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Mackenzie Group is of great extent, and consists of a number of low coral islands, covered with cocoa-nut trees, and connected by coral reefs forming a large lagoon inside, with many good passages through the reef leading to it. This group is thickly populated by a light complexioned race, whose manners and customs are similar to those of the other Caroline islanders. These natives, although appearing mild and friendly to a stranger, are by no means to be trusted, as one or two Manila vessels have been cut off at this group some years ago.
I have placed them in my chart, according to Capt. Wilkes of the United States Exploring Expedition, who had the group examined by one of his tenders.
I visited the island of Yap in 1843, and remained there seven weeks collecting biche-de-mer. It has an excellent harbour on the south-east side, formed by reefs; the entrance to which can easily be discerned from the mast-head when standing along the reef. Yap is thickly populated by a light complexioned race; they are of a treacherous disposition, and have cut off several Manila vessels which have gone there to collect bichede-mer. The chiefs confessed to us that they had taken two Spanish vessels; the last one having a crew of fifty Manila men, who were all massacred.
The tribe at the harbour formed a conspiracy to cut us off, and which they undoubtedly would have done had we not been put on our guard by a neighbouring tribe then at war with them. No merchant vessel passing should have any intercourse with these natives, or allow them on deck as they are not to be trusted. This island is correctly placed in the charts, its centre being in lat. 9° 35' N., long. 138° 8' E., by Horsburgh, which agreed with my observations.
The Matelotas consist of three small islets, and reefs. The south islet is inhabited, and is situated in lat. 8° 17' N., long. 137° 33' E., and the north-easternmost islet in lat. 8° 35'., N., long. 137° 40' E. I visited this group in August 1843, and found my observations to agree with the above positions. The population does not amount to more than thirty-five souls. They live entirely on cocoa-nuts and fish.
I have visited the Pelew (called Pallou by the natives) Islands several times, and by admeasurements from Macao and Manila with good chro. nometers I found the whole group placed fifteen miles too far east in Norie's and Horsburgh's charts.
I think these positions will be found nearly correct.
I make Angour in lat 6° 53' N., long. 134° 6' E.; Babelthouap, East Point, lat. 7° 41' N., long. 134° 40' E; Kyangl, lat. 8° 8' N., long. 134° 35' E.; I think these positions will be found nearly correct.
With respect to the winds and currents prevalent at the Carolines, the observations I have made respecting Bornabi will hold good as far west as the Kama Islands, and Horsburgh's Directory will be found a very correct guide to the westward of that meridian.
The Eddystone Island New Georgia in lat. 8° 18' S., long. 156° 30' 40" E., bas a small harbour on its north-west side. A vessel can moor in the cove at the head of the harbour, where she will be completely
land-locked, and sheltered from all winds. I visited this island in 1844 in the brig Naiad, and lay in this harbour for six weeks, and while there I made a plan of it. The Eddystone is of small extent, and elevated 1036 feet at the west side.
The natives are black, with woolly hair like negroes. They are also cannibals, and are not to be trusted.
Vocabulary of the Yap Language. Moy. To come.
Ou. Twine. Sur'i. To go.
Eyou. Cocoa-nut leaves. Minni fithingam. What paine. Walau. The teeth. Mangeninum, By and by.
Naun. A house. Pinock. Give me.
Lute. Firewood. Thamapia. I do'nt like.
Munum. To drink. Thackunang. I do'nt know.
Mocoy. To eat. Coconang. I understand.
Fakak. A friend. Lukul. Biche-de-mer.
Beyot. A musket. Kuer. You.
Kapung. A big gun. Gheak. Me.
Truiah. Beads. Kokui. To look.
Kymol. Sleep. Pilung. A chief.
Fal. Rope. Papun. A woman.
Yar. Knife. Pemmone. A man.
Venou. A village. Betur. A boy.
Oung. A woman's dress. Rukoth. A girl.
Athui. A man's dress. Yam. Dead.
Navu. Fire. Rugullum. I will kill you.
Raan. Fresh water. Penageam. Quick.
Puel. The moon. Minmilli. Kill him.
Fannou. To go. Toar. To day.
Maat. Calico. Kabuul. Tomorrow,
Manafeck. To bring.
Pring-abuut. Sit down. Niu. Cocoa-nuts.
Tuleng. Rise up. Tupe. Green cocoa-nuts.
Kassie. I do not want it. Mal. Tarro,
Rotie pun. A little girl. Tohock. Yams.
Meylor. A glass bottle. Kirtou. Tattoo.
Farape. One. Pakah'. Large.
Arou. Two. Pijijuk. Small.
Thaleip. Three. Po’ar. Plenty.
Anengake. Four. Tow. An axe.
A-lal. Five. Wasy. A chisel.
A-neal. Six. Arumazup. A knife.
Madeliep. Seven. Muu. A canoe or proa.
Mearuke. Eight. Delack. A spear.
Meareap. Nine. Soroke. It is true.
Arakak, Ten. Moke. To speak.
Rahie. One hundred. Moer. Bamboo.
Bhuiou. One thousand,
Vocabulary af the Pallou Language. May. To come.
Aolt. The wind. Murrah. To go.
Aphuel. The moon. Karrathow. Go'away.
Mathangay. I understand. Amsal. By and by.
Deak mathangay. I don't know.
Wysay. That is the way, or that is Merakung. Enough. the fashion.
Ś Alukas. A shoal. Mungah. To eat.
Kalmull. Barrier reef. Peaback. Plenty.
Tiang. Here. Packasuel. A lie,
Say. There. Myrrakoro. A thief.
Kaeltang. Which. Agaleth. Biche de-mer.
Narakay. Where Ply. A house.
Kabue. Betel-nut leaves. Ralm. Fresh water.
Ung-eel. Good. Milliem. To drink.
Macneat. Bad. Kybakle. A chisel.
Mackywuy. To sleep. Pelew. A village.
Mopath. Lie down. Boyus. A musket.
Atutow. Daylight. Klowboyus. A cannon.
Karraal. Payment. Karr. Gunpowder.
Klallo. Goods, or things. Ngou. Fire.
Engara mu karaal. What price. Ouse, Lime or chunam.
Waa. Holloa, or holla. Oleiss. A knife.
Engara. What. Towel. A fork.
Swam. You like. Arthiel. A woman.
Swack. I like. Eelwy. A very stout woman.
Swal. He likes. Kakeray. Small.
Deak ateck. I do not like. Klow. Large.
Deak ateem. You do not like. Bouk. Betel nut.
Deak ateel. He does not like. Nekill. Fish.
Millsang. Give him. Muur. Cocoa-nuts.
Biskou. Give you. Babee. A pig.
Biskak. Give me. Bumgeeay. Sit down.
Klallo kleak. My goods. Putdeas. Rise up.
Klallo kleam. Your goods. Thouap. Salt water.
Klallo klel. His goods. Malokoy. To speak.
Klubaguel. A club. Kow. You.
A rack. Friend. Nak. Me.
Sukaleek. My friend. Murrakathow. Be quick.
Sukaleem. Your friend. Kyroko. A fish hook.
Sukaleel. His friend. Kosond. A comb.
Leek. Mine. Kalakang. To day.
Mews. To pull or paddle.
Posoas. A paddle. Kakathape, Short
Yars. A sail. Guay. He or him,
Akeel. A rope. Mal. Very.
Weead. A light. Ring-aringa. A fool.
Gualack. Children. Tokoy. Custom or fashion.
Pukeck. My wife. Arrakath. Men.
Pukeem. Your wife. Asakkal. A man.
Pukeel. His wife. Imly. A canoe.
Murra ma keth. Go on shore. Bose. A boat.
Maketh. Shore or dry land. T-deal. A ship.
Murra kay. Go fishing. Mammuth. Calico.
Mala'muk. To chew. Olakang. An iron pot.
Et mollock. Deep. Peath. A stone.
Are ingee. There is. Athungan. Firewood.
Killseekill. What for. Kyleseep. Yesterday.
Dayseeshew. All the same. Mathey. Dead
Motuuk. Plenty. Rial. A road or passage.
Takankleck. What is my name. Mul May. To bring.
Takanklel. What is his name.
Maykeeth a murra pelew. Come wel Tethey. Three. will go to town.
Tewang. Four. Keeth. Us or we.
Te-eem. Five. Kow muur. Where are you going.
Malong. Six. Marial. Go on, or walk.
Te wceth. Seven. Aming-owl. A concubine.
Te eye. Eight. Kasuse. To night.
Eateem. Nine. Kapasingay. This evening.
Maccoth. Ten. Tealang. How many.
Loeak. Twenty. Momace. To look.
Oguthey. Thirty. Memakisang. Let me look.
Oguwang. Forty. Kaseep. Warm.
Ogeem. Fifty. Rassack, Blood.
Ogolong. Sixty. Rupack. A chief.
Ogweeth. Seventy. Klow rupack. A king.
Ogeye. Eighty. Tetang. One.
Ogateem. Ninety. Terou. Two.
Thirt. One hundred, (To be concluded in our next.)
FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF SHANGHAI. First impressions of men and things are ordinarily received from some of their most prominent features and most remarkable characteristics. These outline-sketches, whether feebly or strongly stamped on the mind, must usually, as they are filled up, require more or less modification, because the objects seen may not always be in the best points of view, and there may
unseen disturbing causes to prevent perfectly exact impressions. Besides, these received from new objects must be placed in juxtaposition with former impressions of the same or similar objects seen elsewhere, on former occasions and perhaps under different circumstances, Nearly all the knowledge we acquire is subject to modification by the laws of comparison. What one pronounces beautiful in nature or art, is esteemed by another coarse, uninteresting or even repulsive. This principle, applicable to every thing we see, must be especially borne in mind, when judging of descriptions where the writer is on new ground and surrounded by new objects. Things seen make such different impressions on minds that we should, as far as practicable, refer them to some common standard. Looking, for instance, at the full moon in a clear night, one will tell you that its size is that of a man's hat, a second says it is as large as common drum head; and so, as described by different persons, its diameter will be found to vary from a few inches to many
feet. My first impressions of men and things here, have been and must be influenced, not a little by what had become familiar in the south. No apology will be offered, therefore, for the frequent references in the following notes, to objects there, or for comparisons and contrasts drawn between what may be seen in the two cities—one at the extreme north, the other at the extreme south, of that part of China now accessible to foreigners.
Approaching Shanghai by the river, from Woosung, next to the foreign factories, that have sprung up as if by magic, the native shipping was the most prominent object of attention. The city itself having no high grounds or lofty towers or pagodas, was quite concealed by trees, so that only a few poor houses could be seen along the river's bank, while a forest of masts, covering one half of the river, stretched away
for more than a mile southward. These vessels are of the middling 'size, say from one to two hundred tons burden, most of them carrying four masts. As they are moored in rows of ten, fifteen, or twenty-the sight at a distance is imposing. On passing through the fleet, however, you are soon disposed to believe the number of vessels, and the amount of tonnage, to be less than what the first impression had led you to anticipate. I should judge the tonnage to be less than that usually seen in the river at Canton, taking into account the numerous large canal boats at the latter place.
Shanghai, however, is a great entrepot, whence native craft take their departure for the high seas, whether bound northward for Shantung and Chili, or southward for Chehkiang, Fukien, &c. At this place too, vessels rendezvous as they come in from sea, destined to the scores of towns and cities, covering the wide plains of Kiangnan. At present I dare not hazard any conjecture, regarding either the amount of tonnage or number of vessels ; they are all marked and numbered ; as an example, thus, reversing our order :-" Kiangsu's Sungkiang's Shanghai's, No. one hundred merchant vessel, the Prosperous," i. e. “ the Prosperous, a merchant vessel, No. 100, belonging to (a firm in) Shanghai, in the department of Sungkiang, in the province of Kiangsu.”
The population living here in boats is not one-tenth so large as that at Canton-though equally poor, equally debased. Their boats are very rude, and clumsy, and rowed or sculled usually by men, not by women as at Canton. Many of the passenger boats have cloth sails, made of " Yankee Cotton.” The ferry-boats are much larger than at the south, sometimes carrying seventy or more passengers.
The dwelling houses are low, close and dark, for the most part poorly adapted and badly constructed for comfort and convenience. The windows are small and without glass. In their general contour, the houses have much of the tent-form, after which they seem to have been modelled. The whole structure is very slender. A wooden frame goes up first, and then brick walls, the latter supported by the former. At Canton the roofs are covered with light tile, firmly laid in white lime ; here the tiles are dark and heavy, laid loosely without a particle of lime, except along the ridge, and over the latter a row of tiles, piled with their edges upwards, gives the house a singularly ridged appearance. At Canton you have terraces over almost every house ; but here they are seldom seen. There too, the houses are crowded together, so that on a given space you have double or treble the number you will find here ; but each is more densely populated there than here. Such at least are my first impressions.
Temples are quite like the other buildings in their general features ; and in their principal characteristics, as dedicated to false gods. They resemble the temples of the south, the idols, &c., being the same. There is no pagoda in the city, and the only one I have seen is that, four or five miles up the river, called the “Dragon's Splendour.