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must indemnify the public, by paying nine dollars, or go to their pestilent gaol and get bitten by scorpions, and when I complained to H.M.S. superintendent, this injustice was backed by false statements, and the executive declined to interfere. I then requested the correspondence to be sent home, that I might seek redress in England by appealing to the secretary for the colonies.

The great number of Spaniards driven into Belize from Baccalar may probably lead to their making settlements at some of the rivers to the southward. At present the settlements there are chiefly Caribs; Belize, and all the places in the British settlements extending to Sarston river are quite safe for ships loading at, and the timber is taken in through the ports.

Bank Blink or White Water. There does not appear to be sufficient importance attached to this indication of danger; it is found in those parts that banks are with few exceptions either deep sunk, or very shallow, extensive bands almost perpendicular, giving no warning to the lead, with very little water upon them, fringed with coral reefs and dotted over with reefs and small cays scarcely above water. If the water becomes light coloured you may be sure that danger is near. It is no figure to say


you are never safe, except in “ blue water.” In the Bay “ Blue water” signifies deep water, and “ white water” the reverse. If you ask a Bayman what water there is in such a channel, it is a great chance but he says "O, blue water." I believe that is a good general rule for the West Indies and Bahama generally:

The new light-house, and good light recently placed upou Half-moon cay, may modify the preference that might be given to Mr. Dunsterville's track over that of Mr. Johnston Capes. No dependence can be placed upon Mauger cay light.


At Seu, December 9th, 1848. SIR.—Much sympathy has of late been bestowed upon “Poor Jack.” All seem to agree that his habits are irregular, and frequently immoral when on shore, but due weight is generously given to the circumstances of his life, want of education, &c. I am far from raising any objection to this sympathy, but whilst unbounded generosity is shown to the seamen, I think it only fair that at least fair play should be shewn to shipmasters, But few of them come in at the cabin windows, in general they have only succeeded in raising their heads above their fellows by a hard struggle,and it is only reasonable to suppose that some of the rough impatiNO. 6.–VOL. XVIII.

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enee of their former life will still cling to them. Their situation is any. thing but agreeable, and notwithstanding all that has been said and written upon their treatment of their crews, I am fully persuaded that ladies and gentlemen on shore are quite as exacting with their domestics as shipmasters with their crews; and the “ Times,would teem with long-winded complaints, were they to receive such marked instances of ingratitude and disobedience from them as shipmasters frequently do from their crews.

It must be allowed at sea, as well as on shore, that bad servants make bad masters," and I think the number of Johnstons, &c., will be found to form but a small per centage of the 33,000 shipmasters.

It has been attempted very largely by our Consuls and other officials, to asperse the moral character of shipmasters, and to attribute to them the blame of the occasional disturbances on board of their ships whilst in port, or the irregularities of their crews on shore. Is this at all reasonable? Might we not with equal justice blame the Lord Mayor and Aldermen for all the street rows and cases which come before our petty courts? or, make a large manufacturer liable for the conduct of his men beyond working hours. Crimps, and lodging-house keepers too often go “ Scot free," whilst the shipmaster has to bear the taunt.

I was very recently told by a gentleman “ Its a pity that you should give them any liberty at all,” simply because a sailor got drunk. The same gentleman might that day have seen a very unusual act of prudence in four seamen; the fifth was quarrelsome, and some proposed "pitching into him;" but this was very prudently overruled, and one took him by each wrist and walked him off to the police, and gave him in charge. But, Jack is generally his own master on shore, whilst it is very different with the shipmaster. The business part of his duties then devolve upon him, and here he is generally in a false position, haring that most important business to learn after he becomes a master; and he is frequently unable to cope with those whom he has to deal with; men that have been schooled to cool business habits in a broker's or merchant's office; and who too often take unfair advantage of this superiority. And, whilst the master is endeavouring to protect the interest of his owner, (in some instances against designed fraud,) never mind what provocation, only let the rough impatience of the tar break out, and he is “ a troublesome blackguard;" and, as a matter of course a drunkard, written home so to his owners!

I have lately been at a place remarkable for this kind of work, Belize, Honduras, and was four months in the Bay before I was ordered to Belize, and this detention chiefly occasioned by my merchant trying to take undue advantage of me, wishing to lead me to sacrifice the interests of my owners, that I might load in one of the best places, (within the scope of my charter,) when by a comparison with the ships upon his hands, I knew that it was his interest to load mine there, and that he could not send me to the worst without burning his own fingers. However, upon my arrival at Belize I found the treatment at first tolerable,

but had occasion to intimate, that their mode of calculating the exchange was such as I could not comply with. They were not alarmed, and all went on well, but I soon felt the effects of their inattention and neglect; still I could not divine the cause of the marked change in their conduct towards me, until I remembered standing in the verandah when one of the masters was pointed out, and emphatically styled “my friend,” because I had been seen in his company

My ship was at the Bogue, seven miles to windward, and when I came down, not being very well at the time, I would not attempt to beat up to the ship at night, and every master in Belize that I met with invited me to make his ship my home, which was thankfully accepted, as there was

only one place dignified with the name of “ hotel," and there you must give due notice if you want a dinner; but “ my friend," was not upon good terms with them. I did not quarrel with them for designating him "my friend,” his abilities and upright character were well known, and he was a thorough-going friend. 'I let that rest as I had enough to do to take care of my

enemies. This is rather a hard penalty to pay for a friend in Belize, where (notwithstanding lavish promises of advice and assistance in the letter accompanying my charter,) I found that here it was everybody's business to advise strangers; and consequently nobody's business. - Man is a sociable animal,” but masters must not associate in Belize, as we had proofs that the gentlemen write home about “ their colleaguing together and drinking, and neglecting their business, &c.;" and the charterer desires the owner to “lecture the master upon this head.” Whilst the same parties introduce and refer to me for advice the very party intended to have been lectured, and as a grateful return he intended to compliment them upon their introduction, and save £20 by it.

Now, it should be known that, in Belize, the residence of those aspersers of the moral characters of shipmasters, that gentlemen do not marry for Falstaff's reasons, and that marriage is common after ten or twelve years of adultery.

However they may urge circumstances in palliation, it is not moral; neither is it moral or honorable to rob shipowners, through their masters, by giving them four English shillings for a dollar, and by the magical figures of 3, 5, and 7, derived I believe from the ancient system of Pythagoras, to convert them into 4s. 9d. and 1-7th, at (as they call it) the “par exchange". The logic by which they support this fraud is, “ You are not wiser than all the people that have been here for eighty years. If it was not right your owners would not pass it; they are well aware of it."

“We'll stop your ship, captain.” The latter too often rings in our ears; but, I pointed out where I had sent her to, and that, in this instance, “Stop your ship, captain,” would be piracy, and ultimately gave them a receipt for the number of dollars, leaving their value at the “par exchange” to be settled in England, by a higher

authority than “ Stop your ship, captain," although I had been laughed at for making the attempt. I beg that you will give insertion to this in your valuable journal.

I am, &c.,

Richard LEIGHTON, To the Editor N.M.

Ship Adelaide.


New Brunswick Legislature, April, 1819. (Laid before the House of Assembly by com'nand of his Excellency the Lieut-Governor.)

There is probably no part of the world in which such extensive and valuable fisheries are to be found as within the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Nature has bountifully provided within its waters the utmost abundance of those fishes which are of the greatest importance to man, as affording not only nutritious and wholesome food, but also the means of profitable employment.

These fisheries may be prosecuted as well in the open witers of the Gulf as within every bay, harbour, creek, core, and inlet in connection with it. Whether on the bleak and sterile coast of Labrador, or on the western coasts of Newfoundland and Cape Breton, or along the eastern shores of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, or within the Bay of Chaleur, or around Prince Edward Island, Anticosti, or the Magdalen Islands, the fishermen may pursue bis labours with nearly equal chances of success, and the full prospect of securing an ample reward for his toil.

With such valuable and unlimited fisheries in close proximity to these colonies, and as it may be said at the very doors of the inhabitants, it is no less strange than true, that they are prosecuted to the greatest extent, and with most profit, by citizens of France and the United States.

The French exercise an almost exclusive right of fishing upon the western coast of Newfoundland, the fertility and great mineral wealth of which have only recently become known, and are not yet fully appreciated.

From seven hundred to eight hundred sail of American fishing vessels enter the Gulf of St. Lawrence annually; and scattered over the whole of its wide extent, with little heed of the limits to which they are restricted by treaty, pursue their business unmolested, and but rarely leave their stations without full and valuable cargoes.

The Jersey merchants also prosecute these fisheries with great zeal and assiduity, and, as it is believed, with much profit. They have a permanent establishment and fishing station in Gaspe, Labrador, and Newfoundland, and two or more establishments in New Brunswick ; but they by no means confine themselves to any particular locality. They employ upwards of one hundred vessels almost exclusively in carrying the rich products of the deep to various foreign markets, besides the smaller craft required upon the coast. Two of the leading Jersey firms, Messieurs Robin & Co., and Nicolle Brothers, are supposed respectively to afford cmployment, directly or indirectly, to nearly one thousand persons.

The inhabitants of those shores of Cape Breton and Nova Scotia which

are within the Gulf, pursue the fisheries in their immediate neighbourhood to a moderate extent; and a few of their vessels visit the Magdalen Islands and the Labrador coast during the season. The people of Prince Edward Island, who are favourably placed for securing a goodly portion of the riches of the sea make still more limited efforts ; but their efforts can scarcely be described as more linited or more feeble than those of the people of New Brunswick who dwell upon its shores from Bay Verte to the western extremity of the Bay Chaleur—those shores commanding as great an extent and variety of fishing ground, and as abundant supplies of valuable fish of every description, as can be found in any other part of the unrivalled Gulf of Sť. Lawrence, while they possess equal and perhaps superior facilities for prosecuting its fisheries both extensively and profitably.

The most valuable fisheries of the Gulf are those for herring, cod, and mackarel. But before entering upon the question of their encouragement and extension, by increased facilities of communication, it will be proper to give some description of each. With this view they will be taken up in the order of the fishing season ; after which, the secondary fisheries of the Gulf will be briefly noticed.

[The report then goes into a detail of the herring fishery, and furnishes much valuable information with respect to it and to the mode of curing the fish. The number of barrels of herrings exported from the several ports in the counties of Restigouche, Gloucester, Northumberland, and Kent, during the last eight years, is stated to be 9,939—the export of 1848, being only 356 barrels. “ The herring fisheries of the Gulf," it is added, “would be more benefited than any other by the construction of railways, and the increased facilities of communication which they would afford. No other description of fish would probably furnish so large an amount of railway traffic, as, if once properly established, this fishery, which can pow be scarcely said to exist, might be prosecuted to an almost unlimited extent."]

The cod fishery is next noticed, and then the mackarel, and salmon, the wbalz, and the seal fisheries. Under these several heads a vast amount of valuable information is furnished, which want of space alone prevents us trom placing before our readers in detail.

Under the head of shell-fish are enumerated lobsters, oysters, clains, mussels, wilks, razor-fish, crabs, and shrimps, all of which are found in the Gulf in great abundance and of excellent quality. Indeed so plentiful are lobsters to be found upon the coast, that at Shippegan and Caraquet, carts are sometimes driven down to the beaches at low water and filled with them, and the fields are strewn with lobsters shells, each potato hill being furnished with two and perhaps three lobsters.

The river fisheries are last noticed. The principal, in addition to salmon, are gaspereaux, shad, basse, and trout. A variety of small fish are also found in abundance.

The report concludes as follows:

That the varied, extensive, and inost abundant fisheries of the Gulf of St. Lawrence would be greatly influenced by the construction of a railway along the eastern coast of New Brunswick there cannot be a reasonable doubt ; but in all probability the proposed line of railway from Shediac to the harbour of Saint John would affect those fisheries in an equal, if not a greater degree.

The hardy and enterprising fishermen of the Bay of Fundy dread the long and dangerous voyage around the whole peninsula of Nova Scotia to the fishing-grounds of the Gulf, a voyage which frequently lasts three weeks, and

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