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descended, and through her trace a direct relationship to the line of Stuart, and the present royal family of England. While a child, Louis-Philippe was entitled Duke of Valois; but on his father succeeding to the title of Duke of Orleans in 1785, he became Duke of Chartres, which for a number of years he retained.

Whatever were the personal and political faults of Citizen Egalité, he was a kind father, and beloved by his children, five in number, one of whom, however, a daughter, died young. Desirous of imparting to his family a sound education, in which he himself had had the misfortune to be deficient, he committed them to the superintendence of Madame de Sillery-better known by her later adopted title of Countess de Genlis. Notwithstanding the subsequent errors of this lady, she was eminently qualified, by her talents and dispositions, to be an instructress of youth. The principles on which she based her plans of education were considerably in advance of the age, and such as are only now beginning to be generally understood. She considered that it was of the first importance to surround children almost from their cradle with happy and cheering influences, to the exclusion of everything likely to contaminate their minds or feelings. It was necessary, above all things, to implant in them a universal spirit of love-a love of God and his works, the consciousness that all was from the hand of an Almighty Creator and Preserver, who willed the happiness of his creatures. To excite this feeling in her young charge, she took every opportunity of arousing the sentiment of wonder with respect to natural phenomena, and then of explaining the seeming marvels on principles which an awakening intelligence could be led to comprehend. The other means adopted to form the character of her young pupils-the Duke of Valois, Duke of Montpensier, the Count Beaujolais, and their sister the Princess Adelaide were equally to be admired. While receiving instructions in different branches of polite learning, and in the Christian doctrines and graces, from properly qualified tutors, they learned, without labour or pain, to speak English, German, and Italian, by being attended by domestics who respectively conversed in these languages. Nor was their physical education neglected. The boys were trained to endure all kinds of bodily fatigue, and taught a variety of useful and amusing industrial exercises. At St Leu, a pleasant country residence near Paris, where the family resided under the charge of Madame de Genlis, the young princes cultivated a small garden under the direction of a German gardener, while they were instructed in botany and the practice of medicine by a medical gentleman, who was the companion of their rambles. They had also ateliers, or workshops, in which they were taught turning, basket-making, weaving, and carpentry. The young Duke of Valois took pleasure in these pursuits-as what boy would not, under proper direction, and if allowed scope for his ingenuity? He excelled in

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