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rected his patient to recline in an easy posture, and with the edge of a sharpened piece of wood, laid open to the utmost, the orifices of the wounds. He now applied his mouth to them, and extracting as much of the poison as possible, received it into the liquid provided for the purpose, and discharged both together after every application, without sustaining the least inconvenience. Replenishing his mouth with the juice of the bark, and laying open afresh the orifices of the wounds, he renewed the effort, and repeated it as often as the symptoms of his patient showed it to be necessary. To determine the effect of every effort, it was noticed that he pressed his finger with some force upon the femoral artery, and attentively observed the gradual abatement in the action of this vessel. The second application afforded very sensible relief: and after six or eight, all the symptoms of inflammation caused by the poison had disappearedand, excepting an unusual languor, which very naturally succeeded to so strong and painful an excitement, the wounded person was able to return to his work in his usual health.
J. A. Monrovia, November 2d, 1826.
Among the very few arts which the natives of this country, assisted by the superiority of its materials, or conducted by accident, have carried to an admirable degree of perfection, are the dying process and the dressing of Leather. The former, although applied chiefly to the cloth manufacture, is often performed on the latter material when it is intended for ornamental uses. But the utility of the tanning process, and the proper method of conducting it, are in no country better understood: and in none is it better performed, or, owing to the superior excellence of the astringents employed, completed in a shorter time. The vagrant Mandingoes, who are the depositories of nearly all the literature, religion, and arts of this portion of Africa, are the most skilful and frequent operators in this as the other branches of mechanical ingenuity. And in all the specimens which I have examined, I have had to admire the perfection with which the
combination of the tanning matter with the staple of the skin, has been effected. Skins and hides tanned by these people, I believe will sustain a comparison in this respect with the best English bend leather, which is well known to be subjected to a process that keeps it several years in the vats.
It was readily discovered, on inquiry, that the barks employed by these people, are those of a species of the plumb, and the
marsh mangrove. The last has been sometimes shipped from the coast in quantities, to supply the tanneries of England, and is thought to be superior to the bark of the oak. But it appears to be less used in this country than that of the (vulgar) Rusty-coated Plumb.
Having an abundance of goat and kid skins in the Colony, which command a price abroad not sufficient to repay the expense of preserving them, it has for some years been a matter of solicitude with me, to find out some way of disposing of them more useful than the common one of delivering them over from the butcher's hands, to be haired, roasted, and eaten, by our native labourers.
Daniel George from Philadelphia, although nearly unacquainted with the method, and wholly ignorant of the principles of the tanning business, was induced, in the early part of the present year, to make an experiment with half a dozen skins, in which he employed the plumb bark. The process was effected in four weeks; and the skins exposed weekly to the air. But it was discovered that they had suffered from not having been oftener stirred—the combination of the tannin was imperfect, and the leather was without its proper, and an uniform degree of strength. Subsequent trials made with the same bark, have succeeded better-its superior qualities have been established beyond any doubt, with which the testimony of the Mandingoes respecting it might have been received.
But we claim the merit of a very useful discovery in relation to the tanning business, as we expect it to be soon carried on in the Colony. Lewis Crook, an observant farmer, in preparing some building materials, had occasion to remark the extreme bitterness and highly astringent properties of the bark of a species of the African poplar. In both these qualities it seemed rot only to vie with, but if possible surpass the Peruvian bark itself. Seizing upon the circumstance, he immediately founded upon it, an experiment with several deer and goat skins laid together in a cask having the requisite quantity of the poplar bark. They were regularly exposed at intervals of four days, until the whole were most perfectly tanned—the goat skins, in threethe deer, in four weeks. This leather has been formed into shoes, and
proves as strong, pliable, and beautifully grained, as any from the same kind of skins which I have ever examined or used of American manufacture and decidedly superior to most.
An experienced tanner and currier from Virginia, is preparing an extensive establishment for carrying on his business—and is at the present time hindered from commencing it, only by the want of a few tools, which, unfortunately, cannot be made, nor obtained for him in the Colony.
J. ASHMUN. November 9, 1826.
Practicability of the Colonization Scheme.
Extracts from an article published in the “Kentucky Reporter.” The Colony lately begun at Mesurado is now from 4 to 5 years old-a few ships annually visit there-perhaps 12. It must, of course, have experienced all the usual inconveniences of early settlements, arising from mismanagement, sickness, war, and similar distresses, not likely to occur again at a more advanced period. Yet still, already, plenty, comfort, and neatness, are found in the houses and at the tables of the settlers. Every family, and almost every grown person in the Colony, has the means of employing from one to four native labourers, at from 4 to 6 dollars per month. Several have, on public emergencies, made advances of from three to six hundred dollars.
Carpenters, masons, smiths, although poor workmen, get two dollars a day. Common labourers from 75 cents to $1 25, and even these prices cannot procure a sufficiency.
A fort has been erected, superior to any force that can be brought against it.
Two schooners of 10 tons each have been built for the coasting trade. Two churches and five schools are built. The proficiency of the scholars attending the latter, is said strongly to mark the difference between the studies of a free person contrasted with those of a slave.
The religious character of these poor people is flattering, but not surprising Distant from friends, and surrounded by savages, it is not strange if their eyes are directed to Him who alone can befriend them. Feelings like these heighten their devotion to that degree, that the Director of the Colony declares that he has seen, at their meetings, the profanest foreigner that ever entered the Colony trembling with awe and conviction. tives evince the good effects of this. They bring their children to be educated by the Colonists. Sixty are already in their schools. They deliver up malefactors, and seem to express a confidence in our people unequalled, except, perhaps, under Penn's government.
Ivory and camwood, perhaps some rice and coffee, form at present the greater part of their exports. Yet the country could, if cultivated, furnish all the articles afforded by tropical climates. The land in the interior is excellent. The present number of Colonists is 4 or 500—and their last year's exports amounted to nearly 850,000.
If, agreeably to the above statement, four or five hundred persons employ one hundred labourers, at from 4 to 6 dollars per month, may we not reasonably infer that, if the Colonists were 10,000 in number, they would be well able to pay the passage of 2000 negroes? They would find this much cheaper than to employ native labourers, whose wages are from 48 to 72 dollars per
The passage of a negro from America may be defrayed for 25 dollars, a sum which might be paid by the Colonists, and reimbursed by 6 or 8 months service of the person paid for. Wealth, we know by experience, increases in a proportion greatly beyond that of population. The number of the people of these States, is probably four times that of those who saw the Revolution. But ten times the estimate in wealth would be greatly below the fact. Presuming upon this axiom in political economy, I am certain that my confidence in the future ability of the Colonists to pay the expense of transportation, is not extravagant.
The price of labour in the Colony, equal to that in our own new settlements, justifies the certainty of the demand for labourers.
The object before us at present, is to increase the Colony to the amount above stated. After it reaches that number, (10,000,) it may
be left to its own means. Its future increase would be rapid. The free negroes, when assured of safety and respectability, would embark in numbers. These people, a nuisance in the free as well as in the slave states, would become a benefit in the country of their ancestors. Every fresh emigrant would leave behind connections, who would as eagerly follow their relations to Guinea, as the Irish emigrant follows his to this country. The difficulty of emigrating is no greater, and the means above suggested would render their removal rapid as well as easy. Irish emigrants never came in such numbers, as when they were permitted to indent themselves for the passage. To this I may add, that there are many who will send their negroes
to Guinea, when assured of the Colony's being so well settled as to be out of danger from a foreign foe—such men view their removal as an event desirable to both master and slave; but cannot reconcile it to their feelings, to banish those who have been born in their own house, to a country where they dread the possibility of their perishing by the savage natives.
For the present accomplishment of this object, the funds of the Societies are totally inadequate. The negroes who offer to depart exceed the means of paying their freight. Ought not this to be looked to by the States, or by the Federal Government? Is it not an absolute duty incumbent upon them, to send to the land of their forefathers those who are willing to go? And when we add to this, the absolute necessity of our taking some measures to that effect, is it not amazing that nothing has yet been done?
The Navy costs Government about $3,000,000 per annum; the Army about 2,000,000; the pay of the Revolutionary veterans 1,500,000. But greatly as our Navy has done honour to our country; valuable as our Army may be, as conducive to our safety; and just as it was to discharge the debt contracted by our ancestors; neither of these considerations, nor all together, have as powerful claims upon us as the establishment of the negro Colony. And when we consider that $250,000, only once laid out, would place 10,000 souls in the Colony, we must be astonished