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that the disciples should have persecution and trouble. How think you, then, my lords, is it like that the see of Rome, which hath been a continual persecutor, is rather the church, or that small flock which hath been continually persecuted even to death? Also the flock of Christ hath been but few in comparison to the residue, and ever in subjection : which he proved, beginning at Noah's time even to the Apostles.
Lin. Your cause and St. Cyprian's is not one but clean contrary, for he suffered persecution for Christ's sake and the Gospel : but you are in trouble for your errors and false assertions, contrary to the word of God and the received truth of the Church.
Master Latimer interrupting him said, yes verily, my cause is as good as St. Cyprian's : for his was for the word of God, and so is mine.
But Lincoln goeth forth in his talk.
Lin. Also at the beginning and foundation of the church it could not be but that the Apostles should suffer great persecution. Further, before Christ's coming, continually there were very few which truly served God: but after his coming began the time of grace, then began the church to increase and was continually augmented until it came unto this perfection, and now hath partly that jurisdiction which the unchristian princes before by tyranny did resist. There is a diverse consideration of the estate of the church now in the time of grace and before Christ's coming. But, Master Latimer, though we had instructions given as determinately to take your answer to such articles as we should propose, without any reasoning or disputation, yet we, hoping by talk somewhat to prevail with you, appointed you to appear before us yesterday in the Divinity School, a place for disputations. And whereas then, notwithstanding you had license to say your mind, and were answered to every matter, yet you could not be brought from your errors. We, thinking that from that time ye would, with good advisement, consider your estate, gave you respite from that time yesterday when we dismissed you, until this time, and now have called you again here in this place by your answer to learn whether you same man you were then or no? Wherefore, we will propose unto you the same articles which we did then, and require of you a determinate answer without further reasoning; and eftsoons recited the first article.
Lat. Always my protestation saved, that by these mine answers it should not be thought that I did condescend and agree to your Lordship’s authority in that you are legated by authority of the Pope; so that hereby I might seem to consent to his jurisdiction. To the first article I answer now as I did yesterday, that in the sacrament the worthy receiver receiveth
the very body of Christ, and drinketh his blood by the spirit and grace. But after
But after a corporal being, which the Romish church prescribeth, Christ's body and blood is not in the sacrament under the forms of bread and wine.
The notaries took his answer to be affirmatively; for the second article he referred himself to his answers made before.
After this, the Bishop of Lincoln recited the third article, and required a determinate answer.
Lat. Christ made one oblation and sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, and that a perfect sacrifice, neither needeth there be any other, neither can there be any other propitiatory sacrifice.
The notaries took his answer to be affirmatively.
In like manner did he answer to the other articles, not varying from his answers made the day before.
After his answers were penned of the notaries, and the Bishop of Lincoln had exhorted him in like sort to recant as he did Master Ridley, and revoke his errors and false assertions, and Master Latimer had answered that he ne could ne would deny his Master Christ, and his verity; the Bishop of Lincoln desired Master Latimer to hearken to him and then Master Latimer hearkening for some new matter and other talk, the Bishop of Lincoln read his condemnation, which was written in a long process, the tenor of which, because it is sufficiently already expressed before, we thought meet in this place to omit, forasmuch as they are rather words of course, than things devised upon deliberation. Howbeit, indeed, the effect was, that forasmuch as the said Hugh Latimer did affirm, maintain, and stubbornly defend certain opinions, assertions, and heresies, contrary to the word of God, and the received faith of the church, as in denying the true and natural body of Christ, and his natural blood to be in the sacrament of the altar: secondarily, in affirming the substance of bread and wine to remain after the words of the consecration : thirdly, in denying the mass to be a living sacrifice of the church for the quick and the dead, and by no means would be perduced and brought from these his heresies : they therefore, the said J. of Lincoln, James of Gloucester, John of Bristow, did judge and condemn the said Hugh Latimer as an heretic, and so adjudged him presently, both by word and also in deed, to be degraded from the priesthood and all ecclesiastical order, declaring moreover the said Hugh Latimer to be no member of the church, and therefore com-. mitted him to the secular powers of them to receive due punishment according to the tenor of the temporal laws; and further excommunicating him by the great excommunication. After the publication of the which, the said three bishops brake up their sessions and dismissed the audience.
But Master Latimer required the Bishop to perform his promise, in saying the day before that he should have license briefly to declare the cause why he refused the Pope's authority.
But the Bishop said that now he could not hear him, neither ought to talk with him.
Then Master Latimer asked him, whether it were not lawful for him to appeal from this his judgement. And the Bishop asked him again, to whom he would appeal. To the next general council (quoth Master Latimer) which shall be truly called in God's name: with that appellation the Bishop was content: but he said it would be a long season before such a convocation, as he meant, would be called. When the Bishop committed Master Latimer to the Mayor, saying, now he is your prisoner, Master Mayor, because the press of the people was not diminished, each man looking for further process, the Bishop of Lincoln commanded avoidance, and willed Master Latimer to tarry till the press were diminished, lest he should take hurt at the egression, as he did at his entrance; and so continued Bishop Ridley and Master Latimer in durance till the 16th day of the said month of October.
Upon the north side of the crown, in the ditch over against Bailey College, the place of execution was appointed; and for fear of any tumult that might arise to let the burning of them, the Lord Williams was commanded by the Queen's letters, and the householders of the city, to be their assistants, sufficiently appointed; and when every thing was in readiness, the prisoners were brought forth by the Mayor and the bailiffs. Master Ridley had a fair black gown furred, and faced with some such as he was wont to wear, being bishop, and a tippet of velvet, furred likewise, about his neck; á velvet night-cap upon his head, and a corner cap upon the same, going in a pair of slippers to the stake, and going between the Mayor and Aldermen, &c.
After him came Master Latimer, in a poor Bristow frize frock all worn, with his buttoned cap and a kerchief upon his head, all ready for the fire, a new long shroud hạnging over his hose down to the feet: which at the first sight stirred men's hearts to see upon them, beholding on the one side the honour they sometime had, on the other the calamity whereunto they were fallen.)
Master Doctor Ridley, as he passed toward Bocardo, looked
up where Master Cranmer did lie, hoping belike to have seen him at the glass window, and to have spoken unto him, but then Master Cranmer was busy with friar Sotoand his fellows, disputing together, so that he could not see him through that occasion; when Master Ridley, looking back, espied Master Latimer coming after, unto whom he said, Ah! be ye there?
Yea,' said Master Latimer, "hate after as fast as I can follow. So he following a pretty way off, at length they came both to
the stake, the one after the other ; when, first, Doctor Ridley entering the place, marvellously earnestly holding up both his hands, looked towards heaven; then, shortly after, espying Master Latimer, with a monstrous cheerful look, he ran to him, embraced and kissed him; and, as they that stood near reported, comforted him, saying Be of good heart, brother, for God will either assuage the fury of the flame, or else strengthen us to abide it. With that went he to the stake by it, kissed it, and effectuously prayed ; and behind him, Master Latimer, as earnestly calling upon God as he. After they arose, the one talked with the other a little while, till they, which were appointed to see execution, removed themselves out of the sun. What they said I can learn of no' man. When Dr. Smith began his sermon to them upon
this text of St. Paul, in the 13th chapter of the first epistle to the Corinthians, “ If I give my body to the fire to be burnt, and have not charity, I shall gain nothing thereby." Wherein he alledged that the goodness of the cause, and not the order of death, maketh the holiness of the person; which he confirmed by the example of Judas, and of a woman in Oxford that of late hanged herself; for that they, and such like as he recited, might then be adjudged righteous, which desperately sundered their lives from their bodies, as he feared that those men who stood before him would do; but he cried still to the people to beware of them, for they were heretics, and died out of the church ; and, on the other side, he declared their diversities in opinion, as Lutherans, Æcolampadians, Zuinglians, of which sect they were, he said, and that was the worst. But the old church of Christ and the catholic faith, believed far otherwise. At which place they lifted up both their hands and eyes to heaven, as it were, calling God to witness of the truth, the which countenance they made in many other places of his sermon, whereas they thought he spake amiss. He ended with a very short exhortation to them to recant, and to come home again to the church, and save their lives and souls, which else were condemned. His sermon was scant in all a quarter of an hour.
Doctor Ridley said to Master Latimer, “Will you begin to answer the sermon, or shall I ?” Master Latimer said, Begin you first, I pray you." "I will,” said Doctor Ridley,
Then the wicked sermon being ended, Doctor Ridley and Master Latimer kneeled down upon their knees towards my Lord Williams of Tame, the vice chancellor of Oxford, and divers other commissioners, appointed for that purpose, which sate upon a form thereby, unto whom Doctor Ridley said, “I beseech you, my lord, even for Christ's sake, that I may speak out two or three words;" and, whilst my lord bent his head to the mates and vice chancellor, to know (as it appeared) whether
he might give him leave to speak, the bailiffs, and Doctor Marshall, vice chancellor, ran hastily unto him, and with their hands stopped his mouth, and said, “ Master Ridley, if you will revoke your erroneous opinions, and recant the same, you shall not only have liberty so to do, but also the benefit of a subject, that is, have your life.” “ Not otherwise,” said Master Ridley.
No,” quoth Doctor Marshall;" therefore if you will not so do, then there is no remedy but you must suffer for your deserts.' “ Well, (quoth Doctor Ridley,) so long as the breath is in my body I will never deny my Lord Christ and his known truth": God's will be done in me. And with that he rose up,
and said, with a loud voice, “ Well, then, I commit our cause to Almighty God, which shall indifferently judge all.”
To whose saying, Master Latimer added his old posie : “ Well, there is nothing hid but it shall be opened ;” and he said he could answer Smith well enough if he might be suffered. Incontinently they were commanded to make them ready, which they, with all meekness, obeyed. Master Ridley took his gown and his tippet, and gave it to his brother-in-law, Master Shipside, who, all his time of imprisonment, although he might not be suffered to come to him, lay there, at his own charges, to provide him necessaries, which, from time to time, he sent him by the serjeant, that kept him. Some other of his apparel, that was little worth, he gave away, other the bailiffs took.
He gave away, besides, divers other small things to gentlemen standing by, and divers of them pitifully weeping. As to Sir Henry Lea he gave a new groat; and to divers of
my Lord Williams' gentlemen, some napkins, some nutmegs, and races of ginger, his dial, and such other things as he had about him to every one that stood next him. Some plucked the points off his hose : happy was he that might get any rag of him.
Master Latimer gave nothing, but very quietly suffered his keeper to pull off his hose and his other array, which to look unto was very simple; and being stripped into his shroud, he seemed as comely a person to them that were there present, as one should lightly see; and whereas in his clothes he appeared a crooked and silly old man, he now stood bolt upright as comely a father as one might lightly behold.
Then Master Ridley, standing as yet in his truss, said to his brother, “ It were best for me to go in my truss still ?” “
No, quoth his brother," it will put you to more pain, and the truss may do a poor man good.” Whereunto Master Ridley said, “ Be it in the name of God," and so unlaced himself. Then being in his shirt, he stood upon the foresaid stone, and held up his hands and said, “Oh! heavenly Father, I give thee most hearty thanks for that thou hast called me to be a pro