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to the town of Zug, procured accommodation in a small house near the borders of the adjoining lake. Their rest in this secluded spot was of no long duration. Their rank and character being discovered, they were once more under the necessity of preparing to seek a place wherein they might be suffered to dwell unobserved and in peace. At this crisis, by the intercession of a kind friend in Switzerland, M. de Montesquiou, admission into the convent of Sainte-Claire, near Bremgarten, was procured for Mademoiselle d'Orleans and her instructress. Relieved of anxiety on account of his beloved sister, the Duke of Chartres commenced a series of wanderings in different countries of Europe, everywhere gaining a knowledge of men and things, and acquiring firmness from the adverse circumstances with which it was his lot to contend. Deprived of rank and fortune, an outlaw and an exile, he now was indebted alone to his own native energies and the excellent education which he had acquired.

The first place visited by the duke was Basle, where he sold all his horses but one, for the sum of sixty louis-d'ors, and with the remaining horse, along with Baudoin, a humble and faithful retainer, who insisted on remaining in his service, set out in prosecution of his journey. The cavalcade was affecting. Baudoin was ill, and could not walk. He was therefore mounted by his kind-hearted master on the back of the horse which had been reserved for his own use, and leading the animal in his hand, the Duke of Chartres issued from the gates of Basle. One can easily fancy the interest which must have been raised in the minds of the Swiss peasantry on witnessing such a manifestation of humane feeling.

An excursion of several months through some of the most picturesque and historically, interesting parts of Switzerland, while it gratified the love of travel, and enlarged the mind of the prince, also diminished his resources; and a time came when it was necessary to part with his remaining horse. From this period, with a knapsack on the back of his companion, the everattached Baudoin, and with staffs in their hands, the pair of wanderers pursued their journey on foot, often toilworn, and at last nearly penniless. On one occasion, after a toilsome journey, when they reached the hospitium of St Gothard, situated on an inclement Alpine height,* they were churlishly refused accommodation for the night, and were fain to seek shelter and repose beneath the shed of an adjoining inn. Courageously contending with privations in these mountain regions, the duke was at length reduced to the greatest straits, and it became necessary for him to think of labouring for his support. Yet, as labour is honourable in a prince as well as a peasant, there was not to this intrepid young man anything distressing in the consideration that he must toil for his daily bread. While he reflected on the best means of employing his talents for his support, a letter reached him from his friend M. Montesquiou, stating that he had obtained for him the situation of a teacher in the academy of Reichenau-a village at the junction of the two upper Rhines, in the south-eastern part of Switzerland. Glad of such a prospect of employment, the Duke of Chartres set out on his journey to Reichenau, where he shortly after arrived in the humble equipage of a pedestrian, a stick in his hand, and a bundle on his back, along with a letter of introduction to M. Jost, the head master of the establishment. Being examined by the officers of the institution, he was found fully qualified for his proposed duties, and though only twenty years of age, was unanimously admitted. Here, under the feigned name of Chabaud-Latour, and without being recognised by any one save M. Jost, he taught geography, history, the French and English languages, and mathematics, for the space of eight months. In this somewhat trying and new situation, he not only gave the highest satisfaction to his employers and pupils, but earned the esteem and friendship of the inhabitants of Reichenau.

*"How often,” says Madame de Genlis, in allusion to the trials and privations to which the Duke of Chartres was exposed after his escape from France_"How often, since his misfortunes, have I applauded myself for the education I had given him-for having taught him the principal modern languages for having accustomed him to wait on himself-to despise all sorts of effeminacy--to sleep habitually on a. wooden bed, with no covering but a mat-to expose himself to heat, cold, and rain -to accustom himself to fatigue by daily and violent exercise, and by walking ten or fifteen miles with leaden soles to his shoes and finally, for having given him the taste and babit of travelling. He had lost all he had inherited from birth and fortune-nothing remained but what he had received from nature and me!”

It was while here filling the post of a schoolmaster that the Duke of Chartres learned the tragical fate of his father. Some political movements taking place in the Grisons, Mademoiselle d'Orleans thought it proper to quit the convent at Bremgarten, and to join her aunt, the Princess of Conti, in Hungary. M. Montesquiou believed that he might now give an asylum to the prince, of whom his enemies had for some time lost all trace. The duke consequently resigned his office of teacher at Reichenau, receiving the most honourable testimonials of his behaviour and abilities, and retired to Bremgarten. Here he remained, under the name of Corby, until the end of 1794, when he thought proper to quit Switzerland, his retreat there being no longer a secret.

We now find the Duke of Orleans, as he was entitled to be called since his father's decease, once more a wanderer, seeking for a place of repose free from the persecution of the French authorities and their emissaries. He resolved to go to America, and Hamburg appeared to him the best place for embarkation. He arrived in that city in 1795. Here his expectation of funds failed him, and he could not collect sufficient pecuniary means to reach the United States; but being tired of a state of inactivity, and provided with a letter of credit for a small sum on a

Copenhagen banker, he resolved to visit the north of Europe. This banker succeeded in obtaining passports for him from the King of Denmark, not as the Duke of Orleans, but as a Swiss traveller, by means of which he was able to proceed in safety. He travelled through Norway and Sweden, seeing everything worthy of curiosity in the way, journeyed on foot with the Laplanders along the mountains, and reached the North Cape in August 1795.* After staying a few days in this region, at eighteen degrees from the pole, he returned through Lapland to Torneo, at the extremity of the Gulf of Bothnia. From Torneo he went to Abo, and traversed Finland; but dreading the vengeful character of Catherine, he did not enter Russia.

It must be acknowledged that Louis-Philippe was now turning the misfortunes of his family to the most profitable account. By bringing himself into contact with every variety of life, and adding the treasures of personal observation to the stores of learning with which his mind was fraught, he was preparing himself for that course of events which has given him such a powerful influence over the destinies of his own country and of Europe. The bold and rugged scenery of these arctic regions, and the simple and unpretending kindness of the inhabitants, must have produced a vivid impression upon a young man of his rank and previous pursuits, sent forth under such circumstances to commence his novitiate in the world.

After completing the examination of these ancient kingdoms, and after having been recognised at Stockholm, he proceeded to Denmark, and, under an assumed name, withdrew himself from observation. During his expedition, no improvement had taken place in his pecuniary resources or political prospects; but no reverses could shake the determination he had formed not to bear arms against France, and he declined the invitation of Louis XVIII.

* In the month of June 1844, the following paragraph, relative to the visit of LouisPhilippe to Hammerfest, appeared in the Voss Gazette, a Swedish newspaper :-" On the 2d, vice-consul Burk celebrated the 82d anniversary of his birthday. On the same day he received a letter from the king of the French, written with his own hand, accompanying á gold medal, bearing on one side the profile of his majesty, and on the other the following inscription :- Given by King Louis-Philippe to M. C. Burk, as a memorial of the hospitality received at Hammerfest in August 1795." The letter, which was dated at Neuilly, June 6th, is in these terms :- It is always agreeable to me to find that the traveller Müller has not been forgotten in a country which he visited in simple guise, and unknown; and I always recall with pleasure this journey to my mind. Among my recollections, I give the first place to the hospitality so frankly and cordially granted me, a stranger, throughout Norway, and particularly in Norland and Finmark: and at this moment, when a lapse of fortynine years since I made this journey into Norway has left me but few of my old hosts remaining, it is gratifying to me to be able to express to all in your person what grateful feelings I still entertain.'"

| For much of the account of Louis-Philippe's wanderings in Europe, and afterwards in America, we acknowledge ourselves indebted to “ France, its King, Court, and Government, by an American; (New York: Wiley and Putnam. 1840;") and professedly a republication of a paper in the North American Review. The work is described as being from a distinguished source; we believe a late ambassador of the United States to the court of Louis-Philippo.

to join the army under the Prince of Condé. The wandering prince had taken his measures with such prudence, that the French government had lost all traces of him, and the agents of the Directory were instructed to leave no means unemployed to discover his place of refuge. Attention was particularly directed to Prussia and Poland, in one or other of which countries he was thought to be. But these efforts were baffled, and were finally succeeded by an attempt of a different character, making such an appeal to the feelings of the son and brother, as left him no hesitation in accepting the offer of a more distant expatriation, which was made to him. A communication was opened between the Directory and the Duchess of Orleans; and she was given to understand, that if she would address herself to her eldest son, and prevail upon him to repair to the United States, her own position should be rendered more tolerable, and the sequestration removed from her property; and that her two youngest sons should be released, and permitted to join their brother in America. To this proposition the duchess assented, and wrote a letter to her son, recommending a compliance with the terms proposed, and adding-"May the prospect of relieving the suffering of your poor mother, of rendering the situation of your brothers less painful, and of contributing to give quiet to your country, recompense your generosity!"

The government charged itself with the despatch of this letter to the exile, and a new effort was made for his discovery. When other means had failed, their chargé-d'affaires at Hamburg applied to a Mr Westford, a merchant of that city, who, from some circumstances, was supposed to be in correspondence with the prince. This suspicion was well founded; but Mr Westford received with incredulity the declaration of the chargé-d'affaires, that his object, in opening a communication with the duke, was to convey to him a letter from his mother on the part of the government; and disclaimed all knowledge of his actual residence. He, however, immediately communicated to the duke a statement of what had taken place, and the latter determined to risk the exposure, in the hope of receiving a letter directly from his mother. He was actually in the neighbourhood of Hamburg, though in the Danish states, where he had changed his residence from time to time, as a due regard to secrecy required. An interview between the duke and the French chargé was arranged by Mr Westford at his own house in the evening; and there, after the receipt of his mother's letters, Louis signified at once his acceptance of the terms proposed, and his determination to embark' for the United States without delay. He immediately wrote a letter to his mother, commencing with the declaration-"When my dear mother shall receive

this letter, her orders will have been executed, and I shall have sailed for the United States."

The ship. "American,” Captain Ewing, a regular trader between Philadelphia and Hamburg, was then lying in the Elbe, preparing for departure.

The duke, passing for a Dane, applied to the captain, and engaged his passage for the usual amount, at that time thirty-five guineas. He had with him his faithful servant Baudoin, who had rejoined him in his travels, and whom he was solicitous to take with him across the Atlantic. But the captain, for some reason, seemed unwilling to receive this humble attendant, and told his importunate passenger that the services of this man would not only be useless to him upon the voyage, but that when he reached America, he would, like most servants, desert his master. He was, however, finally persuaded to yield, and the servant was received for seventeen and a half guineas.

The duke was anxious to escape observation in Hamburg, and asked permission of the captain to repair on board his ship, and remain a few days before her departure. The captain, with some reluctance, consented to this unusual proposition; though it afterwards appeared that this step, and the mystery which evidently surrounded his young passenger, had produced an unfavourable impression upon his mind.

Late in the night preceding the departure of the ship from the Elbe, when the duke was in his berth, an elderly French gentleman, destined to be his only fellow cabin passenger, came on board. He understood English badly, and spoke it worse; and perceiving the accommodations far inferior to those he had'anticipated, he set himself to find fault with much vehemence, but with a garrulity wonderfully checked by the difficulty he encountered in giving vent to his excited feelings in English. He called for an interpreter; and, not finding one, he gradually, wore away, if not his discontent, the expression of it, and retired to rest. In the morning, seeing the duke, his first inquiry was if he spoke French; and perceiving he did, he expressed his gratification, and said, “You speak very well for a Dane, and you will be able to get along without my instruction. You are a young man, and I am an old one, and you must serve as my interpreter.” To this the duke assented; and the old gentleman, who was a planter from St Domingo on his way to hisnative island, commenced the enumeration of his grievances. He had no teeth, and the cook no soft bread, and he said it was impossible to sail in a vessel not provided with the means of baking fresh bread; that such an arrangement existed on board all the French ships; and that he could not eat the American biscuit. The captain coolly told him, “There is my beef, and there is my bread; and if you are not satisfied with my fare, you can leave the ship.” The impatient planter, unwilling to relinquish the chance of revisiting his native country, thought

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