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take another advanced step to the coalition or solidification of our legitimate forces.

Railroads and other transportation properties have been consolidated into immense systems. The small independent lines have all but disappeared. Then is it not about time for those who furnish the brain and brawn to operate these vast consolidated properties to wake up and follow their example?

The forces in the station service should not be divided. I have long hoped for the day when a consolidation of the Order of Railroad Telegraphers and the Brotherhood of Railway Clerks would take place; not a loose federation but one organization, presenting a solid front upon all issues, and I still hope to see it. Because one man or woman works the wires and another bills the freight or sells the tickets does not justify dividing the forces into two units-two organizations-thus reducing the power and protective effectiveness of each fifty per cent.

I feel that the future of not only our craft but of all station employes, as well as those in other branches of the service, can best be subserved by working toward this end. First: The Brotherhood of Railway Clerks extend its jurisdictional lines to inIclude all white station employes outside of the telegraph service.

Second: The eventual consolidation of the Brotherhood of Railway Clerks and the Order of Railroad Telegraphers into one crganization.

Third: A close federation of all railroad organizations-a federation that will mean something more than sympathy and good wishes in times of trouble.

These things are in line with evolutionary human progress. Natural forces alone would some day bring them about, but artificial forces will hasten them.

The attitude of the railroad managements toward the clerks, depriving them of their individual rights and liberties in attempting to prevent organization is proving a mighty factor in hastening these things.

Let us remember that we are going to Detroit to work, not for pleasure save that found in the knowledge that we have done our work well.

THE ADVANTAGES OF HIGH DUES. By Samuel Gompers. Power is necessary to influence. Power depends upon resources. This is true of

the trade union as well as of every other organization. The labor organizations that have the greatest power to protect their members and the greatest influence in furthering the needs and the demands of their members are the labor organizations provided with ample, substantial financial re

sources.

There is only one way to accumulate organization funds-payment of adequate union dues. Organizations have found it a wise policy to increase low dues as rapidly as possible because financial resources at their command give them increased prestige, increased ability to secure better wages and working conditions and increased ability to provide against threatened dangers. There is no investment a wage-earner can make that will bring him greater returns than his union dues. If dues to the union are increased proportionally as the union increases wages, the power of the union to promote and safeguard the interests of its members becomes increasingly effective.

The financial organization of a trade union must be based on sound business principles. Wildcat finances in trade unions will be no more reliable than wildcat banking investments. Money will not get into the union treasury by miracle or by the wishing proc

ess.

The protection of a well-filled treasury is possible only for those who are willing to pay the price in dues, management and foresight. The very existence of a sound financial organization constitutes a defense of its members. Power does not always have to be aggressively used in order to be effective-reserve power is often the most potent. Consciousness that they possess power puts moral courage and confidence into the workers, and it puts fear into the hearts of those who would wrong them. When power exists there is hesitancy to deny the possessors their rights or fair demands. The existence of the power of self-defense prevents many industrial struggles while the weak and the helpless are wronged with impunity.

As union dues are increased it is possible to extend the system of union benefits. These benefits supplement the wages earned and enable unionists to live better and more comfortably.

The views which we advance here have been repeatedly proved correct by the experiences of the different trade organizations.

Labor organizations are constantly preaching the gospel of higher wages. What wages

are to the individual, dues are to the organization. The ideal of the American Federation of Labor is to have each organization strong, competent to manage its affairs and to solve its own difficulties.

But high dues should not be accompanied by high initiation fee. Indeed the initiation should be small, thereby inviting and making it possible for the yet unorganized to join the union and to make common cause with their fellow workers to secure the common welfare of all. High dues regularly paid will inevitably lead to a greater selfreliance, mutual interdependence, unity, solidarity, fraternity and federation.

JOHN BUNNY.

In this day and age nearly everyone goes to the "movies."

And throughout this broad land there is weeping tonight among those who go to the "movies," among those who help make the "movies," and among those who manage the motion picture machines that make the "movies" move.

John Bunny, prince of all movie characters, is dead!

He passed away this week, and his legion friends, for his friends were legion, are sad. John Bunny with his optimistic smile brought gladness to millions of hearts that were otherwise made sad in this mad scramble for existence.

But John Bunny was something more than a "movie" actor.

Many Detroit union men, and particularly the members of the Motion Picture Operators' Union, have good reason to remember this man who made the whole world laugh. John Bunny became a union man while playing at a theater in this city.

That was one night last year.

It was not a funny occasion for our dead union brother.

The occasion was most solemn for this man, who was paid a higher salary than the President of the United States is paid, for his acting.

He was being initiated into a labor union. Joining that labor union meant something to him.

It was an event in his life.

When he was presented with his membership card in the Motion Picture Operators' Union, the card being of gold, the man who dried the tears of others himself wept.

He told the Detroit union men who were present his views of unionism.

He told them that their cause was just and that they should stand solidly together because they were members of the world's most progressive organization.

So that while every lover of the "movies" has reason to be sad tonight, Detroit union men and women throughout the land have reason to regret the passing of one who was a brother in this struggle for progress. -The Detroit Labor News.

EDUCATION IS A NECESSITY.

The uneducated worker is prey for scheming politicians and demagogues, declares President Perkins of the Cigarmakers' International Union, in a plea for education.

This unionist presents these reasons why working men and women should become enlightened:

"The working classes have a deep interest in education; they have an intense interest in the intellectual development of the

masses.

"Education is a precious jewel; its luster penetrates the phenomena of the universe; it unravels the secrets of the movements of the planets; of the ebb and flow of the tides on the oceans; of the formation of coal, oil, gas, stone and metals in the geological survey. The wonderful discoveries in the arts, electric and chemical sciences are due to education.

"Primary education, while absolutely necessary as a stepping stone to a higher system, is not sufficient. It does not go far enough. It handicaps the children of the average working man and woman in the struggle for better economic and social conditions; it handicaps the poor boy and girl in exposing the shams and falsehoods in which they are engulfed.

"The uneducated man is marooned in the morasses of ignorance, prejudice and superstition. His vision is clouded in an atmosphere surcharged with greed, rapacity and exploitation of the weak and helpless.

"The man without education is apt to have a narrow vision; he cannot survey the field of operations by which a comparatively few families have become multi-millionaires; he cannot grasp the machinations and manipulations by which the common people are deprived of the major portion of the fruits of their toil.

"The uneducated man is lacking the inclination to delve into and examine the laws enacted in favor of the wealthy classes, which are lauded as beneficial to the workers."-A. F. of L. News Letter.

OBSERVATIONS OF OLD MAN GROUCH. Verily! Verily! Some railway clerks only use their heads as knobs to hang their hats

on.

Brother Jesse Finn complains about being taken to task and Al. K. Hall admits he became "peeved" at my "Observations" in the May number. They came back with six columns of first class matter for the June issue. Now I'll see if I can't "peeve" some more good writers.

"The Man from Black Bayou"-what you sulkin' about? Come on; it's your time to be "it."

Brother Wade Shurtleff, when are you going to stop yelling about one big union? Don't you know it won't work? want another A. R. U., Knights of Labor or U. B. R. E.?

Do you

Some lodges are like human beings. They howl when young, but when they grow old they shut up like a clam.

William J. didn't like the way his boss was running things over in Washington and went on a strike. At last accounts no injunctions had been issued and no one had been hired to take his job, but Uncle Samuel's plant is still running.

Say, did you notice that there were fourteen articles from lodges in the May number and only eight in the June issue-the last of which was captioned "The Quitter?" What's the matter with the other five quitters?

Hank of No. 40 shows up in the May issue but nothin' doin' in the June number. Hank! Hank! Why pausest thou?

Walter Wildflower was not nipped by the late frosts after all. He shows up in the June number in his usual splendid style. Oh, Golden Rule, One O Five, Let us know if you're still alive; You adopted the slogan of One Seven O, Now uphold the honor of old Toledo. Let's make up our minds to get the nonmember clerks into the organization even though its necessary to lay in "Dambush" for them, and in the spirit of brotherly love pound the gospel into them with a shillalah. You Michigan Central lodges, "smatter." We hear you have a perfect organization on that pike. Tell us about it.

Okolona 348 is a vigorous young kid. Just watch its smoke. It's starting out in fine shape and with an excellent correspondent proposes to let the other lodges know of its progress.

Betcher we goin' to have some convention in Detroit, with oratory, fire works and other frills. Now let's not go to sleep after it's over, but buckle down to business and make life one h for the non-member clerks.

Joliet 272 is right on the job in each issue. Good boy; keep it up.

It's sometimes discouraging to see a mem ber so interested in his "rag and bone and hank o' hair" that he can't find time to attend meetings. But all men were fools once, "even as you and I."

Alexandria 304 has adopted the proper manner of getting rid of the non-member boomer, by directing them to the insane asylum. That's where the chronic "non" belongs.

Oh, but wouldn't we have some journal though if all lodges had the snap and get up that Geyser City 170 has? Shake, boys; you are certainly no shirkers.

Raymond Nutting has an excellent article in the May number on non-attendance at meetings. There seems to be no remedy for this evil, but the work required by all great movements has devolved upon a loyal few.

The clerk who accepts benefits secured by his fellow employes and refuses to do his share toward getting them by joining the organization is as much a thief as though he broke into their homes and robbed them of the results of their labor. Yes, more so, for he plays the roll of robber every payday.

It's interesting to watch the antics of the unprincipled pup who tries to curry favor with the boss at the expense of his fellow clerks, but the world is cursed with other similar species-skunks, too, carry tails— but they are not welcome visitors.

If it's true that the world's championship is held by a strike breaker nothing was gained by wresting it from the nigger.

Say, you lodges who are composing that great silent majority, get a wiggle on you and come across with something for the next issue of the journal.

WHY CRITICS SCORE WALSH. Here is what the editor of the San Francisco Star thinks of the attacks on Frank Walsh,

chairman of the Commission on Industrial Relations:

"We want the facts about the industrial unrest in this country. The facts are more important than the feelings of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and should be brought out even if the bringing of them out raises goose bumps of horror on some of our more timid citizens. The testimony of Ivy Lee, Rockefeller's press agent in the Colorado infamies, shows how Rockefeller and other interests have brought industrial relations in this country into the condition-and still maintain them in the condition-that fully justifies the existence of the Commission on Industrial Relations, and also the alleged objectionable methods of Chairman Walsh. The commission does not exist for the purpose of giving the Rockefellers an opportunity to clothe themselves in summer garments of whitewash.

"It is not at all difficult to understand why the Eastern papers have turned against Chairman Walsh. He has been showing up special privilege; he has dared to call attention to the blight of landlordism. He has thus attacked the very inner temple of priv ilege, the holy of holies of those who exploit industry and are responsible for industrial unrest. That is an unpardonable crime-in the eyes of special privilege. The owners of privilege know what is wrong, but they don't want the people to know what is wrong. Frank P. Walsh wants the people to know. Hence the denunciations of Walsh."-A. F. of L. News Letter.

FULL CREW REPEAL VETOED. Governor Brumbaugh of Pennsylvania has vetoed the bill which was passed by the last legislature repealing the full crew bill. The veto means a complete victory for the railroad brotherhoods, who were assisted in their fight to retain the law by the trade union movement.

In his veto message, the state executive said:

"It is claimed that this additional man on the crew is a menace to the proper performance of duty by the other members of the crew. If so, and it is a challenged assertion, the corporation knows well how to secure and enforce discipline among its employees, as do all other companies and corporations employing men for definite services.

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The same fact is true of. other members of the crew. But he is needed when the unusual occurs and his presence may save life or property or both. In fact, the records show this to be the case.

"Within one year the railroad companies secured an increased freight rate by action of the Interstate Commerce Commission. A potential argument of the companies for this increase was the fact that the full crew law added to the expense of operating their service. They had scarcely secured the increased rate until steps were taken to repeal the law requiring this full crew. This situation has definite bearing upon the action now taken."-A. F. of L. News Letter.

HARMONY.

Give us harmony and give it to us in abundance.

This bad proposition of dissension and trying to "get" each other avails us nothing. When someone intimates "I'll get him," you never hear anything about how much he expects to pay to "get him." It costs something to "get" any man no matter how you get him and sooner or later a price must be paid.

There are some people who do not seem to appreciate that analysis is the biography of history-we must therefore remember that in searching out the good and bad of our present attitudes in our affiliation in labor circles we should remove the tendency as much as possible of trampling on the rights of our fellowmen.

Many times a cutting word injures the good will, causing indifference to take root in the injured brother, and indifference is the unmovable giant of the world.

He who has the love of his fellowmen in his heart does not become indifferent when he is put to the test, and we find the test not in the enthusiasm of the moment, but it grows out of time, the study of his daily living and duties in behalf of his fellowmen and his steadfastness.

The link between labor causes and men found in labor ranks such as this is not easily broken by injuring words of others, but rather such a man accepts criticism and abhors sarcasm.

Every day the course of right is at the hand of union men in our place of employment, at the union meetings or in the

homes, but the indifference crucifies the great effort of organized workers-nipping in the bud the possibilities of many cunning plans for the ultimate perfecting of organized labor in the world of industry.

We must have harmony to advance in our labor movements. Discussion? Yes! Close debate? Yes! Expression of feelings? Certainly! But remember the feeling of others and while "do unto others as you would be done by" may sound like a minority vote, the principle is a set one of century merit. So let's have harmony and everybody will be made happy.-Elmer T. Good, in The Book Binder.

WHAT OF THE FUTURE?

The telegrapher seems doomed, sure enough. The New York Call says a new machine was installed in one of the daily newspaper offices in that city and four telegraphers were let out. The instrument itself is about twice the size of a typewriter and works on the same principle. A typist, one without any knowledge of telegraphy, typed off messages in the main office of a news agency. This typewriter was attached to the machine in the newspaper office with a wire, and as the typist clicked off the words were automatically reported in the office of the newspaper. In place of two $30 per week operators, all that was required was an $8 a week typist. The device has been perfected in Chicago, and it is said the big telegraph companies are now figuring on installing it. The machine cannot be purchased, but is leased to users.Cleveland Citizen.

THE PUGNACIOUS ARCTIC DOG. (From My Scrap Book.) Arctic dogs seem to love fighting for its own sake, and so long as it is a fight they are said to be indifferent as to why they fight and whom they fight. Two dogs seeing another dog at a meat can that has been empty for months will spring on him, roll him over and over and seemingly tear him to pieces. Fortunately the wool is so long and thick that the attacking dog gets his mouth too full of hair to be able to bite his antagonist's flesh. The dogs know that their vulnerable points are the ears and belly. When a dog is attacked by two or three of his companions he will run into a snow bank, shove his head in and lying on his stomach let his foes choke themselves

with hair they tear out of his back.— Harpers.

TAKE A LOOK AT YOURSELF. What is your normal attitude toward yourself? Much depends upon this. When you look at the great, wide world and then at yourself in your own little center of it, how does it impress you? That is to say, are you a constant source of surprise and wonderment to yourself, which causes you ever and anon to halt in your tracks, look back over the road you came and marvel that you were able to make it?

Or do you take yourself for granted and consider that it is the most natural thing in the world for you to be where you are and doing what you are?

Or have you been so excruciatingly busy trying to get somewhere that you have had no time to take these little mental invoices to discover just where you are and why and for how long?-From Life.

THE IMPORTANCE OF MANNERS. Manners are of more importance than laws. Upon them, in a great measure, the laws depend. The law touches us but here and there, and now and then. Manners are what vex or soothe, corrupt or purify, exalt or debase, barbarize or refine us, by a constant, steady, uniform, insensible operation, like that of the air we breathe in. They give their whole form and color to our lives. According to their quality, they aid morals; they supply them or they totally destroy them.-Edmund Burke.

"Remember the Sabbath Day to keep it Holy." This is a divine injunction. Wonder if the railroad official or stockholder sitting in the "Amen" corner of some fashionable church on a Sunday ever gives a thought to the clerks working in the offices and yards of their railroads? Wonder, too, just what the Recording Angel writes in the "Book of Life" on such occasions?

The railway clerk has been kept in a practical state of peonage so long that he has lost hope and heart and it is only with the greatest of effort that he can be convinced of the immense power the clerks as an organized body will possess-power for the elimination of all injustices.

Only the weak take time to worry.

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