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had acquired by the force of his arms; resolved to avenge the insult he had he had reduced Armorick Britain to received at the cost of multitudes of his vassalage ; he reigned alone in innocent persons. At last he burned England ; he held Scotland and the town of Mantes, and destroyed in Wales under his yoke; but he was the flames the church of the Blessed so great a lover of peace, that a maiden Virgin, together with two of the holy carrying a weight of gold might have Vestals (who remained within it, bem walked securely through the whole lieving that even in that extremity it island. A short time before this, he was not lawful for them to quit their had given the bishopric of Dorchester habitation). The king, rejoicing in to Remigius, a monk of Fescamp ; but the sight of this destruction, called to it displeased that bishop to have so his people to heap fuel upon the flames, inconsiderable a town assigned him and, approaching himself too near the for his see, when in the same diocese confiagration, contracted a fever from was the city of Lincoln, so much the violence of the fire added to the more worthy to be an Episcopal resi- unwholesome heats of the autumnal dence; wherefore, having purchased season. His disorder was further insome lands on the top of the hill, he creased by an internal rupture, ocbuilt a church on that spot. And al- casioned by leaping a ditch on horsethough the archbishop of York as- back, so that he returned to Rouen in serted that the city belonged to his great pain of sickness; and, as his fediocese, Remigius made little account ver grew worse from day to day, took of his claim, and pursued the work he at last to his bed, being compelled by had so commenced with such dili- the violence of the distemper. The gence that he completed it, and filled physicians who were consulted preit with a clergy most approved for dicted his fast approaching dissoludoctrine and morals. This Remigius tion from an inspection of his water. was low of stature, but great in mind; In an interval of strength, after having dark in colour, but not in works; received the viaticum, and performed once he had been accused of a con- the Christian duty of confession, he spiracy against the king, but one of bequeathed Normandy to his son Rohis servants undertaking the purga- bert; England, and his maternal postion of his lord by undergoing the sessions, together with his treasures, ordeal of red hot iron, he was thus to William Rufus. He commanded restored to the love of the king, and all prisoners to be released, and great wiped clean from the stain of ponti- sums of money to be distributed afical disgrace. Thus was founded the mong the churches. He assigned a modern church of Lincoln.

sufficiency for the repair of St Mary's

church, lately burned by fire; and, V.-Death of William the Conqueror. having thus duly settled all his afAnno 1087.

fairs, he died on the 8th of the ides of This same year, king William made September, in the twenty-second year his abode in Normandy for some time, of his reign as king of England, and during which he delayed the war the fifty-second as duke of Normandy, which he meditated against the king the fifty-ninth of his age, and the of France. But Philip abusing his 1088th of the holy incarnation. His patience, is reported to have scurri- body was conveyed down the river lously said, “ The king of England Seine to Caen, and there buried, as keeps his bed at Rouen, like a woman midst a large concourse of prelates of on childbed ; but when he comes the church. forth to his churching I will light Robert, the eldest son of the conhim to church with a hundred thou- queror, was in France, engaged in the sand candles." The king, exasperated war against his father at the time of by this and other like sarcasms, in the his death ; and William Rufus hastenensuing month of August, while the ed to England, while he was yet alive, corn was on the ground, the grapes in conceiving that it would be more for the vineyards, and the apples in the his advantage to undertake that yoyorchards, in all the abundance of the age immediately than to wait and atseason, assembled a numerous army, tend his father's funeral. Henry alone, and made an inroad into France, of all his children, was present at that wasting and depopulating the country solemnity, and paid, of his own mothrough which he went. Nothing ney, 100 pounds of silver to a certain could appease his resentment, but he knight (whose patrimony extended to

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to the spot in which the body of the could he nowise avoid the fury of the king was interred), in order to re- mice; for a multitude of them immestrain his tongue from uttering any diately plunged themselves into the reproach.

water, and swam after him, and gnawHowever, William was neither slow ed the bottom and sides of the ship, nor niggardly in the spending of mo- till they made it leak, and threatened ney. He soon brought forth all the all on board with certain shipwreck. treasure which his father had accu. When the servants found this, they mulated at Winchester, and charitably made again for the shore as fast as posassigned to the monasteries large sums sible; but the mice had landed before of gold, together with five shillings of them, and fell upon him again as they silver to the parish churches, and one were bringing him from the ship. At hundred pounds to every county, to last he was entirely torn to pieces by be distributed among the poor. After them, and made a feast to satisfy the a time, moreover, he caused his fa- cravings of their horrible hunger. ther's tomb to be ornamented with a profusion of gold and silver and pre- VII.-Death and Character of Lan. cious stones. After these things he franc, Archbishop of Canterbury. was received by all men willingly for Anno 1089. their king, and reduced all England In the same year died Lanfranc, under his subjection, and obtained the Archbishop of Canterbury. This prekeys of all the treasures; in doing late, among other pious works, repairwhich, Lanfranc was of no small as ed the greater church of Christ at Can. sistance to him; by whom he had terbury, built offices for the monks, been educated, and consecrated a restored the dignities of the church knight, during his father's life-time. which had fallen into neglect under By him also he was crowned king of his predecessors, recovered many lands England, on the day of the holy mar- which had been alienated from it, tyrs Cosmus and Damian; and he af- (among others, 25 several manors,) and terwards spent the remaining part of constructed two inns for strangers the winter in peace. Soon afterwards, without the city, to which he assignhowever, the nobles of the realm, al- ed out of his own possessions a suffimost all of them (not without the sin cient yearly revenue for their mainteof perjury), made war against him, nance. He repaired the church of although crowned king, and, adopting Rochester, and ordained Hernost, a his elder brother, Robert, to govern in monk of Bec, to be Bishop thereof; his stead, committed the greatest ra at whose consecration was that verse vages all over the country.

found upon the altar, “ Cito proferte

stolam primam,” &c. which the archVI.--A German Count devoured by bishop interpreted to predict his apMice. Anno 1089.

proaching death. And so, in effect, In these days, a certain German count, he died that same year, and was sucwho had been a bitter enemy to the ceeded by Gundulph, a monk of Bec, emperor, while he was sitting one day who continued there to the time of at table in a melancholy mood, attended king Henry. He reduced to its forby his servants, was on a sudden so sur mer state the Abbey of Saint Alban, rounded by a multitude of mice, that the blessed proto-martyr of England. there appeared to be no means of escap- During the king's absence, he governo ing from them. So great was the num- ed his realm ; yet withal found ample ber of those little animals, that one time for study, to which he applied might have thought no country on earth himself intensely. He endeavoured to had held so many ; and the servants, correct the books of the Old and New though they armed themselves with Testament, corrupted by the errors of clubs and sticks to drive them away, transcribers, and by the light of his could do nothing at all to get rid of emendations, the church of England, them. They seized on the count by and that of France also, do to this day their teeth, and tore im in a terrible possess the benefit of being enlightenmanner; and, notwithstanding all the ed. After his death, king William reclubs and staves, not one of them was tained in his own hands almost all the hurt; for the servants were unable, churches and monasteries of England, with all their endeavours, to strike or despoiling them of their possessions. wound any of them. Even when they and farming them as it were to persons carried him in a ship out to sea, still of the laity.

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Transactions of the Dilettanti Society of Edinburgh,

No I.

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Viator's Letters on the History and Progress of the Fine Arts.
[The Dilettanti Society of Edinburgh had, for some time, entertained the idea of
publishing annually a separate volume of their Transactions. It would appear, however,
that they have now come to the resolution of laying their lucubrations before the public
through the medium of this Journal—a resolution which our readers will easily believe
has afforded us the most sincere pleasure. Whether the whole of the labours of these
ingenious gentlemen may be such as to tend to the edification of our readers, remains
yet to be proved. With regard to the very interesting paper which follows we cannot
have the least apprehension.


out the aid of spectacles or the magniCONSIDERING the excellence which the fying lens. That they possessed the ancients attained in the fine arts, it is magnifying mirror is extremely proastonishing how little has been trans- bable, for their looking-glasses being mitted to posterity respecting the made of metal, it was almost a necesworks and methods of their most dis- sary result that they should discover tinguished artists; of the methods of the magnifying power of a polished their sculptors we literally know no concave surface.

By some reflex apthing; indeed I believe that many a plication of the concave mirror their learned fellow imagines that Phidias gem engravers may have been assisted ; and Praxiteles actually worked with and I think it would not be difficult the chisel and mallet in their hands, still to ascertain in what manner this hewing out the statue within the was done.

It has been supposed that block, with no other guide or model in some instances they employed a than the idea in their own minds. I drop of pellucid water in the perforas recollect to have read somewhere, that tion of a piece of metal; but I cannot, Michael Angelo laboured with such en- however, form any very distinct notion thusiastic fury to get his statues extric of the manner in which this magnifycated from the encasing rubbish, that ing power could be rendered useful to it was quite marvellous to see him ! an engraver. But a pretty discovery Nothing, however, can be more ri- of an ingenious friend of mine, and diculous than the supposition of this which I would recommend to the ata species of the Cæsarian operation in tention of our opticians, has suggested sculpture; an art which requires the a better idea. He has discovered, that utmost patience and minute careful- by nicely perforating a bit of paper, or ness, and in which the merit of the any superficial substance, a plate of artist consists in preparing the clay metal serving the best of all for the model. It is the artizan who fashions purpose,--that in proportion to the the marble ; a humble species of me size of the hole, a very considerable chanical industry scarcely removed from magnifying power is obtained over obthe toil of the common stone-cutter jects closely under the eye, and that the task of the labourers in the work- distant objects are brought apparently shops of Canova and Chantry. nearer, and seen much more distinctly But what renders the methods of than by the unaided sight.

It is the ancient sculptors still more curious therefore possible, that the ancient gem as an object of inquiry, is, that, with- engravers may have made use of some out tools of steel or tempered iron, contrivance of this nature. they should have been able to work Our information with respect to the with so much felicity not only in mar- methods of the painters of antiquity ble, but even in the harder substance is also almost a blank. Their excel. of the precious stones. Their dexteri- lence both in drawing and in colourty, appears still more extraordinary ing cannot be questioned; for with when we reflect that it is necessary to such evidence as we possess of their employ the magnifying glass to inspect attainments in sculpture, it is almost the minute beauty of many of their impossible, without a denial of the gems, cameos, intoglios, and medals. force of ocular demonstration, to refuse It is almost inconceivable how such our acknowledgments to their superiore works could have been produced with, ity. We are told, indeed, that Zeuxis Vol. VI.


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formed the composition of his Juno* inculcate the principles of the art of from the peculiar beauties of all the portrait-painting. It may even be said, most beautiful women in Agrigentum; that it inculcates the principles of inand that Apelles made use of burnt dividual statuary; for Pliny menivory mixed with varnish to augment tions that she afterwards persuaded the effect of his colours, and to defend her father to make an image in clay of them from the action of the air.t the likeness, and that it was preserved But with the exception of these two as a curious illustration of the prosolitary facts, the one in the art of de- gress of art, till the Consul Mummius sign, and the other in that of colour- destroyed Corinth. These principles ing, we possess no practical informa are founded on resemblance and chará tion respecting the methods of the an acteristic expression; but this beauticient painters. The use of the black ful mythological tale teaches more: or burnt ivory by Apelles has been It implies, that in order to render the questioned by many writers on the fine portrait or the statue peculiarly interarts as an improbable misconception ; esting, it is necessary that the situabut Mr West has, within these few. tion should be chosen in circumstances years, employed it with so much suc where the original was seen to most cess, that the colouring of his late pic- advantage by the parties for whom the tures, compared with that of his ear work was designed. To the eye of a lier, does not appear to have been pro- fond and tender lover, the most affectduced by the same hand. It serves to ing situation is that which is associated tune, if the expression may be allow- with the defenceless confidence of sleep. ed, the various tones of colouring into But I do not propose to enter into one consistent frame of harmony. any explanation of the classic apo

At this time, when a taste for the logues respecting the arts. I have only fine arts has been so earnestly excited adverted to this one, for the present, in the metropolis of Scotland, it may to shew, that although they have been be useful both to the public and to rendered trite by the incessant referartists to bring occasionally together ence to them in college versés, they are some of the most authenticated notices still curious lessons, and contain more respecting their progress and history, than meets the ear. and for this object I would now and Historians differ about the birththen beg admission into a corner of place of sculpture. But the art was your agreeable Miscellany. Without undoubtedly early cherished in Asia. prescribing to myself any precise rule Laban, we are informed, adored idols; either of theoretical investigation or of abominated by Jacob. Some, however, historical research, I propose, from are of opinion, that the Ethiopians time to time, to send you the substance were the first who employed visible of such memoranda as I have happen- symbols as objects of adoration,g and ed to accumulate in my common place that of course they were the inventors book, either from books or conversa of sculpture. Others ascribe' the intion with artists. What I have glean- vention to the Chaldeans, and refer, ed from the latter will perhaps pose in proof of their hypothesis, to the sess some originality. It will, how statue erected by nus in honour of ever, be necessary now and then to his father. But the Greek philosoadvert to two or three circumstances phers considered Egypt as the cradle with which every school-boy is ac of the arts; and Plato says, that works quainted, but things never become of painting and sculpture may be trite until they have been previously found in Egypt executed ten thousand admired, and it should be recollected years ago. Pausanius thought that at that the art of teaching by apologues first the priests exhibited a stone, or has given rise to many fables which the trunk of a tree, as the emblems of are still referred to as beautiful, al- their gods. Herodotus, the father of though the original application of profane history, says, that the ancient them is no longer remembered. For Egyptians were accustomed to carve the example, few cursory readers are de one end of a stick into the form of a ware that the elegant fable of the daugh- head, and, with scarcely more art, to ter of Debutotes sketching the profile trace a few imperfect lines on the other of her sleeping lover by his shadow into a resemblance of feet. In this on the wall, is a parable invented to state they transmitted the art of sculp

Pliny lib. xxix. Cap. ix.
* Genesis, chap. xxxi. and xxxv.

+ Cavaliere Ferro, vol. i. p.

41. $ Contarino il Vago, p..


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ture to Greece. Pausanius mentions, cients. It is at least doubtful if the that there was an ancient statue at Apollo Belvidere is the same statue of Pygolia, which served to illustrate the which Pliny speaks in such terms of history of the arts, the feet and hands admiration as the work of Scopias.of which were closely joined to the The Venus by this artist was one of body, similar, no doubt, to the E- the ornaments of ancient Rome--but gyptian statues in the British Museum. it is now unknown. He was the ar

The first attempts in sculpture were chitect of the mausoleum which Arlino doubt with flexible materials, such misia raised to the memory of her husas clay or wax. The next were pro

band one of the wonders of the bably with wood, and then marble world. The standard by Polectetis is metal, as requiring the aid of another lost-a statue in which all the most art, was perhaps the last material em. beautiful proportions of the human fiployed by the genius of sculpture. gure were so admirably preserved, that

The earliest among the Greeks who it was constantly referred to by artists wrought in marble, were the sons of as a model, and thus acquired the name Dedalus, Dipænus and Scyllis, * who of the Standard. The Media of Eutilived in the first Olympiad, that is, crates is also no longer known to exist. about 576 years before Christ. Phi- The critics in the time of Praxiteles were dias, who flourished about 120 years divided in their opinion with respect ater, carried the art to its utmost pere to his two Venuses and his Phryne ; fection. It has certainly not since apa but he himself preferred his Satyr, proached the same degree of excel- and particularly his Cupid, to all his lence, if we admit the Athenian mar- works, and they also are no more. bles in the British Museum to be his The story of Pygmalion is of itself a works; and if they were not his works, striking comment on the excellence of as there is some reason to believe, we the lost statues of antiquity; and that haye still but an imperfect conception of the Colossus of Rhodes shows how of the improvements of which the art far superior in the magnificence of the is susceptible.

art the ancients were to the moderns. On one occasion, when a party of Glicones of Athens, who produced the artists were dining with Sir Joshua Farnesian Hercules, doubtless left oReynolds, while Burke and Dr John- ther works, which, if not in the same son were present, the conversation degree, were probably in the same turned on this very subject. Sir high style of art, but they have all Joshua observed, that it was impossi- perished. At Agrigentum 1 saw the ble to understand what was meant a- foot of a colossal Juno, belonging to mong the Greeks, by their saying that the late Mr Fagan, in point of executhe art of sculpture was in its decline tion, and greatness of style, equal to in the days of Alexander the Great any thing that lately adorned the the Apollo Belvidere and the Venus Louvre. But although the utmost de Medici being considered as the diligence was employed to find the reproductions of that illustrious epoch; mainder of the statue, the search was and neither the ingenuity of Burke, fruitless. At Syracuse, a headless Venor the erudition of Johnson, could nus was lately discovered, which, in solve the enigma. But the merits of the opinion of many good judges, is the sculptures of the Parthenon were superior to the Venus de Medicis. then unknown; I mean the Elgin The Jews have never been consideror more properly the Athenian mar ed as entitled to any merit as artists,

and it should be borne in and it has been supposed that the promind, that even they were placed in hibition in the Second Commandment the exterior of the edifice, merely for has been the cause of their deficiency the purpose

of decoration. The statue in the arts. But the prohibition only of the Goddess by Phidias was in the referred to idols of adoration, for Moses interior of the temple.

himself, the oracle of the command, It might be objected to as a para- made the brazen serpent; and Solodox, to say that none of the master- mon, their wisest king, dealt largely pieces of the sculptors of antiquity in sculptured pomegranates, to say nohave yet been acquired by the mo- thing of the twelve oxen which supderns, but it is certain that none of ported the brazen sea, or of the golden those, which we consider as such, were lions that adorned the steps of his particularly famous among the an throne. As for the cherubim, of which


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* Pliny, lib. xxxvi. cap. iv.

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