 42, Digby, 787 t, Liverpool.-20th, J. Gibson, 2nd, 36, Mid Lothian, 414 t. London; R. Marsh, 2nd, 37, Dadid Lyon, 476 t. 325608; E. J. Blake, 2nd, 33, Essex,* 329 t. 109453.-21st, W. Draper, 2nd, 45, Digby*, 787 t. 400637, Liverpool.-23d, W. Dalston, 2nd, 50, Navarino, 463 t London; D. D. Wlliis, 2nd, 24, John Willis, 367 t. 8195; J. R. Myhill, 2nd, 38, Lady Amherst, 446 t. 328446; M. H. Chalk,2nd, 34, Lady Howden, 319 t. 325318; E. A
Shepheard, 2nd. 38, Melway,* 1848 t. 2650075.-24th, W. Gardner, 3rd, 34, Astley, 221 t. S. Shields.-27th, J. Burt, 2nd, 26, Devonshire,* 337 t. 266479, A. Mustard, 3rd, 29, Coromandel,* 638 t. 329855-29th, W. Hall, 2nd, 25, Urania, 279 t. S. Shields.-30th, J. Westray, 2nd, 37, Whitby,* 400 t. 24008, London, J. Lukey, 2nd, 38, Susannah, 514 t.; J. H. Palmer, 2nd, 25, John Line, 695 t. 328325; J. G. Cameron, 2nd, 30, Lavenside, 227 t.; J. Elmore, 3rd, 34, Apolline*, 452 t. 25138.
Nov. 7th, R. Spence, 3rd, 24, Lee, 120 t. 326727, London-20th, H. Cory, 2nd, 21, Oriental Queen, 640 t. 272009; W. Livingston, 3rd, 27, Tory, 483 t. 28761. -27th, H, W. Stevens, 2nd, 23, Lady Sandys, 322 t. 244167.
KING DOBBS.-London: Darling, 126, Bishopsgate Street.
We little thought while we were expressing our opinion of the author of "Biscuits and Grog," as to his talent as a naval novelist, that he was really perpetrating the above work in monthly numbers. We have given our readers a specimen of his work in a former page, where in "A Leaf from Life in Naples," and "A Ball at Malta," from his "Claret Cup," they will see the kind of production to which we alluded. His style is rich and racy, terse and vigorous; we have said he will not want readers, and we still think so.
THE SHIP.-By Mr. Steintz which we have already recommended to our readers. As regards the anchor, used or not by the Egyptians, Mr. Jal says, "that among all the Egyptian naval figures with which he is acquainted, he could not find one object resembling an anchor. Nevertheless, the galleys which navigated in the Red Sea, spreading terror among the Indians, must have been able to moor at a distance from the shore, for they could not always approach, because of the surf of the sea, or because rocks and bars defended the shore; also to protect themselves from the enemy, who, bordering the coast, might have fought immediately on their approach. They were then obliged to place themselves out of reach of their projectiles." Probably they used large stones, or masses of stones for the same office fulfilled, in latter times, by the single and double toothed anchor, which Mr. Jal believes from the following passage from Herodotus, (liv, 2, s 95): "They are thus guided, the boats of burthen in descending the Nile, have a hurdle of twisted cane and furze, and a perforated stone of about two talents weight, (about 1 cwt). The hurdle is bound with a rope in front of the ship, which is allowed to float on the course of the water; the stone is fastened behind with another rope; the hurdle, carried away by the rapid stream, pulls after it the baris, for thus this kind of ship is called; the stone behind drags the bottom of the water, and serves to guide its course."
This stone is not altogether an anchor, but gives it a somewhat considerable weight, and a rope of ample length, the baris, instead of going quite slowly down the Nile, will stop altogether in the middle of the stream.
The first who had the idea of throwing a stone to the bottom of a river as a moderator, and to direct and abate the course of an embarkation, was the real inventor of the anchor. Pausanius may honour Midas with the invention of this important nautical instrument: or, Pliny may attribute it to the Tyrhenians, yet the stone was always the primitive anchor; and, if, at the time of Sesostris, no other means of stopping the ships at sea, or on the Nile, were known, this surely must have been.
Arrian relates, that in a temple of a Goddess of Phasis, he was shown the anchor of the ship Argo; that it was of iron, and this circumstance, as well as the resemblance of this anchor with those of the contemporary Greeks of the second century A.U.C., led him to believe that it was posterior to the expedition