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And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his áss, and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for a burntoffering, and rose úp, and went unto the place of which God had told him. Gen. xxii. 3.

By dividing this passage into such portions as the sense may very well permit, and attending to the position of the inflections, the meaning of the whole may be conveyed with greater clearness to the mind, and accompanied with more harmony to the ear. Whether the object is accomplished in the following arrangement, must be left to the reader's judgment:

And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, , and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his són, | and clàve the wood for a búrnt-offering, and ròse úp, and went unto the place of which Gód had told him.

3. Sometimes the construction of a sentence will cause the inflections to fall readily into triplets, which will be harmonious in the following order,''', and '"\; or'\', and '':

1. We may compare hùman lífe

to a tále told by an idiot. 2. We may compare hùman life

toa tàle told by an idiot.

This method is applicable to the enumeration of single words:

1. Manufactures, tråde, and agriculture, naturally employ more than nineteen parts of the species in twenty; or, 2. manufactures, trade, and agriculture, &c.; or, 3, more than nineteen parts of the species in twenty are employed in manufactures, trade, and agriculture ; or, 4. in manufactures, trade, and agriculture.

4. When a long series of single words occurs ; they may be arranged into portions of threes or fours :

The fruit of the spirit is lóve, jóy, peace,-longsuffering, gentleness, goodness—fáith, meekness, tèmperance.


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The word Cadence is used in various senses. It is sometimes employed to signify the downward slide which takes place upon a single word at the end of most sentences. It sometimes implies the gradual descent which commences after the voice has attained the highest inflection in a sentence, and continues to the end of it, terminating in a tone less loud, and, as some writers assert, with a note one fifth below the key-note, or that with which the sentence began.

In the present work, Cadence is restricted to the last sentence of a paragraph, applying however to the whole of that sentence, and not merely to the latter part of it. The purposes of such cadence are to apprize the hearers that the reader is drawing towards a close, and to render the conclusion harmonious as well as distinct.

Rule XIX. A cadence is formed by beginning the concluding sentence in a lower voice, and sometimes with a more deliberate utterance, than have been adopted in the preceding sentence, and by introducing a harmonious alternation of inflections gradually lowering.

The most agreeable arrangement of these inflections is produced by dividing them into double pairs in reversed order. When words in the final sentence will admit such a disposition, the cadence will always be pleasing to the ear:


Ex. The immortality of the soul is the basis of morality, and the source of all the pléasing hòpes' and sècret jóys, that can arise in the heart of a réasonable créature *.

(a) The cadence in rhyming verse, as well as in blank verse, is aided by lengthening the pause in the penultimate line, and by giving considerable force to the disjunctive slide which would be used there :

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* A (') above the line, denotes a brief pause.

A bráve man, struggling' in the storms of fate,
And greatly falling' with a falling stàte. Pope.
Théy' hand in hand, with wandering steps and slów,
Through E'den took’ their sólitary way. Milton.

In any other situation than at the end of a paragraph, the word 'struggling' in the former of these passages, and the word “hand' in the latter, would have received the rising inflection, or at least a continuative tone.

(b) Where the concluding sentence supplies four accented words, the cadence may be effected by lowering the voice, and introducing two pairs of alternate inflections, with a pause between them. A long pause should precede the sentence :

I will hear thee, says he, when thine accusers are come.—And he commanded him to be képt' in Hérod's judgment-hall. Acts xxiii. last verse.

(c) When the concluding sentence supplies only three accented words, the first receives the rising or falling, the second the rising, and the last the falling inflection :

And he préached in the sy'nagogues of Galilee. Luke iv. last verse.

And God saw every thing that he had made, and behold, it was very good.—And the evening and the mórning' were the sixth day. Gen. i. last verse.

Then took they up stones to cast at him: but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and só' passed by'. John viii. last verse.

(d) When only two words can be selected to form a cadence, particular care must be taken to observe the pauses and to lower the voice :

And he took and sent messes unto them from before him; but Benjamin's mess was five times so much as any of theirs.-And they dránk, and were mèrry. Gen. xliii. last verse.'

N.B. In this and the foregoing example it is to be observed, that no aid towards forming a cadence can be gained from the preceding verse.

(e) A peculiarity of construction and the position of some emphatic words, sometimes render the above rules inapplicable.

In the following example, the concluding word “watch' seems to give the sentence a double ending. To assist in conveying the idea of its being the final verse of the chapter, and at the same time to express the sentiment with due force, a pause may be introduced after the first word in the sentence, and a long pause before the last :

An'd—what I say unto you, I say unto all-WÀTCH Mark xiii. last verse.

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