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The meaning of this awful warning is sometimes enfeebled by being read thus :
And what I say unto you, I sày unto áll—Watch.
RULE XX. The continuative tone, or apparent monotone, is capable of adding much variety and dignity to solemn and sublime passages; and is very applicable to the reading of many parts of Scripture and of the ChurchService.
High on a throne of royal state, which far
The apparent monotone in the third and fourth lines, will form an agreeable and striking contrast to the subsequent marked inflections.
The word emphasis, etymologically con
* These remarks on emphasis are taken, slightly altered, from Rees's Cyclopædia, as quoted in Grant's Grammar of the English language. P. 372.
sidered, denotes showing or pointing out for observation, and as applied to speech, it means the marking, by any considerable alteration of the voice, either a word or a phrase as more important than other parts of a sentence, or such words or phrases as are assimilated to; or contrasted with each other.
Emphasis may be effected in several ways: by more forcible, and, in general, by louder utterance; by slower utterance; by variation of inflection; and by a combination of any two or of all these variations.
In the application of the preceding several species of emphasis, the following varieties require principal attention:
1. The OBJECTIVE EMPHASIS, or emphasis of import, i. e. the stress of voice by which proportionate importance is given to the word or words conveying the substantive matter or leading object of the sentence; as,
." I am desirous of being acquainted with the nature of man.” That is to say, " the nature of man is a subject to which I am desirous of directing some inquiry;"
an idea which may be expressed either with reference to some other subject, or without any such reference whatever. In which latter case, no antithesis is either expressed or implied ; and the simple emphasis of import is
expressed by an increased stress of the voice thrown upon the inflections which would be employed in pronouncing the compound name of that object, namely,
“ The nature of màn.” This emphasis might be strengthened, if requisite, by slower utterance.
2. ANTITHETIC EMPHASIS, or that characteristic stress and inflection of the voice, by which the opposition between two ideas, or parts of a compound idea, is pointed out, and emphatically impressed upon the mind. The antithesis may be either expressed or implied. Of the direct or expressed antithesis we have an illustration in the following sentence:
“It is not with the nature of ma'n that I am desirous of becoming acquainted, but with the nature of Gòd ;"
in which, man and God are the emphatically antithetic words, the former is pronounced with the suspensive slide, carried in a continuative tone over the rest of the member; and the latter with the conclusive slide.
When there are several contrasted parts, all of which are expressed, emphatic force, though admissible in the pronunciation, is not always required. The meaning will be clearly con
veyed if the opposed words receive opposite inflections :
Ex. Exténded èmpire, like expanded gold, exchanges sòlid strength for féeble splèndour.
In this sentence, the application of much or of little stress will be a matter of indifference, provided the inflections be properly arranged.
Implied antithesis. Let the preceding passage, “ I am desirous, &c.” be requoted with an emphasis on the word nature only, and that emphasis be expressed by a forcible falling inflection, in which a little of the upward slide is heard before the descent of the voice;
“ I am desirous of becoming acquainted with the NÀTURE-of-man;"
the words have changed, to a certain degree their signification ; an antithesis is implied, and the interpretation becomes,
“ It is not the history—the form-complexion, or any other particular incident relative to man, but his general nature, his physical and moral attributes, that I am desirous of knowing." Rees's CYCLOPÆDIA.
When the inflections are used in cases of implied antithesis, they may be distinguished by the names of the SUSPENSIVE and the STRONG BMPHASIS ; and the following rules respecting
the application of them notice:
RÚLE XXI. The SUSPENSIVE EMPHASIS declares positively; but leaves doubtful whether the implied antithesis is included or excluded.
Ex. I could not treat a dóg-ill.
This is a positive declaration; but whether I could ill treat other animals (the implied antithesis), is left doubtful.
RULE XXII. The STRONG EMPHASIS declares, positively, and at the same time either includes or excludes the implied antithesis * :
1. Exercise and temperance strengthen even an inDI'FFERENT-constitution; that is, not only a common constitution, but even an indifferent one.
Here the implied antithesis is included; for exercise and temperance would strengthen a common constitution, as well as an indifferent one.
2. He requires a VÒLUNTARY-service.
* Mr. Walker's definition says that the strong emphasis always excludes the antithesis ; consequently it must be inferred that exercise and temperance do not strengthen a common constitution. But as this is contrary to the fact, the definition appears to bé erronéouś.