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into the left-hand semi-circle in time to heave to on the larboard tack, at a sufficient distance from the centre, but with a force of 10 as marked in Admiral Beaufort's scale. It would, indeed, never do to attempt crossing the path with the great probability of meeting the centre, and being caught therein. The line S., E.N.E., is farther removed from the centre but even on this line in a large hurricane, it is very probable the ship would meet the centre.

I am, &c.,

W. R. BIRT. To the Editor N.A.


The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company's iron steamer, Ripon, of 200 tons, has been docked, scraped, and coated with Capt. George Peacock's Anti-Sargassian Paint. We understand that an iron plate, coated with this substance, has been sunk alongside the Ariadne hulk, in the harbour of Alexandria, for a period of four months, and found to be quite clean at the expiration of that time, and also another iron-plate, coated with it, in Dockyard Creek, Malta, for a period of nearly tive months, with equally good results.


The Commissioners of the Northern Lighthouses hereby give notice, that a light-house has been built upon the point of Nosshead, in the county of Caithness, the light of which will be exhibited on the night of Mooday the 18th June, 1849, and every night thereafter, from sunset till sunrise.

The following is a specification of the light-house, and the appearance of the light, by Mr. ALAN STEVENSON, Engineer to the Commissioners:

The light-house is in N. lat, 58° 28' 38'', and in W. long. 3° 3' 5'. By compass the light-house bears from Ackergill Tower in Sinclair's Bay, E.b.S.S., distant 2 miles; from Duncansby Head, S.S.W. W., distant 10 miles ; from Pentland Skerries Light-house, S.W.b.$. ; W., distant 13 miles; from Elzieness, N.N.E, $ E., distant 14 miles; and from Sarclethead, N.E. | N., distant 6 miles,

The Nosshead light will be known to Mariners as a Revolving light, which gradually attains its brightest state once every half minute and then as gradually declines, until to a distant observer it totally disappears. The light will be visible towards the north and east, between W.N.W., and S.W. I W, From S.W. I W., to N.E. * N., in a South-easterly direction, the light will be of the Natural appearance: but from N.E.N., to W.N.W., in a northerly direction, (or within Sinclair's bay,) it will be coloured Red. The lantern is elevated 175 feet above the level of the sea: and the light will be seen at the distance of about 15 miles, and at lesser distances according to the state of the atmosphere: and, to a near observer, in favourable weather, the light will not wholly disappear between the intervals of greatest brightness.

The Commissioners hereby further give notice that, by virtue of a Warrant from the Queen in Council, dated 11th August 1848, the following Tolls will be levied in respect of this light, viz:

“For every vessel belonging to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and " Ireland (the same not belonging to Her Majesty, her heirs and successors, or

being navigated wholly in ballast), and for every Foreign vessel which, by any “ Act of Parliament, Order in Council, Convention, or Treaty, shall be privileged “ to enter the ports of the said United Kingdom, upon paying the same duties of “ tonuage as are paid by British vessels (the same not being vessels navigated “ wholly n ballast) which shall pass the said light house upon Nosshead, or de“rive benefit thereby, the toll of one Farthing per ton of the burden of every “ such vessel, for each time of passing the said light-house, or deriving benefit “ thereby, on a coasting voyage, and double the said toll for passing or deriving “ benefit on an oversea voyage: and double the said respective tolls for every Foreign vessel not so privileged."

By order of the Board,

(Signed) A1EX. CUNINGHAM, Seeretery. Office of Light-house Board, Edinburgh, May 16, 1849.


In a letter received in Hull, from one of the crew of the St. John, is the following strange statement. At the time when the British ship St. John, was all ready, except the completing of her crew, to sail for New Orleans, on her recent passage to Liverpool, it came to the knowledge of the master that a few days previously, the Crimps of that port had shipped two dead men as part of the crew of another ship. The thing was done in this way. The Crimps have thirty-five dollars from the master for each man they ship. In order to secure this, and other "plunder," the fellows inveigle sailors into their houses, and there keep then in a state of extreme drunkenness, until some vessel is upon the point of sailing. They are then lowered like logs of wood into a boat, and like any dead lumber hauled on board the ships they are to navigate, and put to bed, there to become sober. In the case alluded to, the master, on examining his bargain, found in the sleeping. berths, two dead carcases, so cold, as convinced him that they had not died on board.

The sailors, who are thus kuocked about most unceremoniously, require little enticement to enter the houses of the Crimps, the high wages paid for the run home being sufficient inducement. To prevent a like imposition with the above, the master of the St. John had his crew examined as they came on board. Several of them were “dead drunk,” but all were rigged as sailors. Next morning, however, when the ship was under sail, one of them asked where they were going to, and on being told to Liverpool, he expressed his astonishment, as he was an emigrant farmer, who had only two days previously landed from England. He had immediately on landing got drunk, fallen into the company of these Crimps, been robbed, and was now shipped as a British seaman. He, however, was not alone. There was a second emigrant shipped in like manner, who had only been in New Orleans a week; a third, who could scarcely speak a word of English, proved to be an Italian burdy-gurdy boy, who had been kidnapped by these Crimps,

as had also more of the crew. One fellow positively refused to work at all, and it was not until he had been put in irons, and his food withheld, that he consented to do duty to the best of his ability. Such is the method of manning the British merchant marine in New Orleans. The hurdy-gurdy boy, on being discharged in Liverpool, met in the streets of that town a boy of his own country and the like occupation, and embraced him with the most extravagant delight. --Hull Advertiser.


A List of the Masters and Mates in the Merchant Service, who have voluntarily passed an Examination, and obtained Certificates of Qualification for the Class against cach assigned, under the Regulations issued by the Board of Trade, to the 31st of March last.

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Mar. 1st.-A. Parish, class 1st, age 33, ship Northumberland, 900 tons, London; A. Reid, 2nd, 53, Macqueen,* 1300 t; J. Hart, 2nd, 25, Brunette, * 326 t., 324963; J. B. Kennedy, 2nd, 33, Tigris, * 33198; J. N. Gittins, 2nd, 37, Britannia, * 212 t., 12106; G. Browne, 2nd, 26, Plantagent,* 806 t. 14375; W. Rogers, 3rd, 27, Sir John Falstaff,* 513 t, 247584; V. T. Howes, 3rd, 27, Countess of Eglinton,* 250 t. 436272; J. Petrie, 3rd, 33, Viatic, 257 t., * 181667, New castle; J. Harper, 2nd, 39, Clio,* 424 t. 86831, Shields ; W. M'Culloch, Ist, extra, 32, Dorset,* 293 t., 8820, Plymouth; J. M'Leish, 1st, 34, Morgiana, 354, t., 180263, Dundee.—5th.-D. Rennoldson, 2nd, 29, Plantagent,* 806 t., 26358, London ; T. Wellsman, 3rd, 27, City of Aberdeen,* 285 t., 36527.-6th.-W. Youngs, 3rd, 27, Jim Crow,* 104 t., 334495, Yarmouth ; R. Vogwell, Ist, 23, Varuna,* 9472, Shields; C. Duncane, 2nd, 27, Nena,* 208 t., 64535, Dundee.7th.-H. Dunsford, ist, 31, Jane Cain, 270 t., Plymouth; J. Arkley, 2nd, 24, Burlington,* 286 t., 78852, Newcastle.-8th.-M. Brown, 2nd, 27, Harlequin, 294 t., Hull; T. Booth, 3rd, 38, Planet, 392 t., London; T. Miller, 2nd, 24, Daisy, 178 t., 83508, Dundee; J. Bennett, 2nd, 26, Stamfordham,* 236 t., 53189, South Shields.—10th.-W. Broadfoot, 1st, 30, Sovereign, 243 t., Glasgow; J. Sangster, Ist, 40, Lysander, 475 t.; F. R. Taylor, Ist, extra, 25, Achilles, 654 t. - 12th.-W. Cameron, 2nd, 37, Charles, 238 t., London; J. Cammell, 2nd, 32, Scindian, 650 t., 20470; S. Frost, 3rd, 35, Brighton, 395 t., 1380; W. Clark, 3rd, 35, Caroline Agnes,* 570 t., 160370; G. Nickels, 2nd, 34, Anne, 83807, South Shields.—15th.—A. Skinner, 2nd, 26, Loharee,* 575_t., 328816, London; G. P. Lambert, 2nd, 34, Ellenborough, 1031 t., 27265; S. Potter, 2nd, 26, Richard Dart, 270 t.; J. W. Eves, 3rd, 32, Larpent,* 614 t., 179063; J. McKirdy, 3rd, 34, Mary Bannatyne, 550 t.; J. Hills, 2nd, 31, Mary Ann Cook, 254 t., 12723, South Shields.—16th.-F. Sullivan, 2nd, 25, Prince Regent,* 528 t., 69178, Plymouth; W. Liddell, 2nd, 27, Retreat, 337 t., Leith.-17th.-J. Ewing, 1st, 30, Persia, 669 t., Glasgow; W. P. Couch, Ist, 29, Jane, 700 t., Liverpool.–19th.-G. N. Livesay, 1st, 48, China, i 58 t., London; G. E. Bird, 2nd, 36, Plantagenet, 806, t.; W. Brown, 2nd, 35, Tanjore, 422 t.; A. H. Fuller, 3rd, 36, Northumberland,* 900 t., 328327; J. Dorman, 3rd, 33, Portly, * 350 t., 343692; J. H. Pickrell, 3rd, 25, Sir Edward Parry,* 575 t., 436830; A. C. Couper, 2nd, 28, Yaragon,* 59213, South Shields.--20th.—T. Brodrick, 1st, 29, Seringapatam, 434 t., Hull; W. Giles, 2nd, 32, Princess Royal,† 1109 t., 273082, Plymouth; D. Spink, 2nd, 23, Agnes Blakie,† 385 t., 48041, Dundee.-21st.-J. Gardner, 2nd, 32, Brougham, $ 230 t., 182423, Dundee.—22nd.-M. Rogers, 2nd, 41, City of York, 811 t., London; J. R. Smith, 2nd, 29, Golden Spring, 316 t., J. Davics, 3rd, 36, Pestorjee Bomanjee,* 595 t., 33114; J. G. Appleton, 2nd, 34, Good Design,* 110 t., 212621, Yarmouth.-23rd.-J. Young, 1st, 50, Negociator, 580 t., Liverpool; W. M.Pherson, 2nd, 28, J. Bromham,* 385 t., 448201; T. F. Liddle, 2nd, 36, Australian, 198 t., Plymouth; J. Kiell, 1st, 38, William, 252 to Dundee; A. F. Morris, 1st, 33, Vixen, 200 t., Glasgow.- 24th.-A. Scott, Ist, 36, Royal Shepherdess, 406 t., Leith.—26th.-W. Symons, 2nd, 39, Honesta, 136 t., London; A. Mackwood, 2nd, 13, Symmetry, 392 t.; A. Seaman, 2nd, 27, Equator, * 235 t., 7732; W. Wilks, 3rd, 35, Hebe, 213 t., 230231, South Shields. -27th.-H. Hughes, 1st, 47. Caroline, 372 t., Newcastle.—28th.-W. Waddington, 2nd, 25, Mary Ann, 478 t., Liverpool; J. Bell, 1st, 28, Teazer, 140 t., 257991, T. Campbell, Ist, 41, Velore, 484 t.—29th. – J. B. Lock, 2nd, 44, Vigilant, 298 t., London; J. Johnston, 3rd, 25, Persia, * 669 t., 211414; R. Deas, 3rd, 28, Abel Gower,* 350 t., 29919.-30th.-W Jago, 2nd, 33, Priscilla, 516 t., 244010, Plymouth.–31st.-G. Taylor, 2nd, 36, Columbine, 406 t., Hull.


Mar. 2nd. - J. Taylor, 3rd, 29, Hope, 337 t, 184047, Plymouth.-- 5th.-R. Williams, 2nd, 22, Nith, I 643 t., 407056, London; J. T. Townsend, 3rd, 35, Richmond, 180 t, 14824.–15th.-W. H. Notley, 3rd, 23, Druid, 249 t., 16190, London; T. Bevan, 3rd, 26, William and Charles, 137 t., 24718.-19th.-W. Butcher, * 2nd, 23, Caledonia, $ 721 t., 23571, London.-22nd.-A. C. Jamieson, 3rd, 21, Scotland,|| 1000 t., 436865, London.-23rd.-L. Webster, 2nd, 24, Sovereign, 243 t., 100770, Glasgow.–26th.-J. P. Newton, 1st, 27, William and James, 130 t., 1149, Dundee.-28th -F. D. Fenwick, 2nd, 21, William, 252 t., 70586, Dundee.—29th.—T. Fuller, 3rd, 21, Tigris,|| 427 t., 324187, London; J. Paterson, 3rd, 54, Countess of Seafield, 450 t., 227331.

* W. Butcher, qualified to act in Steam Vessels only. * As Mate. + As Second Mate. | As Seamen. || As Apprentice.

PassinG OF MASTERS.- Mercantile Navy.

February, 25th 1849. My Dear Sir. I am a constant reader of your valuable publication, and take great interest in your accounts of those who pass the examination at the Trinity-house

But the object of my letter is to suggest a plan in the system of examinetion, which perhaps may meet the eye of those by whom the arrangements are conducted. I am the son of a professional man, and have been at sea ten years; the last four of that period in the Calcutta country service. Now, I received what is generally termed a good education prior to my going to sea, besides studying navigaton under the care of a retired Lieut. of the Royal Navy. Since then I have studied at Mrs. Taylor's, under the able tuition of W. H. Prior, Esq., at which time I made myself thorough master of the work on navigation published by the abovenamed lady.

Having now given you an outline of myself for reasons I shall afterwards prove to you, I shall proceed to state that a few days ago a work was placed in my hands edited by a Mr. J. Griffin. Who the gentleman is I know not, but I felt inclined to work a problem through, which I shortly effected, but found myself deficient in the latitude by the reduction to the meridian, also

in finding the rate and error of chronometers between two given meridians. These by a little practice I shall soon become perfect in, thus you see as far as the theoretical part of the examination goes I am surely fitted to take command. But in proceeding with the book in question I find that an extensive knowledge of trigonometry is required for a first class, (letting alone the extra,) even advising the study of the works of Keith and Hutton, besides other qualifications, in which it would require a study of at least a year to be. come a proficient. Now, I have in my younger days gone through the first six books of Euclid, but I know nothing of these now, and cannot afford the time to study as every day is now of importance to me, as I have the promise of a share and command of a vessel as soon as I can prove myself capable by passing my examination at the Trinity-house.

Now, there is a first class extra, why should there not be a secoud class extra, and let the extra be obtainable by those who are able to work a lunar, find the lat. by reduction to the meridian, &c. With regard to seamanship, I think one class ought to be as qualified as the other, but of course I leave this to those who are better able to judge than myself.

With every apology for the egotism of this communication, I submit it for your perusal, and should you think it worthy a place in your valuable magazine, where I trust it will meet the eyes of those for whom it is intended, by inserting it you will greatly oblige.

Yours very faithfully,



[The extracts which we have already made from the very interesting account of the kraken, so intimately concerns our Nautical readers, that we are induced for the same reason to take the following from the same source. We have already detailed a variety of “ Odd Fish in a recent number, this contribution to the stock, as well as those preceding it, will apprize seamen of the great variety of objects there are in the depths of the ocean, and which sometimes appear at the surface, mistaken by the sailors for oceanic dangers.]

There is sufficient ground in the above facts to believe that, in certain parts at least of the ocean, there must exist some agency by which the waters of the lower strata acquire greater warmth than could have been anticipated, and certainly there is no evidence to show that they ever lose their Huidity, or cease to continue a medium in which organic life may continue. If there be truth in the theory of the earth's central heat, it may be that the temperature of the lowest depths of the ocean, depths measurable by miles rather than fathoms, may equal or even exceed that of the surface.

When we remember how highly stimulant of increase of size heat is in most divisions of the animal kingdom, it is not inconsistent with analogy to imagine, that in those parts where the energies peculiar to the marine creation exist in largest force and area, there also will be the greatest development of form. We see the oceanic fishes and even those of deep lakes greatly exceeding in size the denizens of the shallow waters, and cologists


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