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we read so much, I beg for the in- have acquired a pre-eminence far above formation of our churchyard sculptors those of any other nation. The Moses to mention, that “ a learned student of Michael Angelo, for example, in of recondite lore” has assured me that appropriateness of character, is one of the cherubim were not human figures the most perfect creations that ever with wings, but circles representing rose from beneath the chisel; and it the signs of the zodiac.

has been said, that in this respect it The Romans were tardy in their may be classed with the Minerva and cultivation of the art of sculpture, the Jupiter of Phidias. It has indeed which was perhaps owing also to the fixed, as it were, an unalterable standinfluence of that ancient law of Nu- ard, by which every subsequent atma, noticed by St Augustine * in the tempt to embody the form of the Jew. controversy respecting the introduc- ish Lawgiver will not only be estition of images, particularly of God mated, but must also, in some degree, the Father into the churches. In resemble in air, features, and expres. fact, the ancient Romans are not sion. Michael Angelo, however, was considered as having made any great not always uniformly successful. His degree of proficiency in the fine arts, statue of the Saviour, the companion notwithstanding the magnitude of of the Moses, is a complete failure. their architectural remains; and even The benevolent character of Jesus was in architecture they were far inferior a subject not suited to his vehement to the Greeks, who distinctively settled genius; and the statue is scarcely one the embellishments of the several or degree above a commo academical fi. ders, by which their buildings ob- gure-framed according to rule, and tained that appropriateness of character faultless without merit. In his suthat at once declared the use for which blime work on the day of judgment, they were erected, and rendered them the same inconsistency may be observed. models to all succeeding ages. The The single figures are without any apRomans, in the best epoch of their propriate character, without any extaste, followed the Greeks, but de pression applicable to their tremendous viating from their chaste models, situation, but the groups are comadopted that false principle which posed with admirable skill

. Still, supposes a beauty in ornament inde- however, even as single figures, they pendent of propriety of application or have great merit; and although they of fitness of place. The fragments of are but the ingenious adaptation of this corruption of taste, our own ar. legs, arms, and heads, to the celechitects for a long period were in the brated Torso, which bears his name, practice of imitating, but as I shall and which served as the model to most have an opportunity on some other of his figures, they are nevertheless occasion of noticing more particularly the productions of a masterly hand. the progress and state of the arts in The first modern artist who underthis country, I refrain for the pre- stood the principle of giving to his fisent from adverting to this branch of gures the peculiar expression belongthe subject. It may, however, be so ing to their situation and character, far requisite in the meantime, to ex was Leonardo da Vinci, and he carplain, that the effect of this false prin- ried it to the highest point of excel. ciple of taste in architecture, is equi- lence in his picture of the Last Supvalent to that uninteresting beauty per. The appropria:e character which which we sometimes meet with in he has given to the apostles in that historical pictures ;—where, though great composition, the significance of every figure is in correct proportion, expression in their several faces, all well drawn, and with drapery elegantly show that the point of time by the artfolded, yet not being employed ap- ist, is when our Saviour said, “There propriately to the subject, the general is one amongst you who shall betray composition is but a mere academical me." But he failed in the head compilation,unadorned with the impress of the Saviour. He had exhaustof that mental conception which consti- ed his powers of characteristic discritutes the highest quality of refined art. mination in the heads of the apostles;

But if the ancient Romans are not and in his attempt to blend meekness entitled to rank high as artists, the and dignity in the figure of Christ, painters and sculptors of modern Rome he produced only insipience. He had

* St Augustine, Vol. V. cap. xxxi. page 38.

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the prudence, however, to leave the painting, than from these two wonface unfinished, that the imagination derful efforts of art. When we con

of the beholder might not be disap- sider the combination of excellencies cter, is

pointed by an unworthy image, but requisite to produce the sublime în

form in his own mind one more ae- painting, the union of propriety with Chisel; c:

cordant to his feelings and the subject. dignity of character the graceful his respon

Pleasing as the works of Leonardo da grouping--the majestic,folding of the Mineri

Vinci are in general, had he not pro- drapery, and the deep and sombrous It hasiat

duced the Last Supper, and the cartoon tones of the clear obscure with approIterable si

of the Combatants for the Standard, he priate colours all blending into one Ibsequenti

would scarcely have emerged above magnificent whole--there is no picture

the level of mediocrity, for his pic- more justly entitled to this highest monly be ?

tures, generally speaking, are more re- epithet of excellence, than the As

markable for laborious finishing than sumption of the Virgin, by Fra. Barte din

for the impress of intellectual power. tholomeo de St Marco, at Lucca." and a

The St Mark of Fra. Bartholomeo When the works of Michael Angelo, Rowera,

de St Marco, for appropriate and cha- Leonardo da Vinci, and Bartholomeo cessful. I

racteristic expression, is one of the de St Marco, were attracting the admost successful efforts of modern ta miration of all the judges of refined lent; but none of the other works of art, Raphael, having attained his adult this artist, except one, possess the age, came to Florence. The sensi. same degree of excellence. As that bility of his mind was like the softenone is but little known to our trayel ed wax, which makes more visible ling connoisseurs, it may be interesting and distinct the form of the engraving to give some account of it; and I am with which it is impressed. Blest enabled to do so, from the portfolio of with this happy natural endowment, one of the most eminent modern artists, he became at once heir, as it were, to

“ The picture is on pannel, and its the treasures and experience of all his dimensions somewhere about twenty predecessors; and availing himself of feet in height, by fourteen in width. the examples afforded by the discover. The subject is the Assumption of the ies of the Grecian relics, he combined, Virgin. The composition is divided by the tuition of his own genius, and into three groups. The apostles and a well practised hand, a power to unthe sepulchre form the centre group, fold his conceptions. In the exercise from the midst of which the virgin of this power, he has attained unrivalled descends. Her body-drapery is of a excellence. But the peculiar merits and deep ruby colour, the only decided red defects of the productions of this extrain the picture, and her mantle blue, ordinary young man are of too high and but in depth of tone approaching to various a kind to be discussed in the black, and extended by angels to near- present paper. I have, indeed, already ly each side of the picture. This extended the limits which I prescribed mantle is relieved by a light, resem to myself, nor should I have said so bling the break of day seen over the much but for the purpose of intimatsummit of a dark mountain, which ing that there is a great deal of curigives an awful grandeur to one effect ous moral matter connected with the of the first view of the picture, on en history of the arts, altogether indetering the chapel in which it is placed pendent of the merits of particular over the altar. That awful light makes works, or the genius of particular ara fine harmonious contrast to the gol- tists. The fine arts, as they have apden effulgence above, in the midst of peared in different ages, constitute the which the Saviour is seen with ex- visible history of the human mind, panded arms, coming from a brighter and those who regard painting and region of glory to receive and welcome sculpture merely as contributing to the his mother. When I saw this sub- embellishment of our social pleasures, lime composition, I was affected with look only at the surface of the subject. an emotion of religious enthusiasm, as It is necessary, however, to take care when I heard, for the first time, the that we do not refine overmuch, and harmonious blendings of vocal sounds yield to the metaphysical suggestions in the solemn notes of Non nobis Do- of the imagination, a credence and aumine. I never felt more forcibly the thority which history refuses to cone dignity of music and the dignity of firm. VolVI.



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Fossil Whales.--In a former Number we Colouring of Agate.-Dr Macculloch of gave an account of a fossil whale discovered Woolwich, in an interesting communication at Airthrie, and now deposited in the Edin- to the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, burgh College Museum. Similar remains, informs us that the beautiful black and we understand, have been discovered in the white zoned agates, sold by lapidaries, are Carse of Falkirk, and in the county of Ayr. prepared by first boiling the specimens in A good many years ago the remains of two oil, and afterwards in sulphuric acid. The whales were discovered in the alluvial soil oil is absorbed by certain laminæ, and of the river Po in Italy, and at Castel Arquato. these become black when the stone is ex. Both of these specimens, although very im- posed to the action of the sulphuric acid. perfect, and much inferior in magnitude to Mineralogical Map of Scotland.-Profes the whale of Airthrie, were considered of sor Jameson has been employed for many, such value that they were sent as magnific years in investigating the mineralogical cent donations by Beauharnois, formerly structure of his native country, and has now, Viceroy of Italy, to the Museum of Milan. we understand, collected so extensive a series

Dr Crichton's Mineralogical Cabinet. of facts and observations, that he will soon We have often heard of the Mineralogical present to the public a Map of the MineraCabinet of Dr Crichton, physician to the logy of Scotland. Dr M'Culloch, who has Emperor of Russia, and regretted that no been employed in mineral researches in catalogue of it had been published. A Scotland, at the expense of government, few weeks ago we received from Peters. has it also in agitation to publish a map burgh, an excellent catalogue lately pub- illustrative of the geology of this country. lished of this admirable collection, which

English Gold. Some fine specimens of appears to exceed in richness, beauty, and scientific interest, all the numerous collec native English gold have been presented to tions hitherto made in the north of Europe. Hawkins, Bart. through the hands of Earl

the Royal Institution, by Sir Christopher On a future occasion we shall lay before our readers some extracts from this catalogue.

Spencer. They were found lately, while Geology of the Cape of Good Hope.-It Streaming for tin, in the parish of Ladock, would appear from a paper of Professor

Cornwall ; some of the pieces weigh each 60 Jameson, in the last number of the Edin. grains. Native English gold has also been burgh Philosophical Journal, that the pe

found lately in Devonshire, by Mr Flex.

man of South Molton. It occurs in the reninsula of the Cape of Good Hope, is an enormous crystallized mass of quartz, fel. fuse of the Prince Regent mine, in the paspar, and mica, in the form of granite, covered in 1810, and worked for copper,

rish of North Molton ; the mine was disgneiss, clay slate, and sand stone.

The Shetland Cod Bank.The notice of the but was discontinued in May 1818. Cod Bank lately discovered in Shetland, refuse is a ferruginous fragmented quartz published in a former Number of our Marock, and contains the gold in imbedded gazine, has, we understand, attracted the grains and plates. Gold has been reported particular attention of those interested in

to be found in some other mines in that the Fisheries. It is likely to prove a source

neighbourhood. of great wealth, not only to the Shetland Age of the Human Species. In the last islands, but to the country in general. We number of the Edinburgh Philosophical are informed that the fishing of last season

Journal, we find the following very interest. has been very productive.

ing statement in regard to the age of the Marble in Lord Reay's Country in Suther. human species. land.-Professor Jameson, it is said, has Discovery of Human Skulls in the lately examined the mineralogical structure same formation as that which contains reof the county of Sutherland, and particu- mains of Elephants, Rhinoceri, fe.larly the strata of marble in Lord Reay's Some years ago Admiral Cochrane presented country. He is of opinion, that the dark to the British Museum a human skeleton, variegated marble, which occurs in great incased in a very compact alluvial aggrega. beds on the north coast, ought to be quar- tion of coral and other similar matters ried and brought to the market, as its tex. This curious specimen was at first consider. ture is excellent and its colours good. ed as a true secondary limestone, and there.

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fore as affording evidence that the human that of the air was only 28o. Now, as this species had been called into existence during difference of temperature will be a maximum the formation of the secondary strata. about sunrise, the current'of air issuing from Geologists pointed out the inaccuracy of this the crevices will produce sounds which may

opinion, and proved that the enclosing mass be modified by its impulse against the elastic ELLIGEN was not a portion of the older strata of the films of mica that may project into the cre

crust of the earth, but merely a portion of vices. Messrs Jomard, Jollois and Deone of those calcareous formations daily villiers heard, at sunrise, in a monument taking place on the shores of the West India of.granite, placed at the centre of the spot Islands. It is well known to geologists, on which the Palace of Karnak stands, a

that several extensive tracts in Germany are noise resembling that of a string breaking. ale.-- Dr Mai covered with a deep deposite of calcareous Humboldt's Personal Narrative, vol. iv. teresting come tuffa, which contains fossil remains of the Meteoric Phenomenon called the Lantern

Philosophial! mastodonton, megatherium, Irish elk, (Alci of Maracaybo..This luminous phenomenon te beaniful a gigantea, Blum.), and elephant (Elephas is seen every night on a mountainous and sold by bopiti primigeni), and other colossal animals, which uninhabited spot on the borders of the river Žiling the spark

are now considered as extinct. In this very Catatumbo, near its junction with the Sulia. za sulphuries

ancient alluvial formation, human skulls have Being nearly in the meridian of the opening certain lai

been discovered ; and if the statements given of the Lake of Maracaybo, navigators are when the

in regard to this interesting discovery, at guided by it as by a lighthouse. This light the sulphrest

Meissen in Saxony, be correct, we have oba is distinguished at a greater distance than tained a proof of the co-existence of the hu- 40 leagues. Some have ascribed it to the man race, with the gigantic megatheria, effects of a thunder-storm, or of electrical elks, and elephants.

explosions, which might take place daily in Geology of Shetland Islands. Dr Hib a pass in the mountains; while others pre

bert of Manchester, at present resident in tend that it is an air volcano. M. Palacios ed so extensi

Edinburgh, has published the first part of observed it for two years at Merida. Hyhis geological description of the Shetland drogen gas is disengaged from the ground Islands, in the second number of the Edin in the same district : this gas is constantly

burgh Philosophical Journal. It would ap- accumulated in the upper part of the cavern ineral method

pear from the details there given, that Dr Del Serrito de Monai, where it is generally Hibbert considers nearly the

whole of Shet set on fire to surprise travellers. See Hum. land as of primitive formation ; and the re boldt's Personal Narrative, vol, iv. p. 254.

sult of one grand and simultaneous process Atmospherical or Meteoric Dust.-Profine spi of crystallization. This view of primitive fessor Rafinesque of New York, in a paper

rocks, although it may be objected to by on atmospheric dust, maintains, that an the mere collectors of specimens, and closet imperceptible dust falls at all times from speculators, is not the less likely to be a the atmosphere, and that he has seen it on plausible interpretation of nature.- Professor mount Ætna, on the Alps, on the Alleghany Jameson, in the first number of the Edin- and Castskill mountains in America, and burgh Philosophical Journal, proposes the also on the Ocean. This is the same dust same opinion, and has there given such dem which accumulates in our apartments, and tails as incline us to view this speculation in renders itself peculiarly visible in the beams a favourable light; and as one likely to

He has found it to accumulate improve geological science.

at the rate of from one-fourth of an inch to Felspar, and Pitchstone, varieties of the one inch in a year, but in such a fleecy same species. In the islands of Arran, state, that it could be compressed to oneMull, Egg, and Skye, pitchstone occurs in third of its height. Hence he takes the beds, veins, and embedded masses, in rocks average of the yearly deposite at about oneof various descriptions. It appears to run sixth of an inch.-American Journal - of into felspar, thus shewing that it is nearly Science, No. iv. p. 397. allied to that substance, and indeed, that Royal Geological Society in Cornwall. the two substances are probably varieties of This flourishing society. owes much to its the same species. In the mineral system, former secretary, Dr Parys, and to the acpitchstone ought to be placed near compact tive and enlightened exertions of Davies felspar, and under the name Resinous Gilbert, Esq. M.P. Lord de Dunstanville, Felspar.

and the present accomplished and learned Subterraneous Sounds in Granite Rocks.

secretary, Dr Forbes.

At the anniversary M. Humboldt was informed by most credi. meeting held at Penzance, end of Septemble witnesses, that subterraneous sounds, ber, many valuable papers were read, of like those of an organ, are heard towards which the following list has been published.

rise, by those who sleep upon the granite 1. On the Im ance of Mineralogical rocks on the banks of the Oroonoko. He and Geological Knowledge to the practical supposes them to arise from the difference Miner ; by Dr Forbes, the secretary. of temperature between the external air and 2. On the Granite Veins of Cornwall; by the air in the narrow and deep crevices of Mr Joseph Carne. the shelves of rocks. During the day, these 3. Dr Forbes on the Geology of St Mi. crevices are heated to 48° or 50°. The tem chael's Mount. perature of their surface was often 39°, when 4. On Elvan Courses, by Davies Gilbert,

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Esq. M.P. Vice-President of the Royal So. Suicides in Paris.- The number of suis ciety, President.

cides committed and attempted in Paris and 5. On the Temperature of Mines, by Mrits environs in the four months of January, R. W. Fox.

February, March, and April, amounted to 6. On the Temperature of Mines, by Dr 124. Of these persons 33 were women ; Forbes.

64 of them were single, and 60 had been 7. On the Geology of the West of Cornó married. The greater number destroyed life wall, Part II. by Dr Forbes.

by the use of fire arms, the vapour of char8. Appendix to the above, by Professor coal, or by drowning ; 46 resorted to the Jameson.

last method. This period of the first fout Besides the above, there were several pa- months of this year, compared with the pers presented which there was not time to same period of the last year, offers an excess read; among which were a paper by the of 41 suicides. Rev. Mr Greathead ; a short account of the By the end of June the number amount: coal field of Pontypool by Mr Llewellyn; ed to 199, of which 137 were committed by à valuable paper by Mr R. W. Fox, on the men, and 62 by women ; 102 of these were Transmission of Heat through different sură married, and 97 were unmarried. These have faces ; Mr König on the Cornish Minerals been arranged in a sort of scale according to in the British Museum.

the causes, thus for love, 17; illness, disPreservati on of Water at Sea.-M. Per. taste of life, insanity, domestic trouble, 65; net, after an examination of the means bad conduct, gaming, lottery, 28; misery, which are, or may be, adopted for the pre- poverty, deranged affairs; 47 ; fear of reservation of fresh water at sea, gives the pre- proaches and punishment, 6: unknown ference to the following: 14 parts of oxide motives, 36; in the whole 199, of which of manganese in powder is mixed with 250 53 were unsuccessful attempts, and 146 parts of water, and agitated every fifteen were completed. days. In this way water has been preserv Submarine Volcano near Shetland. The ed unchanged for seven years.

late Rev. George Low, author of the Fauna The editor of the Annales de Chimie ob- Orcadensis, in a tour through the Shetland serves, that oxide of manganese has the Islands during the summer of 1774 (the power, not only of preserving water, but of MS. of which is in the possession of Dr Hibrendering that sweet which has become pu- bert), collected some curious information trid ; but he also points out the important from the island of Fetlar, which appears to circumstance, that the oxide is slightly solu- have fixed the site of a submarine volcano ble in water, and therefore recommends the at no great distance from the British Isles. use of iron tanks for the water, as in Eng. The late Andrew Bruce, Esq. of Urie, in a land.

statistical account of the Island, communi. Simultaneous existence of Salt and Fresh cated to Mr Low, says, “ In 1768, we had Water Mollusca, in the Gulf of Livonia. the visible signs of a submarine shock, which The difficulty experienced in Geology, of threw ashore vast quantities of shell-fish of explaining the simultaneous existence in different kinds, and of all sizes, with conget certain strata of salt and fresh water shells, eels, and other sorts of fish, but all dead; and also the importance, perhaps exaggerat at the same time, the sea, for several miles ed, which many persons have attached to round, was of a dark muddy colour for sethis discovery, induced M. Beudant, some veral days after.” years since, to undertake experiments, with Calculation of the Period of a Second the view of ascertaining if it were possible Deluge. According to the calculations of to habituate marine shell mollusca to live in the learned astronomer of Bremen, M. Ol. fresh water, and, vice versa, fresh water shell bers, after a lapse of 83,000 years, a comet mollusca to live in salt water. It appeared will approach to the earth in the same prox from the results obtained, that these changes imity as the moon; after 4,000,000 years it could really take place, but the mixture of will approach to the distance of 7,700 geothese two sorts of animals in the same wa graphical miles, and then, if its attraction ter had not been observed in nature. M. equals that of the earth, the waters of the de Freminville, lieutenant of a vessel, a ocean will be elevated 13,000 feet, and a zealous cultivator of the sciences of Zoology deluge will necessarily ensue! after a lapse and Geology, has announced, in a letter to of 220,000,000 years, it will clash with the M. Brongniart, dated February 11, 1819, earth. this curious discovery." The lesser degree Strength of Ætna Wines. The followof saltness of the waters of the Baltic Sea is ing wines were furnished to me by Mr more sensible in the Gulf of Livonia than Ridgway. The specific gravity of the al. any where else. It is such that the fresh cohol, of which the proportions per cent. are water mollusca live there very well ; and I given beneath, is 825 at 60° F. have found on the shores of Unios, Cycla Ætna red contained 18.9 per cent. des, and Anodontes, living intermingled Ætna white 18.16 ditto. with cardiums, tellenes, and Venus's, shell Ætna Sercial 19 ditto. fish which generally live in the most salt Ætna white Falernian 18.99 ditto. waters." -Journal de Physique, July 17, Ætna red Falernian 20 ditto. M. F. 1812.

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