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making of adobes to one, laying them in the building to a second, threshing wheat, &c., to a third, hauling grain from the field to a fourth, &c., &c. In this way the work progresses in perfect order, and all seem pleased at their participation in it.
The location of the reservation is, in my judgment, a good one—the best that could have been made. The soil is good, and well adapted to the cultivation of such products as are necessary for Indian subsistence. There is an abundance of oak timber at a convenient distance, and plenty of red-wood and pine in the mountains, at accessible points within fifteen miles. The lake within the limits of the reservation affords an abundant supply of fish of a good quality. Game is plenty, and a hunter, at ordinary wages, will furnish meat as cheaply as the beef that is now issued to the Indians. It is remote from the present settlements of our titizens, and will not, I think, for a long time to come, be a barrier even to the progressive and laudable spirit of our people in the settlement of new and remote portions of our Territory.
If the Indians are to be allowed any resting-place within the limits of the State, no attention, in my opinion, ought to be given to any clamor that might be raised against this location, as tending to embarrass the settlement and prosperity of the State.
On returning to San Francisco, I took the emigrant road, via Kern river, Tulare run, King's river, Four creeks, and Fort Miller, and the northern tributaries of the San Joaquin river, a distance of four hundred miles, for the purpose of seeing and conversing with the Indians in that region of the State. The following is a brief statement of their numbers, condition, and disposition in regard to removal, with such remarks as I have considered appropriate.
Kern River Indians number about 100, reside within forty miles of the reservation, and can be removed there at any time.
Posa Creek number 50; ten miles distant from Kern river; can also be removed whenever it may be deemed advisable. These two iribes being at peace with the whites, and having the means of obtaining support in their present home, their removal is not, at this time, a maiter of necessity. Tulare River number 300—subsist upon fish, acorns, and grass-seeds.
, They are not suffering; but this country is settling, and they ought to be removed. It can be done in the early part of next year. Four Creeks, the Y-Miiches, and Cowiahs, number 500. Their
present location interferes with the progressive settlement of the country, and they should be removed with sufficient despatch to give place to the enterprising pioneer. Tulare river and Four creeks embrace a large extent of agricultural country of surprising fertility, very desirable for settlement, and cannot continue much longer the home of these people.
King River, the Waches, Notoowthas, Ptolmes, and Chunemmes, number 1,000. They subsist upon fis.), grass-seeds, and acorns, and some of them obtain grain for their labor, and by gleaning the fields of the settlers. They are unwilling to remove, and are dissuaded from doing so by the white people residing upon this river. So long as they remain peaceable, and do not become demoralized by the vices of the whites, their removal may be postponed.
The San Joaquin Indians, five different tribes-Costrowers, Pitiaches, Talluches, Loomnears, Amonces-number 400, all of which, except the last-mentioned tribe, are in a most miserable and degraded condition. They reside in the mining region, and from an exposure of some four years to its influences, they are reduced to a condition of utter destitution, and to confirmed habits of idleness and dissipation, readily yielding to vices the most degrading and revolting, resulting in disease, which is gradually reducing their numbers. Their condition is too much demoralized, and disease too prevalent among them, to make their removal to Tejon, at this time, either expedient or proper. They require immediate attention and assistance, and will shortly be the subject of a special communication.
The Fresno River Indians are composed of five tribes—the Chowclas, Cookchaneys, Phonecha, Nookchue, and Howet er—and number 500. They are peaceable, quiet, and industrious, are making a good living, and wear clothes. Some of their chiefs and young men will go to the reservation this fall. They are contented where they are, but can easily be prevailed upon to remove.
The above-named tribes, numbering about three thousand souls, reside at an average distance of two hundred miles from the Tejon reservation. Their removal will not be expensive, and can be accomplished as speedily as the advances of the settlements, the interests of the government, or humanity to the Indians, will require.
The crops which will be planted this winter will in all probability be abundant for the support of those referred to, and all the other tribes within reach of the reservation; and in the course of next year a large number may easily be added to those now enjoying the benefits of the reservation.
To colonize the Indians in California, according to the plan now in progress, is a task which will require time, energetic and assiduous industry, and prudent and judicious management; without which, more than partial success need not be anticipated.
In speaking of the Indians between the reservation and the San Joaquin, my remarks are adapted to the policy of peaceable removal, without any attempt at coercion; but there are others with whom it may be necessary to adopt a very different policy-I refer to the tribes residing in the Sierra Nevada mountains, and in the valleys upon their eastern base, embracing the entire range from the Colorado to Oregon. They number several thousand, are hostile to the whites, and most of them are horse-thieves. Time and circumstances can alone determine the policy which should control our action towards them. From the San Joaquin northward to the Klanath there are some hundreds of small tribes, numbering several thousand souls, interwoven with the white people, and, as a general thing, are in a most miserable, degraded, and destitute condition. Disease, starvation, and death, in their most appalling forms, are to be witnessed in every ranchero. Those are the objects which should receive the first attention of the government.
Having placed the Tejon reservation in a condition not to require my personal supervision, it is my intention to devote my entire time, for the remainder of this year, to those the most destitute of all our California Indians. The disposition to be made of them, and the policy adopted towards them, will be the subject of a communication by the next mail. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
THOS. J. HENLEY,
Superintendent. Hon. G. W. MANYPENNY,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C.
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA,
August 29, 1854. Sir: Not deeming it my duty, in my official reports of the condition of things at the Tejon reservation, to allude to what might have been considered the delinquencies of my predecessor, to disparage the efforis he has made, the labor he has performed, or to interfere in any way with the reputation his friends seem so anxious to give him, I have as far as possible avoided any allusion to Mr. Beale which could be unpleasant to his feelings; but having observed in the National Intelligencer of the 13th of July last an article from which the enclosed was taken, I send herewith an extract of a letter just received from one of my assistants at Tejon. I instructed the writer to obtain and furnish me with correct information on all subjects connected with the past and present condition of the reservation. The statements made by my correspondent may be relied upon as strictly true. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
THOS. J. HENLEY,
Superintendent. Geo. W. MANYPENNY, Esq.,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C.
[Extract from the National Intelligencer.)
“Such was the confidence of the Indians in Mr. Beale, that delegations from tribes from every section of the State, and in some instances whole tribes, commenced at once removing to the Tejon, abandoning their homes forever, and carrying with them all their earthly property. Some, too far removed from the Tejon to make the journey by land, he sent down to San Pedro in a steamer, under the charge of an agent. In a short time several thousand Indians were collected on the reserve, and punctually on the day appointed, Superintendent Beale arrived.
“ After holding the necessary councils with the chiefs, a plan of operations was agreed upon. Nearly three thousand acres were put under the plough, and by last accounts the crops promised a most abundant return. I cannot, within these limits, enter into any details, but will only add that entire success has attended his effuris to ameliorate the condition of the Indians under his charge. He is daily re
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ceiving applications from tribes begging for admission into his colony. Nor is the reputation of the Tejon reserve confined to the western slope of the Sierra Nevada; it has spread eastward as far as the Rio de la Virgen and the Vegas de Santa Clara in Utah Territory, and bands of miserable Root-Diggers are now soliciting for admission."
[Extract from a letter enclosed by Superintendent Henley.)
September 22, 1854.
“ In the spring of 1850, an American named French settled in this valley, and built one of the adobe houses now in use on the reservation. His business was taking care of stock on shares; but in 1851, on account of Indian disturbances at the Four Creeks, and other outbreaks, he left the place. In May, 1852, Alonzo Ridley and David McKenzie came here for the purpose of trading with the Indians. After trading a short time, they left for about two months, and returning, took up their permanent residence. At the time of their first visit, and when they commenced their settlement, there were about three hundred Indians living here. They were called the Tejon Indians, and belonged to this valley. Their customs were, feasting and travelling a great deal, though they had then corn and whcut fields the same as at the present, except as regards quantity. They were very peaceable, and never committed any depredations on the whites. They were very improvident, and their liberality was unbounded. The mountain Indians, those in the immediate vicinity of the valley, from intermarriage with the Tejon Indians, have become one family. Many of them are what are called Mission Indians, having lived on the Spanish missions in time gone by. Some of them speak the Spanish language very well, and their conversation with the whites is held in this language. From what was taught them at the missions, they were enabled to plant and raise grain before the Americans came among them. When the old Spanish missions were secularized, these Indians were thrown back upon their former resources, though with the advantage of some knowledge of agriculture. On the opening of this reservation, this knowledge was practically displayed.
“ During the first year of the residence of Messrs. Ridley and McKenzie, the Indians were continually talking about the Americans, and expecting the agents and presents from our government so lavishly promised by Colonel Barbour in 1851. They had heard, also, that their treaties had not been ratified by our government, and grew discontented. Numerous tales were in circulation among them to the effect that the Americans intended killing them all, and for that reason they were anxious to commence killing first. The position of the Americans, at times, was by no means pleasant.
“Mr. Beale, the former superiniendent of Indian affairs, first visited the valley in August or Sopember, 155, one year since, for the purpose of st lecting a reservation for the Indians. At that time, the nunber of Indians actually residing here was about three hundred and fifty. When he had determined on making this a reservation, he held a council with the Indians for that purpose, and his intentions were well received. Active operations were commenced about November. During the month, about twenty Indians from the Frezo were brought in; they remained about one month, when they stole and ran away with eight horses on the reserve.
From the Sacramento, or the north, seven were brought in under charge of a Mr. Storm. They also left in a short time, with the exception of a little boy named Lelo, now with Mr. Beale. From the Four Creeks there never have been over five or six at one time, and they did not remain. In the first six months on the reserve, the number of the Indians was increased to about six hundred, embracing all the Tejon tribes, and the tribes with which they were connected, who really belonged here, (with the exception of Juan's tribe of Lake Indians, numbering twenty-four men and their families,) and a few from the San Joaquin, Joaquin's tribe of twenty men from Kern river; which last were sent off by Mr. Beale’s overseer, on hearing of Mr. Beale's removal. So that the Indians who have been actual residents, and now remain here, with the exception of Juan's and Joaquin's tribes, are none others but those actually belonging to this valley. According to all the information I can give on the subject, eight hundred Indians, great and small, old and young, is the highest number I have heard estimated, or can be proven to have been here at any one time since the commencement of the reserve."
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
Office Indian Affairs, August 3, 1853. Sir: The attention of this office has been called to the fact that, in some superintendencies, traders have been in the habit of keeping their stores open on Sundays. This will not be permitted. Our government, in its intercourse with the Indian tribes hitherto, while constantly endeavoring to promote their physical well-being, has looked earnestly to the accomplishment of a higher and nobler object ; it has sought to improve their social condition, to advance their political prosperity, to diffuse knowledge among them, to superinduce an habitual observance of morality, and to make them participants in all the advantages and blessings of a Christian civilization. This beneficent policy has my concurrence; and all superintendents, agents, and employés, are expected to co-operate in carrying it into effect.
The Sabbath, regarded merely as a political institution, is essential to the prosperity of all states and societies; but considered as an institution of the Great Father of the nations of the earth, its observance is required alike of whites and Indians, and its violation is equally destructive to the good morals and highest interests of both races; and it cannot be allowed that traders, holding a license from the government, shall, by desecrating this holy day, retard the civilization of the savages, and bring reproach upon the fair fame of our country.