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crowded and concentrated mass of hu* which they are mutually blind to the man beings, is looked upon by many · real cordialities and attractions which a philanthropist as one of those help. belong to each other, and a resenta less and irreclaimable distempers of ful feeling is apt to be fostered, either the body politic, for which there is no of disdain or defiance. To des remedy-he maintains, that there are stroy all such unhappy feelings of anicertain practicable arrangements which, mosity or repugnance, no better plan under the blessing of God, will stay can be devised, than to multiply the this growing calamity, and would, by agents of Christianity, whose delight it the perseverance of a few years, land may be to go forth among the people, us in a purer and better generation. on no other errand than of pure good

I.-The first essential step towards will, and with no other ministrations the assimilation of the power and in- than those of respect and tenderness. Anence of religion, and the character Nothing, we think, can be more of its ministers, over the population of beautiful than the paragraph in which large towns, to that exercised in coun Dr Chalmers winds up this part of try parishes, is a numerous and well- his argument. appointed agency. By dividing his

• There is one lesson that we need not parish into small manageable dis- teach, for experience has already taught it, tricts and assigning one or more of and that is, the kindly influence which the his friends in some capacity or other mere presence of a human being has upon to each of ther-and vesting them his fellows. Let the attention you bestow with such a right either of superin- upon another be the genuine

emanation of tendance or of inquiry, as will always good wilm-and there is only one thing more

to make it irresistible. The readiest way of be found to be gratefully met by the finding access to a man's

heart, is to go to population--and so raising as it were

his house and there to perform the deed a ready intermedium of communica- of kindness, or to acquit yourself of the tion between himself and the inhabi- wonted and the looked for acknowledg, tants of his parish, a clergyman may at ment. By putting yourself under the roof length attain an assimilation in point of a poor neighbour, you in a manner put of result to a country parish, though yourself under his protection—you render not in the means by which he arrived him for the time your superior—you throw at it. He can in his own person sured that it is a confidence which will al,

your reception on his generosity, and be asmaintain at least a pretty close and

most never fail you. If Christianity be the habitual intercourse with the more errand on which you move, it will open for remarkable cases ; and as for the moral you the door of every family, and even the charm of cordial and Christian ac- profane and the profligate will come to requaintanceship, he cari'spread it abroad cognise the worth of that principle which by deputation over that portion of the prompts the unwearied assiduity of your city which has been assigned to him. services. By every circuit which you make In this way an influence long unfelt amongst them, you will attain a higher in towns, may be speedily restored to Auence and in spite of all that has been

vantage-ground of moral and spiritual inthem, and they know nothing of this said of the ferocity of a city population, be department of our nature, who are assured that, in your rounds of visitation, blind to the truth of the position you will meet with none of it, even among that out of the simple elements of at the lowest receptacles of human worthlesstention, and advice, and civility, and ness. This is the homc-walk in which you good-will, conveyed through the tene earn, if not a proud, at least a peaceful poments of the poor, by men a little pularity—the popularity of the heart—the more elevated in rank than themselves, greetings of men who, touched even by

your cheapest and easiest services of kinda far more purifying and even more

ness, have nothing to give but their wishes gracious operation can be made to de- of kindness back again ; but in giving these scend upon them, than ever will be have crowned your pious attentions with achieved by any other of the ministra- the only popularity that is worth the aspirtions of charity.

ing after--the popularity that is won in the Such arrangements as these are pe- bosom of families, and at the side of deathculiarly fitted to repair the disadvan

beds." tages under which a city, purely com II. A second most essential step tomercial, necessarily labours. In all wards the assimilation of a city and a such cities there is a mighty and un- country parish, is one simple and untilled space interposed between the embarrassed relationship between the high and the low, in consequence of heritors and the kirk-session. Into

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" Yet so it is. The ministy As hie nwys rétisert country parish. It way a communication bets. -hieu he be a strike ont from and the offices in London be mal sæstern of any one áty, it is weaty sigriature is exacted from lepy *** in with the general mo a world of management is poort sogfon og Sentlund. If it he his shonlders-ond, instead ** mart ytorin from the provinces, his fathers in office, surrounder * 1g with the view of perfeering and blogy of present and other das

now turn his study into a coule tengthening that vehicle by which

and have his well-arranged calore it easible thing is import the him, fitted up with its sections : comiality, and the moral discipline, conveniences, for notices, and and the comparative virkne of the ind all the scraps and memorand. omvinepe along with it.

nifold correspondence TIT. The thirl pusantial stay the

* But the history does not s wards the geimilation of a town with The example of govemment has a country parish, is an entire exemplu whole keld of private and individur

and is now quickly running this tion of the minister from all the goćim larities which of late years have been monies, is one out of several exan

The regulation of the business oppressively heaper upon his office, opony to me. The emigration of and which are still nigrihenting impony lett to Canada was another. The it, aku rate of rapid in alurminy nou of the Kinloch kemuest is a third. camularion. Dr Chalmers exposo not appeut, that there is any act of: the risetier of such secularities by * ment authorising the agents in this narrative if the way in which the to fix try the clergy, as the organs eit: sanctity of the clerical profession has the transaction of their business,

conveyance of their information to the , been disturbed and violated. This wo

of the land. Brut they find it convenie give entire.

follow the example of government, and ** Among the people of our busy laneti attredingly done so ; and, in this wá. who are ever on the wing of activity, and, Wighty host of schedules, and circulars, whether in circumstances of seace or of war, printer fuprais, with long blank spaces, wie are at all times feeling the impulse of some the terristey will have the goodness to national movement or other, it is not to be rep, according to the best of his knowledo pondered at, that a series of transactiong come into trastering, competition with a should be constantly flowing between the whole of his other clairns, and his other cl. metropolis of the empire, and its distant gagements, It is true, that the ministu. proyringes. There are the remittances which may, in this case, decline to have the good pass through our publie offices, front solu nags $ Pruut then, the people are apprised of bers and salers, to their relatives at home the arrangement, anit, trained as they have there are letters of inquiry sent back again Been, tonty well, to look up to the minister as from these relatives there is all the com an organ of civil succommodation, will they respondence, and all the business of drafts, lay siege to his dwelling-place, and pour and other negotiations, which ensue upott upot fim with their inquiries; and the the decease of a soldier, on sailors there cruel alternative is laid upon him either to is the whole tribe of hospital allowances, the obstruct the convenience of his parishioners, payment of pensions, and a variety of other and bid thorn from his presence, or to take items, which, all taken together, would the whole weight of a management that has make out a very strange and tedious en been so itdiscreetly and so wantonly assign

ed to him. In this painful struggle between ** The individuals with whom these trans. the kindness of his nature, and the primi

need to be verified. tive and essential duties of his office, he

then ; and who may happen to fix on the worse, and not on Se than the better per it is not reason,

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the details of this part of the pamph- It saddles him with a task which breaks in let it is needless now to enter. Suf- upon his ministerial exertions; which wide fice it to say, that Dr Chalmers con

ens his distance from his people ; and, in tends for this equitable privilege of a

the end, makes him as unfit for certifying a city clergyman, that he shall enjoy the single clause of information about them, as same advantages with the

the most private individual in his neighhum. very

bourhood. blest minister of the establishment " Yet so it is. The minister is the organ of in his own retired country parish. If many a communication between his people this, says he, be to strike out from and 'the offices in London,—and many a the local system of any one city, it is weary signature is exacted from him,

and also to fall in with the general and a world of management is devolved upon original system of Scotland. If it be his shoulders, and, instead of sitting like

his fathers to impart a form from the provinces,

office, surrounded by the theit is with the view of perfecting and ology of present and other days, he must

now turn his study into a counting-room, strengthening that vehicle by which

and have liis well-arranged cabinet before it is a possible thing to impart the him, fitted

up with its sections and its other cordiality, and the moral discipline, conveniencies, for notices, and duplicates, and the comparative virtue of the and all the scraps and memoranda of a maprovinces along with it.

nifold correspondence. III. The third essential step to “ But the history does not stop here. wards the assimilation of a town with The example of government has descended, a country parish, is an entire exemp

and is now quickly running through the tion of the minister from all the secu

whole field of private and individual agency. larities which of late years have been monies, is one out of several examples that

The regulation of the business of prizeoppressively heaped upon his office, occur to me. The 'emigration of new setand which are still augmenting upon tiers to Canada was another. The business it, at a rate of rapid and alarming ac of the Kinloch bequest is a third. It does cumulation. Dr Chalmers exposes not appear, that there is any act of governthe mischief of such secularities by a ment authorising the agents in this matter narrative of the way in which the to fix on the clergy, as the organs either for sanctity of the clerical profession has the transaction of their business, or the been disturbed and violated. This we

conveyance of their information to the people

of the land. But they find it convenient to give entire.

follow the example of government, and have “ Among the people of our busy land, accordingly done so; and, in this way, a who are ever on the wing of activity, and, mighty host of schedules, and circulars, and whether in circumstances of peace or of war, printed forms, with long blank spaces, which are at all times feeling the impulse of some the minister will have the goodness to fill national movement or other, it is not to be up, according to the best of his knowledge, wondered at, that a series of transactions come into mustering competition with the should be constantly flowing between the whole of his other claims, and his other enmetropolis of the empire, and its distant gagements. It is true, that the minister provinces. There are the remittances which may, in this case, decline to have the goodpass through our public offices, from sol. ness; but then, the people are apprised of diers and sailors, to their relatives at home; the arrangement, and, trained as they have there are letters of inquiry sent back again been, too well, to look up to the minister as from these relatives ;-—there is all the cor an organ of civil accommodation, will they respondence, and all the business of drafts, lay siege to his dwelling-place, and pour and other negotiations, which ensue upon upon him with their inquiries ; and the the decease of a soldier, or a sailor ;—there cruel alternative is laid upon him either to is the whole tribe of hospital allowances, the obstruct the convenience of his parishioners, payment of pensions, and a variety of other and bid them from his presence, or to take items, which, all taken together, would the whole weight of a management that has make out a very strange and tedious enu been so indiscreetly and so wantonly assignmeration.

ed to him. In this painful struggle between " The individuals with whom these trans. the kindness of his nature, and the primi. actions are carried on, need to be verified. tive and essential duties of his office, he They live in some parish or other ; and who may happen to fix on the worse, and not on can be fitter for the required purpose, than the better part. It is not reason, that even, the parish minister ? He is, or he ought to for such a service, I should leave the mic þe, acquainted with every one of his pa- nistry of the word and prayer. But, in an rishioners; and this acquaintance, which he unlucky moment, I did so, along, I believe, pever can obtain in towns, but by years of with a vast majority of my brethren ; and ministerial exertion amongst them, is turned out of the multitude of other doings, from to an object destructive of the very principle this source of employment alone, which are on which he was selected for such a seryioe. now past, and have sunk into oblivion, the

single achievement of seventy signatures in work of a Christian teacher is enough, one day, is all that my dizzy recollection by itself, to engross and take posseshas been able to keep and to perpetuate. sion of the entire powers of any sin

If, for the expediting of business, we are made free with, even by private indi gle man; and that if he be daily and viduals, it is not to be wondered at, if chari hourly called upon to attend to mata table bodies should, at all times, look for ters, not only separate and distinct our subserviency to their schemes and their from, but absolutely irreconcileable operations of benevolence. When a patrio with the discharge of his loftier du, tic fund, or a Waterloo subscription, blazons ties, he must by degrees become inin all the splendour of a nation's munifi- different to, and incapable of his own cence, and a nation's gratitude, before the sacred functions, a sorry man of busipublic eye,—who shall have the hardihood ness, and a lukewarm and inefficient to refuse a single item of the bidden co

servant of God. There is something operation that is expected from him ? Surely dignified and noble in the following such a demand as this is quite irresistible ; and, accordingly, from this quarter too, a

observations: heavy load of consultations and certificates, “ I need say no more about the direct, with the additional singularity of having to blow which the prevailing system of our do with the drawing of money, and the towns must, at length, in this way, give to keeping of it in safe custody, and the deal. the cause of practical Christianity, in our ing of it out in small discretionary parcels' congregations and parishes. I proceed to according to the needs and circumstances of another effect, still more palpable, if not the parties ;-all, all is placed upon the more prejudicial, than the former. It will shoulders of the already jaded and overborne keep back and degrade the theological lia minister.

terature of Scotland. That all this is radically wrong and I am now to offer, between the theology of

66 There is nothing in the contrast which pernicious, no person can deny-and our age and that of another,

which is not Dr Chalmers merely recommends the highly honourable to the present race of substitution of lay for clerical agency. clergymen. The truth is, that they have He says rightly and beautifully. kept their ground so well against the whole The laymen require no more than a cor

of this blasting and degenerating operation, rect view of the importance of the substitu- giving full effect to my argument, that I

as to render it necessary, for the purpose of tion which we now demand from them, and, when that is given, they will come forth, in should look forward, in perspective, to the hundreds, from their hiding places. The

next age, and compute the inevitable differ

ence which must obtain between its litera. ranks of philanthropy will soon fill, and this fine city be put into a glow with generous

ture and that of the last generation. wishes, and high and liberal devisings for

“ On looking back to the distance of half the good of her population. Instead of mi. adorned by the literature of her clergy. It

a century, we behold the picture of a church nisters being brought down to the habit of is of no consequence to the argument, that merchants, merchants will be brought up to tone and habit of ministers. And if, through sional. Part of it was so ; and every part

the whole of this literature was not profesthe ascending scale of charity, some of them of it proved, at least, the fact, that there should rise so high as to do what was done

was time, and tranquillity, and full protecby the Elders of other days—if, unashamed of the gospel of Christ, they should stand labours of the understanding. I cannot but

tion from all that was uncongenial for the intrepidly forth as the guides and comfort, look back with regret, bordering upon envy, ers of the people-if, not unwilling, and not afraid to vary the labours of the count

to that period in the history of our church, ing-house, with the labours of an affection

when her ministers companied with the ate urgency amongst the chambers of the sages of philosophy, and bore away an equal sick, and the afflicted, and the dying, they petulancies of Hume, as he sported his un

share of the public veneration when the shalí bring back the habit of the olden time, guarded hour, among the circles of the enamongst our families another generation lightened, were met by the pastors of hum. will not pass away, till they have brought bie Presbyterianism, who, equal in reach back all the piety, and all the kindness of and in accomplishment to himself

, could the olden time along with it.

repel the force of all his sophistries, and reIn the latter part of this eloquent buke him into silence

when this most composition, Dr Chalmers points out subtle and profound of infidels aimed his the evil consequences that must result decisive thrust at the Christian testimony, from the accumulation of secular du- and a minister of our church, and he, ties on the clergymen of large cities, too, the minister of a town, dared all

the hazards of the intellectual warfare, upon their character as ministers of and bore the palm of superiority away from religion, and also upon the theological him-In a word, I look back, as I do upon literature of Scotland. He lays down a scene of departed glory, to that period, that undeniable principle, that the when the clergy of our cities could ply the

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