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articles. You deal with me as though two were appointed to fight for life and death, and over-night the one, through favour, is cherished and hath good counsel given him how to encounter with his enemy; the other, for envy or lack of friends, all the whole night is set in the stocks. In the morning when they shall meet, the one is in strength and lusty, the other is stark of his limbs, and almost dead for feebleness. Think you not, that to run through this man with a spear is a goodly victory. But the Bishop of Gloucester interrupting his answer, proceeded, saying:
Glo. I went not about to recite any places of scripture in that place of my book : for then, if I had not recited it faithfully, you might have had just occasion of reprehension : but I only in that place formed an argument a majore, in this sense: that if, in the old law, the priests had powers to decide matters of controversies, much more then ought the authority to be given to the clergy in the new law; and I pray_you, in this point, what availeth the rehearsal, secundum legem Dei.
Lat. Yes, my lord, very much. For I acknowledge authority to be given to the spiritualty to decide matters of religion, and as my lord said even now, regere, but they must do it secundum verbum Dei, and not secundum voluntatem suam, according to the word and law of God, and not after their own will, after their own imaginations and fantasies.
The Bishop of Gloucester would have answered more, saving, that the Bishop of Lincoln said, that they came not to dispute with Master Latimer, but to take his determinate answers to their articles; and so began to propose the same articles which were proposed to Master Ridley. But Master Latimer interrupted him, speaking to the Bishop of Gloucester.
Well, my lord, I could wish more faithful dealing with God's word, and not to leave out a part, and scratch a part here, and another there, but to rehearse the whole faithfully.
But the Bishop of Lincoln, not attending to this saying of Master Latimer, proceeded in rehearsing the articles, in form and sense, as followeth :
1. We do object to thee, Hugh Latimer, in this high University of Oxford, Anno 1554, in the months of April, May, June, July, or in some one or more of them, thou hast affirmed, and openly defended and maintained, and in many other times and places besides, that the true and natural body of Christ, after the consecration of the priest, is not really present in the sacrament of the altar.
2. Item, That in the year and months aforesaid, thou hast publicly affirmed and defended, that in the sacrament of the altar remaineth still the substance of bread and wine.
3. Iten, That in the said year and months thou hast open: ly affirmed, and obstinately maintained, that in the mass is no propitiatory sacrifice for the quick and dead.
4. Item, That in the year, place, and month aforesaid, these thy foresaid assertions solemnly have been condemned by the scholastical censure of this school, as heretical and contrary to the Catholic faith, by the worshipful master Doctor Weston, prolocutor then of the convocation-house, as also by other learned men of both the universities.
5. Item, That all and singular the premises be true, notorious, famous, and openly known by public fame, as well to them near hand, as also to them in distant places far off.
Then Master Latimer making his protestation, that notwithstanding these his answers, it should not be taken that thereby he would acknowledge any authority of the Bishop of Rome, saying that he was the King and Queen their majesties subject, and not the Pope's, neither could serve two masters at one time, except he should first renounce one of them : required the notaries so to take his protestation, that whatsoever be should say or do, it should not be taken as though he did thereby agree to any authority that came from the Bishop of Rome.
The Bishop of Lincoln said, his protestation should be so taken; but he required him to answer briefly, affirmatively or negatively, to the first article, and so recited the same again; and Master Latimer answered as followeth :
Lat. I do not deny, my lord, that in the sacrament, by spirit and grace, is the very body and blood of Christ, because that every man by receiving bodily that bread and wine, spiritually receiveth the body and blood of Christ, and is made partaker thereby of the merits of Christ's passion; but I deny that the body and blood of Christ is in such sort in the sacrament as you would have it.
Lin. Then, Master Latimer, you answer affirmatively.
Lat. Yea, if you mean of that gross and carnal being, which you do take.
The notaries took his answer to be affirmatively.
Lin. What say you, Master Latimer, to the second article? and recited the same.
Lat. There is, my lord, a change in the bread and wine, and such a change as no power but the omnipotence of God can make, in that that which before was bread should now have that dignity to exhibit Christ's body, and yet the bread is still bread, and the wine still wine: for the change is not in the nature, but the dignity, because now that which was common bread hath the dignity to exhibit Christ's body : for whereas it was common bread, it is now no more common bread, neither ought it to be so taken, but as holy bread sanctified by God's word.
With that the Bishop of Lincoln smiled, saying:
Lin. So, Master Latimer, see what stedfastness is in your doctrine. That which you abhorred and despised most, you now most establish; for whereas you most railed at holy bread, you now make your communion holy bread.
Lat. Tush, a rush for holy bread. I say the holy bread in the communion is a holy bread indeed.
But the Bishop of Lincoln interrupted him, and said,
Lin. O you make a difference between holy bread and holy bread (with that the audience laughed). Well, Master Latimer, is not this your answer, that the substance of bread and wine remaineth still the same? Lat. Yes, verily, it must needs be so.
For Christ himself calleth it bread, St. Paul calleth it bread, the Doctors confess the same, the nature of a sacrament confirmeth the same, and I call it holy bread, not in that I make no difference betwixt your holy bread and this, but for the holy office which it beareth, that is, to be a figure of Christ's body, and not only a bare figure, but effectually to represent the same.
So the notaries penned his answer to be affirmatively.
Lin. What say you to the third question ? and recited the same.
Lat. No, no, my lord; Christ made one perfect sacrifice for all the whole world, neither can any man offer him again, neither can the priest offer up Christ again for the sins of man, which he took away by offering himself once for all (as St. Paul saith) upon the cross, neither is there any propitiation for our sins, saving his cross only.
So the notaries penned his answer to this article also to be affirmatively.
Lin. What say you to the fourth ? and so recited it. After the recital whereof, when Master Latimer answered not, the Bishop asked him whether he heard him or no?
Lat. Yes; but I do not understand what you mean thereby.
Lin. Marry only this, that these your assertions were condemned by Master Doctor Weston as heresies ; is it not so, Master Latimer?
Lat. Yes, I think they were condemned, but how unjustly, he that shall be the Judge of all, knoweth.
So the notaries took his answer to this article also, to be affirmatively.
Lin. What say you, Master Latimer, to the fifth article ? and recited it.
Lat. I know not what you mean by these terms. 'I am no lawyer, I would you would propose the matter plainly.
Lin. In that we proceed according to law, we must use their
terms also. The meaning only is this, that these four assertions are notorious, evil spoken of, and yet common and frequent in the mouths of the people.
Lat. I cannot tell how much, nor what men talk of them. I come not so much among them, in that I have been secluded a long time. What men report of them I know not, nor care not.
This answer taken, the Bishop of Lincoln said:
Lin. Master Latimer, we mean not that these your answers shall be prejudicial to you. To-morrow you shall appear before us again, and then it shall be lawful for you to alter and change what you will. We give you respite till to-morrow, trusting, that after you have pondered well all things against to-morrow, you will not be ashamed to confess the truth.
Lat. Now, my lord, I pray you give me license in three words, to declare the causes why I have refused the authority of the Pope.
Lin. Nay, Master Latimer, to-morrow you shall have license to speak forty words.
Lat. Nay, my lords, I beseech you to do with me now as it shall please your lordships : I pray you, let not me be troubled to-inorrow again.
Lin. Yes, Master Latimer, you must needs appear again to-morrow.
Lat. Truly, my lord, as for my part, I require no respite; for I am at a point. You shall give me respite in vain. Therefore, I pray you, let me not trouble
to-morrow. Lin. Yes, for we trust God will work with you against to-morrow. There is no remedy, you must needs appear again to-morrow, at eight of the clock, in St. Mary's church. · And forthwith the Bishop charged the Mayor with Master Latimer, and dismissed him; and then brake up their session for that day, about one of the clock at afternoon.
The next day following, (which was the first day of October), somewhat after eight of the clock, the said lords repaired to St. Mary's church, and after they were set on a high throne well trimmed with cloth of tissue and silk, then appeared Master Ridley, who was set at a framed table a good space from the Bishop's feet, which table had a silk cloth cast over it, the which place was compassed about with framed seats in quadrate form, partly for gentlemen which repaired thither, (for this was the session day also of gaol delivery) and heads of the university to sit, and partly to keep off the press of the audience: for the whole body, as well of the university as of the town, came thither to see the end of these two persons. After the examination and condemnation of Master Ridley, immediately Master Latimer
was sent for: but in the mean season the carpet or cloth which lay upon the table whereat Master Ridley stood, was removed because (as men reported) M. Latimer had never the degree of a doctor as M. Ridley had. But eftsoons as M. Latimer appeared, as he did the day before, perceiving no cloth upon
the table, he laid his hat, which was an old felt, under his elbows, and immediately spake to the commissioners, saying:
Lat. My Lords, I beseech your Lordships to set a better order here at your entrance: for I am an old man, and have a back, so that the press of the multitude doth me much harm.
Lin. I am sorry, Master Latimer, for your hurt. At your departure we will see to better order.
With that, M. Latimer thanked his Lordship, making a very low courtesy. After this, the Bishop of Lincoln began in this manner:
Lin. Master Latimer, although yesterday after we had taken your answers to those articles which we proposed, we might have justly proceeded to judgment against you, especially in that you require the same; yet we having a good hope of your returning, desiring not your destruction, but rather that you would recant, revoke your errors, and turn to the Catholic church, deferred farther process till this day, and now according to the appointment, we have called you here before us, to hear whether you are content to revoke your heretical assertions, and submit yourself to the determination of the church, as we most heartily desire; and I for my part, as I did yesterday, most earnestly do exhort you, or to know whether you persevere still the man that you were, for the which we would be sorry.
It seemed that the Bishop would have farther proceeded, saving that M. Latimer interrupted him, saying,
Lat. Your lordship often doth repeat the Catholic church as though I should deny the same. No, my lord, I confess there is a Catholic church, to the determination of which I will stand, but not the church which you call Catholic, which sooner might be termed diabolic. And whereas you join together the Romish and Catholic church, stay there I pray you. For it is one thing to say Romish church, and another thing to say Catholic church. I must use here in this mine answer the counsel of Cyprianus, who at what time he was ascited before certain Bishops that gave him leave to take deliberation and counsel, to try and examine his opinion, he answereth them thus: “ In sticking and persevering in the truth, there must no counsel nor deliberation be taken.” And again, being demanded of them sitting in judgement, which was most like to be of the church of Christ, whether he which was persecuted, or they which did persecute? Christ, said he, hath foreshowed that he that doth follow him must take up his cross and follow him. Christ gave knowledge