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King James his time is short and insufficient. As, first, that the Order of Deacons is made but a Lay Office, at least as that Book may be understood. And, secondly, that in the admission to Priesthood the very essential words of conferring Orders are left out. At which his Majesty was much troubled, as he had great cause, and concerning which he hath commanded me to write that either you do admit of our book of Ordination, or else that you amend your own in these two gross oversights, or anything else, if in it be more to be corrected, and then see the Book reprinted. I pray fail not to acquaint my Lord of Saint Andrews, and my Lord Ross with this express command of his Majesty.
I received likewise from you at the same time certain Notes to be considered of, that all, or at least so many of them as his Majesty should approve, might be made use of in your Liturgy, which is now in printing. And though my business hath of late lain very heavy upon me, yet presently I acquainted his Majesty with what you had written. After this, I and Bishop Wren (my Lord Treasurer: being now busied) by his Majesty's appointment sat down seriously and considered of them. And then I tendered them again to the King without our animadversions upon them, and his Majesty had the patience to weigh and consider them all again. This done, so many of them as his Majesty approved, I have written into a service-book of ours, with his Majesty's hand to it, to warrant all your alterations made therein. So in the printing of your Liturgy, you are to follow the Book which my Lord Ross brought, and the additions which are made to the book I now send. But if you find the Book oí' my Lord Ross and this to differ in anything material, then you are to follow this later Book I now send, as expressing some things more fully.
And now that your Lordship sees all of your animadversions which the King has approved written into this
1 No doubt the Book of 1620. It is printed, with Notes, by Dr Sprott in 'Scottish Liturgies of the Reign of James VI.' (this series), and also in the Miscellany of the Wodrow Society.
2 Juxon, Bishop of London. He was Lord High Treasurer from 1625
Book, I shall not need to write largely to you, what the reasons were why all of yours were not admitted, for
your judgment and modesty is such that you will easily conceive some reason was apprehended for it. Yet because it is necessary that you should know somewhat more distinctly, I shall here give you a particular accompt of some things which are of most moment, and which otherwise perhaps might breed a doubtfulness in you.
And, first, I thought you could not have doubted but that the Magnificat, &c., was to be printed according to the Translation of King James, for that was named once for all. And that translation is to be followed in the Epistles and Gospels, as well as in the Psalms. Where I pray you observe in the Title-page of the Psalms in the book I now send, an alteration which I think my Lord Ross's book had not. And if you have not printed those Psalms with a colon in the middle of every verse, as it is with ours ordinarily in the English, it is impossible those Psalms should ever be well sung to the organ. And if this error be run into, it must be amended in a painful way by a pen for all such Books as the Chapel Royal useth, and then by one of them the next impression of your Liturgy may be mended wholly.
Secondly, in the Creed of Saint Athanasius. We can agree to no more emendations, no not according to our best Greek copies, than you shall find amended in this Book.
Thirdly, though the Bishops there were willed to consider of the Holy Days, yet it was never intended but that the office appointed for every one of them should be kept in the Liturgy, and the consideration was only to be of the observation of them.
Fourthly, for the sentences at the Offertory. We admit all of yours, but we think that, with all that, divers which are in our Book would be retained together with yours. As namely the end, 4th, 6th, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15.
Fifthly, I would have every Prayer or other Action through the whole Communion named in the Rubric before it, that it may be known to the people what it is, as I have begun to do in the prayer of Consecration, and in the Memorial or Prayer of Oblation. Fac similiter.
Sixthly, We do fully approve the Collect of Consecration and Oblation should precede, and the Lord's Prayer follow next, and be said before the Communion, in that order which you have expressed. But for the Invitation, Confession, Absolution, Sentences, Preface, and Doxology, we think they stand best as they are now placed in our Liturgy, and as for the Prayer of Humble Access to the Holy Communion, that will stand very well next before the Participation.
Seventhly, I have ordered a Rubric in the margin of this Book according as you desire, to direct him that celebrates when to take the Sacrament into his hand. Namely to take, and break, and lay hands on the chalice, as he speaks the words. For certainly the practice of the Church of England therein is very right. And for the objection that we should not do it till we express our Warrant so to do, which you conceive is in these words, Do this, &c., I answer (1) That these words, Do this, &c., are rather our Warrant for the Participation or Communication, than the Consecration. (2) That our repeating what Christ did is our Warrant to do the same, being thereto commanded. (3) That the whole action is Actus continuus, and therefore, though in our saying (Do this) follows after, yet it doth, and must be intended to that which we did before; and comes last to seal and confirm our Warrant for doing so. And so it is in the other Sacrament of Baptism, where we take the child first, and baptize it, and then afterwards we say “We receive this child,” &c., which in actu continuo must needs relate to the preceding act, for the child was actually received into the Church by the very act of Baptism itself; and this is but our declaration of that reception.
And whereas you write that much more might have been done if the times would have borne it, I make no doubt but there might have been a fuller addition. But God be thanked this will do very well, and I hope build up a great deal of devout and religious piety in that Kingdom. Yet I pray for my further satisfaction, at your best leisure, draw up all those particulars which you think might make the Liturgy perfect, whether the times will bear them or not, and send them safe to me, and I will not
fail' to give you my judgment of them, and, perhaps, put some of them to further use, at least in my own particular.
One thing more, and then I have done. In his Majesty's authorising of the notes in this Book prefixed at the beginning of it, though he leave a liberty to my Lords the Archbishop of St. Andrews and Brethren the Bishops who are upon the place, upon apparent reason to vary some things; yet you must know, and inform them, that his Majesty having viewed all these additions hopes there will be no need of change of anything, and will be best pleased with little or no alteration. So, wishing all prosperity to that Church, and a happy finishing of your Liturgy, and health to my Brethren the Bishops, I leave you to the Grace of God, and rest.—Your Lordship’s very loving Friend and Brother,
LAMBETH, April 20, 1636.
B. Mr Hill Burton's Collation of the Lambeth Copy.
In the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, is an English Book of Common Prayer into which the late Mr Hill Burton transcribed this collation. It begins with the following, in the historian's handwriting :1. Inside cover
“J. H. Burton.
'Copy of Arch-Bishop Laud's alterations in the English Prayer-Book to adapt it to Scotland, made from the Book in Lambeth Palace Library.
“J. H. B." 2. On fly-leaf
“Lambeth Library, 1850.
d. d. R. W. H. “ The alterations of the common Prayer in the following book were copied from the book of Abp. 1 Prynne puts a “Note" on the margin here. The words were founded
as proving that further alterations, more “ Popish still, were contemplated.
Laud, printed 1636, 4to, and now remaining in the
“ Almost all the alterations are in the archbishop's own hand. Some few are in the hand in which the warrant for altering is written, and are therefrom distinguished by adding under them the letter S., supposing them to be the hand of the Secretary.
“A few others in a different hand are distinguished by adding Sc., supposing them to be made in Scotland according to the tenor of the warrant.
“N.B.--There are to be found some other variations in the printed Scotch Liturg., which do not appear in the written alterations in the Bishops book, but they are very few."
3. On the second fly-leaf (front)
“In the Preface, “Though it be appointed,' the following words scored out : 'preaching, studying of divinity, or by some other urgent cause,' and then in MS., 'or hindered by some urgent cause, of which cause, if it be frequently pretended, they are to make the Bp. of the diocese or the ApB. of the Provence the judge and allower.''
4. On the second fly-leaf (back)—
“In the earlier part of the Cal. opposite to Coñ. of Paul.
“The same at Barnab. Ap.
Print this in
“I gave the archbishop of Canterbury command to make the alterations expressed in this booke, and to fit a liturgy for the Church of Scotland. And wheresoever they shall differ from another Booke signed by me at Hampton Court, Sept. 28, 1634, our pleasure is to have these followed rather than the former unless the ApB. of St Andrews and his brethren shall see apparent reason to the contrary. At Whitehall, April 19, 1636.