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Closing Events of the Year 1845—Sudden Dissolution of Sir R. Peel's Government—Causes of that Event—Failure of the Potato Crop—Lord John Russell is sent for by the Queen—Unsuccessful Attempt of that Nobleman to form a Cabinet—Sir R. Peel returns to Office in the new character of an Opponent to the Corn Laws—Examination of his Conduct and Motives in this juncture—Lord Stanley resigns the Secretaryship for the Colonies, and is succeeded by Mr. W. E. Gladstone—Great interest attending the Assembling of Parliament—It is opened on the 19th of January by the Queen in person—Her Majesty's Speech—Debates on the Address—In the House of Lords it is moved by Lord Howe, and seconded by Lord De Ros —It is then put by the Lord Chancellor, and declared to be carried—The Duke of Richmond makes some severe observations on the Conduct of the Government—He is answered by the Duke of Wellington—Remarks of Lord Stanley, Lord Hardwicke, the Marquis of Lansdowne, Lord Brougham, Lord Radnor, and other Peers—In the House of Commons Lord Francis Egerton moves the Address in an able and impressive Speech, in which he opens the subject of the Corn Laws—He is seconded by Mr. Beckett Denison—Sir #. Peel enters into a full explanation of the Reasons and Motives of his change of Policy, and of the circumstances attending the retirement of his Cabinet from Office and their return to it—Lord John Russell then makes a full statement of the part which he had taken in the recent Transactions, and the results of his Interviews with the Queen on the different occasions when he had been consulted ". Her Majesty, with the Correspondence which had taken place—Mr. Disraeli follows with some severe animadversions on Sir Robert Peel's conduct—Mr. Miles and Colonel Sibthorp follow on the same side—The Address is carried without a Division—On the 26th the Duke of Wellington states in the House of Lords the Reasons which had induced the Government to resign, and afterwards to return to Office—Remarks of the Duke of Buckingham, who declares his Opposition to the Ministerial Policy—Speech of the Marquis of Lansdowne, explaining his Abandonment of the Principle of a Fixed Duty—Further statement of recent Transactions by the Duke of Wellington—Observations of Lord Radnor, the Duke of Richmond, Lord

Beaumont, the Earl of Aberdeen, and other Peers on the same subject [ Page [1

CHAPTER II.

Sir Robert Peel explains his great Scheme of proposed Measures for the

Relaxation of Duties on the 27th of January–His able and comprehen

sive Speech on that occasion—Reception of the Scheme, and comments of a 2

on the 2nd of March—Mr. Williers moves as an Amendment, That all

Duties on Imported Corn should cease—Division of Parties on this Pro-

position—Speeches of Sir Robert Peel and Lord John Russell—The

Amendment is lost by a Majority of 187—Debate on the Second Reading

of the Corn Bill continued by adjournment for four nights—Mr. E. Yorke,

seconded by Sir John Yarde Buller, moves an Amendment for the rejection

of the Bill—Speech of Sir Robert Peel in answer to the Attacks made upon

him—The Amendment is lost, and the Second Reading is carried by a

*} of 88—Further Debates on the Corn Bill in the House of Com-
mons—The Third Reading is moved on the 11th of May by Sir James

Graham, and is carried by 327 to 229, after an animated Debate—The

Corn Bill is discussed in the House of Lords, on the Motion for a Second

Reading, on the 25th of May—Speeches of the Earl of Ripon, the Duke of

Richmond, Earl Fitzwilliam, the Duke of Cleveland, the Marquis of Lon-

donderry, Lord Stanley, Lord Brougham, the Earl of Wilton, the Duke of

Cambridge, the Marquis of Normanby, Earl Grey, Marquis of Lansdowne,

the Earls of Dalhousie, Clarendon, Carnarvon, Haddington, Hardwicke,

and the Duke of Wellington—On a Division there appear for the Second

Reading (including Proxies) 211; against it, 164; Majority, 47—Various

Amendments are moved in Committee, by the Duke of Buckingham, the

Earl of Wicklow, and Lord Ashburton, which, after much discussion, are

rejected by considerable Majorities—The Duke of Richmond opposes the

Third Reading by an Amendment, which is subsequently withdrawn, and

the Bill is passed . . . . . . . . . . [69

of Duty—A desultory Debate takes place, which ends in a Division in

favour of the Government by a Majority of 39—Timber Duties—The

Marquis of Worcester leads the opposition against the proposed Scale—

Remarks of Mr. H. Hinde, Mr. Cardwell, Mr. A. Chapman, Mr. G. Palmer,

Mr. Warburton, Mr. Hume, Lord George Bentinck, Sir George Clerk, and

Mr. C. Buller—The Resolution is affirmed on a Division, by a Majority of

123—On the Third Reading of the Customs Bill being moved, Lord George

Bentinck moves that it be read a third time on that day six months—He

is answered by the Chancellor of the Exchequer—Speeches of Mr. G.

Bankes, Mr. Hawes, Mr. Plumptre, Mr. Hudson, and other members—

Lord George Bentinck withdraws his Amendment, and the Bill is passed

—Debate on the Second Reading in the House of Lords on the 4th of

June–Lord Dalhousie introduces the measure—The Duke of Richmond

moves that it be read a second time on that day six months—Speeches of

the Earl of Wicklow, Lord Ashburton, and Lord Monteagle, after which

the Bill is read a second time without a Division—The Duke of Richmond,

on going into Committee, moves that Counsel be heard against the

Reduction of the Silk Duties—The Earl of Dalhousie opposes the motion,

seconded by Lord Ellenborough and the Duke of Wellington — Lord

Brougham supports it—It is negatived by 78 to 74— Lord Stanley

opposes the Reduction of the Timber Duties, but without success—Other

Amendments are proposed and negatived—The Bill is read a third time,

after an ineffectual opposition by the Duke of Richmond—The Budget—

The Chancellor of the Exchequer makes his Financial Statement on the

29th of May—Warious Comments upon it by Lord George Bentinck, Mr.

Charles Wood, Mr. Hume, Mr. Hudson, and other members . - [99

CHAPTER W.

Ireland—Prevalence of Assassination and Outrages in that country—Lord

St. Germans introduces a Bill in the House of Lords for the Protection of

Life in Ireland—His Speech on moving the second reading—Speeches of

the Marquis of Lansdowne, Lord Brougham, the Marquis of Clanricarde,

and other Peers—The Bill is read a second time, and amended in Com-

mittee—It is introduced in the House of Commons by Sir James Graham

on the 30th of March–It is vigorously opposed on the Motion for the first

reading—Speeches of Sir W. Somerville, Mr. Smith O'Brien, Mr. Shaw,

Mr. O'Connell, and Lord George Bentinck—Sir James Graham states the

nature and objects of the Measure—The Debate is prolonged by the

opposition of Irish and other Members, and is repeatedly adjourned—

Speeches of various Members for and against the Bill—A Division at

length takes place, and the Bill is read a first time by 274 to 125—The

contest is renewed on the Motion for the second reading, which is moved

on the 9th of June–Reasons of the delay—The discussion is continued by

numerous Adjournments, from the 9th to the 25th of June—Selections

from various Speeches—Sir W. Somerville moves an Amendment that the

Bill be read a second time that day six months—Mr. Bernal seconds the

Amendment—Speeches of the Earl of Lincoln, Mr. M. J. O'Connell, Lord

George Bentinck, Mr. Sidney Herbert, Mr. Hawes, Lord F. Egerton, Mr.

Colquhoun, Lord John Russell, Mr. Disraeli, Mr. Roebuck, Lord J.

Manners, Sir James Graham, Mr. Labouchere, Mr. Stafford O'Brien, Lord

Newport, Mr. Hume, Mr. Shiel, the Solicitor-General, the Marquis of
Chandos, Mr. Newdegate, and Mr. Cobden–On a Division, 292 vote

CHAPTER WI.

Formation of Lord John Russell's Administration—Programme of the prin-

cipal Offices—The new Ministers vacate their seats, and are elected with

scarcely any opposition—Debate in the House of Commons on the policy

of the new Government—Observations of Mr. Evelyn Denison upon its

construction—Mr. T. Duncombe urges Lord John Russell to make an ex-

licit statement of the principles on which he is prepared to act —
§ eech of Lord John Russell in answer—Remarks of Mr. B. Osborne,

Mr. B. Escott, Mr. Wakley, Mr. Newdegate, Mr. Ward, Mr. Horsman,
and other Members—The Sugar Duties—Temporary Bills for their con:

tinuance — Lord John Russell proposes Resolutions for a permanent

Settlement of the Question on the 20th of July–Details of his plan—

Remarks of Mr. Goulburn, Lord George Bentinck, and Mr. Hume—The

Debate is adjourned to the 27th of July — On the Motion that the

House go into Committee on the Resolutions, Lord George Bentinck

proposes an Amendment hostile to the Ministerial Scheme—Speeches

of Lord George Bentinck, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir Robert

Inglis, Lord Sandon, Mr. G. Berkeley, Sir J. Hogg, Sir Robert Peel, Sir

T. Acland, Mr. P. Miles, Mr. Borthwick, the Marquis of Granby, Mr.
Hume, Mr. Bernal, Mr. E. Denison, Mr. Barclay, §. Disraeli, and Lord

John Russell—The Amendment is rejected by 265 to 135—Various

Amendments on the Resolutions are proposed and withdrawn—The

Earl of Clarendon moves the First Reading of the Bill in the House

of Lords—Lord Stanley moves that the Bill be read a first time that day

three months—Lord Denman and Lord Brougham speak against the Bill

on Anti-Slavery grounds—The Marquis of Lansdowne, Earl Grey, and

other noble Lords support it, and the First Reading is carried without

a Division—The Second Reading is opposed by the Bishop of Oxford,

who moves an Amendment, which is seconded by the Bishop of London

—The Marquis of Lansdowne vindicates the Measure, and the Bill is

affirmed on a Division by 28 to 10 - - - - - ... [16]

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