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11. That all persons shall be bailable, by sufficient securities, unless in capital offences, where the proof is evident or the presumption strong; and the privilege of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

12. That excessive bail shall in no case be required; nor shall excessive fines be imposed, nor shall cruel or unusual punishments be inflicted.

13. That no person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb.

14. That private property shall not be taken or applied to public use, unless just compensation be made therefor.

15. That in all prosecutions and indictments for libel, the truth may be given in evidence; and if it shall appear to the jury that the libel is true, and published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the truth shall be a justification, and the jury shall be the judges of the law and facts.

16. That no person shall be put to answer any criminal charge, but by presentment, indictment, or impeachment.

17. That no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.

18. That retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the existence of such laws, and by them only declared penal or criminal, are oppressive, unjust, and incompatible with liberty; wherefore no ex post facto law shall ever be made.

19. That no law impairing the obligation of contracts shall ever be passed.

20. That the people have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble together to consult for the common good; and to apply to those invested with the powers of government for redress of grievances, or other proper purposes, by petition, address, or remonstrance.

21. That the free white men of this State shall have a right to keep and to bear arms for their common defense.

22. That no soldier, in time of peace, shall be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner prescribed by law.

23. That no standing army shall be kept up, without the consent of the Legislature; and the military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil

power. 24. That perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of a free State, and ought not to be allowed.

25. That no hereditary emoluments, privileges, or honors, shall ever be granted or conferred in this State.

26. That frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty.

27. That, to guard against transgressions upon the rights of the people, we declare that everything in this article is excepted out of the general powers of government, and shall forever remain invio

late; and that all laws contrary thereto, or to the following proyisions, shall be void.

ARTICLE II.Distribution of the Powers of Government. Sec. 1. The powers of the government of the State of Florida shall be divided into three distinct departments, and each of them confided to a separate body of magistracy, to wit: those which are legislative, to one, those which are executive, to another, and those which are judicial, to another.

2: No person, or collection of persons, being of one of those departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of the others, except in the instances expressly provided in this constitution.

ARTICLE III.-Executive Department. Sec. 1. The supreme executive power shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the Governor of the State of Florida.

2. The Governor shall be elected for four years, by the qualified electors at the time and place where they shall vote for representatives; and shall remain in office until a successor be chosen and qualified ; and shall not be eligible to a re-election until the expiration of four


thereafter. 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years, shall have been a citizen of the United States ten years, or an inhabitant of Florida at the time of the adoption of this Constitution (being a citizen of the United States), and shall have been a resident of Florida at least five years next preceding the day of election.

4. The returns of every election for Governor shall be sealed and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, who shall, during the first week of the session open and publish them in the presence of both houses of the General Assembly; and the person having the highest number of votes shall be Governor. But if two or more shall be equal, and highest in votes, one of them shall be chosen Governor by the joint vote of the two houses; and contested elections for Governor shall be determined by both houses of the General Assembly, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

5. He shall, at stated times, receive a compensation for his services, which shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which he shall have been elected. 6. He shall be commander-in-chief of the


of this State, and of the militia thereof.

7. He may require information in writing from the officers of the executive department, on any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

8. He may, by proclamation, on extraordinary occasions, convene

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the General Assembly at the seat of government, or at a different place if that shall have become dangerous from an enemy or from disease; and, in case of disagreement between the two houses with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper-not beyond the day of the next meeting designated by this Constitution.

9. He shall, from time to time, give to the General Assembly, information of the state of the government, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he may deem expedient.

10. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

11. In all criminal and penal cases (except of treason and impeachment), after conviction, he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, under such rules and regulations as shall be prescribed by law; and in cases of treason, he shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to grant reprieves and pardons; and he may, in the recess of the Senate, respite the sentence until the end of the next session of the General Assembly.

12. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by thes Governor, and used by him officially, with such device as the Governor first elected may direct; and the present seal of the territory shall be the seal of the State, until otherwise directed by the General Assembly

13. All commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the State of Florida, be sealed with the State seal, and signed by the Governor, and attested by the Secretary of State.

14. There shall be a Secretary of State appointed by a joint vote of both houses of the General Assembly, who shall continue in office during the term of four years; and he shall keep a fair register of the official acts and proceedings of the Governor, and shall, when required, lay the same and all papers, minutes, and vouchers relative thereto, before the General Assembly, and shall perform such other duties as may be required of him by law.

15. Vacancies that happen in offices the appointment of which is vested in the General Assembly, or given to the Governor with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall be filled by the Governor during the recess of the General Assembly, by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of the next session.

16. Every bill, which shall have passed both houses of the General Assembly, shall be presented to the Governor ; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to the house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large upon the journal, and proceed to reconsider it; and if, after such reconsideration, a majority of the whole number elected to that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsid: ered; and if approved by a majority of the whole number elected to that house, it shall become a law. But in such cases, the votes of

both houses shall be by yeas and nays, and the names of the members voting for or against the bill shall be entered on the journals of each house, respectively; and if any bill shall not be returned by the Governor within five days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the General Assembly, by their adjournment; prevent its return; in which case, it shall not be a law.

17. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of both houses may be necessary, except on questions of adjournment, shall be presented to the Governor; and, before it shall take effect, be approved by him, or, being disapproved, be repassed by both houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in case of a bill.

18. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his removal from office, death, refusal to qualify, resignation, or absence from the State, the President of the Senate shall exercise all the power and authority appertaining to the office of Governor, during the term for which the Governor was elected ; unless the General Assembly shall pro'vide by law for the election of a Governor to fill such vacancy, or until the Governor so absent or impeached shall return or be acquitted.

19. If, during the vacancy of the office of Governor, the President of the Senate shall be impeached, removed from office, refuse to qualify, resign, die, or be absent from the State, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall, in like manner, administer the government.

20. The President of the Senate, or Speaker of the House of Representatives, during the time he administers the government, shall receive the same compensation which the Governor would have received.

21. The Governor shall always reside, during the sessions of the General Assembly, at the place where their sessions are held, and at all other times, wherever, in their opinion, the public good may require.

22. No person shall hold the office of Governor, and any other office or commission, civil or military, either in this State, or under any State, or the United States, or any other power, at one and the same time, except the President of the Senate, or the Speaker of the House of Representatives, when he shall hold the office, as aforesaid.

23. A State treasurer and comptroller of public accounts shall be elected by, joint vote of both houses of the General Assembly, at each regular session thereof.

ARTICLE IV.-Legislative Department. Sec. 1. The legislative power of this State shall be vested in two distinct branches--the one to be styled the Senate, the other the House of Representatives, and both together the General Assembly of the State Of Florida ;" and the style of the laws shall be, “ Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Florida in General Assembly convened."


2. The members of the House of Representatives shall be chosen by the qualified voters, and shall serve for the term of one year, from the day of the commencement of the general election, and no longer; and the sessions of the General Assembly shall be annual, and commence on the fourth Monday in November, in each year, or at such uther times as may be prescribed by law.

3. The representatives shall be chosen every year, on the first Monday in the month of October, until otherwise directed by law.

4. No person shall be a representative unless he be a white man, a citizen of the United States, and shall have been an inhabitant of the State two years next preceding his election, and the last year thereof a resident of the county for which he shall be chosen, and shall have attained the age of twenty-one years.

5. The senators shall be chosen by the qualified electors for the term of two years, at the same time, in the same manner, and in the same places, where they vote for members of the House of Representatives; and no man shall be a senator unless he be a white man, a citizen of the United States, and shall have been an inhabitant of this State two years next preceding his election, and the last year thereof a resident of the district or county for which he shall be chosen, and shall have attained the age of twenty-five years.

6. The senators, after their first election, shall be divided by lot into two classes; and the seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the first year, and of the second class at the expiration of the second year; so that one-half thereof, as near as possible, may be chosen forever thereafter, annually, for the term

of two years.

7. The House of Representatives, when assembled, shall choose a Speaker and its other officers; and the Senate a President and its other officers; and each house shall be judge of the qualifications, elections, and returns of its members; but a contested election shall be determined in such manner as shall be directed by law.

8. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each house may prescribe.

9. Each house may determine the rules of its own proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the consent of two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same

10. Each house during the session, may punish by imprisonment any person, not a member, for disrespectful or disorderly behavior in its presence, or for obstructing any of its proceedings, provided such imprisonment shall not extend beyond the end of the session,

11. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and cause the same to be published immediately after its adjournment; and the yeas and nays of the members of each house shall be taken and entered upon the journals, upon the final passage of every bill, and


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