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array at the capitol in the afternoon, will harmoniously put their legs under the same mahogany in the evening. Indeed, the dining-rooms at Washington are like that wonderful old island of Delos, which the warring inhabitants of the Greek archipelago used to visit, to lay aside their weapons and enjoy a season of peace and harmony. It is pleasant to be able to add that exhibitions of drunkenness at a Washington dinner are very rare-an improvement on the olden time, when dinner parties were too often drunken orgies, with an incidental duel as a sequel.

The occasional distribution of railroad and other stocks during the past thirty years, among senators and representatives, “where they would do the most good," has done much to pollute the fountainheads of legislation. The stability of our institutions is mainly guaranteed by the implicit faith of the citizens in the honesty and the trustworthiness of congress. When these traits are destroyed by the corrosive action of corporation bribes, there will be an end to constitutional government; and when the bribery became known, a few years since, public indignation sternly rebuked those who had thus sought to enrich themselves. Several of them made haste to restore their ill gotten gains, but the startling revelations made soon passed unnoticed into forgetfulness.

It was while this “gift enterprise” was going on at the capitol that Mr. Sam Ward flourished as “Rex Vestiarum," or king of the lobby, as he styled himself. Well educated, he had mingled in the best society of Europe and of this country, retaining a fund of anecdote and pleasing manners, which made him-as Edmund Yates said -"the most delightful fellow to be cooped up in a country-house on a rainy day.” He came to Washington to act as an attorney in securing legislation, and he sought congressional strength by catering to the appetites of senators and representatives. Thoroughly versed in the mysteries of the kitchen, he would give breakfasts and dinners at which the daintiest and best products of the earth, the air and the sea were exquisitely served. Presidents, senators, representatives and journalists were always glad to accept an invitation from Sam Ward, who took care that every person at table should be successively called out on some subject about which he could talk entertainingly.

Congressmen pay closer attention to the wants of their constituents and to the public business than their predecessors half a century ago did. Expenditures are scrutinized, proposed reforms and changes of existing kws are studied, and there is reason for hope that

congressmen will not have to provide places for their henchmen, or to distribute garden seeds among their rural constituents. It is, however, to be regretted that so many senators and representatives, instead of devoting their summer vacations to recreation and recuperation, go from the committee rooms of the capitol to lawyers' offices and counting-rooms, to toil there until again summoned to congressional labor. The result is that in late years many congressmen, although apparently gifted with a vigorous vitality of body and of mind that have given their friends reason to hope for a long twilight to their useful lives, have died suddenly. Whether this has been owing to constant work in the session and in the recess, or whether the late dinners of Washington are unhealthy, no man knoweth. Indeed, the friends of those who have thus leaped the dark gulf to the unknown shore, while they regret their departure, are consoled by the knowledge that their faculties were undimmed, and that, like Swift and other great men, their mental powers did not slowly decline as they tottered down life's hill-side.

THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM FROM THE EARLIEST COLONIAL

PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME.

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tions, the latter being the principal post. Detroit was the first post designed by the French to become a permanent town. Trade, mechanies, farming and some few other industries soon started up. Of course some sort of courts had to be established, and the colonial authorities appointed judges or commissaries. The intendant of the post seems to have been at the head of the ordinary judicial system, and his delegates were probably the principal local judges wherever they were sent. French law prevailed. There is no record yet come to light showing the early existence of any court at Detroit. The first sign of any civil magistrate residing is that of Robert Navarre, royal notary and sub-delegate of the intendant who came about 1730. The scanty records indicate that there were some other gentlemen who exercised judicial functions. Pierre St. Cosme is spoken of in the Pontiac diary as former judge, succeeded by Mr. Le Grand. Both were gentlemen of high social standing.

array at the capitol in the afternoon, will harmoniously put their legs under the same mahogany in the evening. Indeed, the dining-rooms at Washington are like that wonderful old island of Delos, which the warring inhabitants of the Greek archipelago used to visit, to lay aside their weapons and enjoy a season of peace and harmony. It is pleasant to be able to add that exhibitions of drunkenness at a Washington dinner are very rare-an improvement on the olden time, when dinner parties were too often drunken orgies, with an incidental duel as a sequel.

The occasional distribution of railroad and other stocks during the past thirty years, among senators and representatives, “where they would do the most good,” has done much to pollute the fountainheads of legislation. The stability of our institutions is mainly guaranteed by the implicit faith of the citizens in the honesty and the trustworthiness of congress. When these traits are destroyed by the corrosive action of corporation bribes, there will be an end to constitutional government; and when the bribery became known, a few years since, public indignation sternly rebuked those who had thus sought to enrich themselves. Several of them made haste to restore their ill gotten gains, but the startling revelations made soon passed unnoticed into forgetfulness.

It was while this “gift enterprise" was going on at the capitol that Mr. Sam Ward flourished as “Rex Vestiarum," or king of the lobby, as he styled himself. Well educated, he had mingled in the best society of Europe and of this country, retaining a fund of anecdote and pleasing manners, which made him--as Edmund Yates said :-"the most delightful fellow to be cooped up in a country-house on a rainy day.” He came to Washington to act as an attorney in securing legislation, and he sought congressional strength by catering to the appetites of senators and representatives. Thoroughly versed in the mysteries of the kitchen, he would give breakfasts and dinners at which the daintiest and best products of the earth, the air and the sea were exquisitely served. Presidents, senators, representatives and journalists were always glad to accept an invitation from Sam Ward, who took care that every person at table should be successively called out on some subject about which he could talk entertainingly.

Congressmen pay closer attention to the wants of their constituents and to the public business than their predecessors half a century ago did. Expenditures are scrutinized, proposed reforms and changes of existing laws are studied, and there is reason for hope that

congressmen will not have to provide places for their henchmen, or to distribute garden seeds among their rural constituents. It is, however, to be regretted that so many senators and representatives, instead of devoting their summer vacations to recreation and recuperation, go from the committee rooms of the capitol to lawyers' offices and counting-rooms, to toil there until again summoned to congressional labor. The result is that in late years many congressmen, although apparently gifted with a vigorous vitality of body and of mind that have given their friends reason to hope for a long twilight to their useful lives, have died suddenly. Whether this has been owing to constant work in the session and in the recess, or whether the late dinners of Washington are unhealthy, no man knoweth. Indeed, the friends of those who have thus leaped the dark gulf to the unknown shore, while they regret their departure, are consoled by the knowledge that their faculties were undimmed, and that, like Swift and other great men, their mental powers did not slowly decline as they tottered down life's hill-side.

THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM FROM THE EARLIEST COLONIAL

PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME.

N the very earliest settlement of what is now the state of Michi

gan, St. Joseph and Michilimackinac were the first military stations, the latter being the principal post. Detroit was the first post designed by the French to become a permanent town. Trade, mechanics, farming and some few other industries soon started up. Of course some sort of courts had to be established, and the colonial authorities appointed judges or commissaries. The intendant of the post seems to have been at the head of the ordinary judicial system, and his delegates were probably the principal local judges wherever they were sent. French law prevailed. There is no record yet come to light showing the early existence of anycourt at Detroit. The first sign of any civil magistrate residing is that of Robert Navarre, royal notary and sub-delegate of the intendant who came about 1730. The scanty records indicate that there were some other gentlemen who exercised judicial functions. Pierre St. Cosme is spoken of in the Pontiac diary as former judge, succeeded by Mr. Le Grand. Both were gentlemen of high social standing.

After the English rule was permanently established by the treaty of 1763, justices of the peace were early appointed as examining magistrates. Such courts as existed were provisional and given a very limited jurisdiction, and there was great complaint on account of the lack of judicial facilities. The local commander was invested with supreme local power. The merchants formed arbitration boards for the settlement of difficulties among themselves, and criminals were sent to the seat of government in Canada for trial. Judges seem to have been appointed for this region, but none ever came. Capital punishment was inflicted in three cases under sentences of Philip de Jean, a justice of the peace. He was subsequently indicted by the Canadian authorities for the murder of these men, but he was captured in the Kaskaskia and Vincennes expedition under Governor Hamilton and held in close custody by the Virginia authorities, and seems never to have returned to Detroit.

The celebrated Quebec Act of 1774 provided that the civil law of Paris and the criminal law of England should prevail in this region. In 1788, at the close of the American Revolution, this region was formally included in the district of Hesse, and Detroit was made the seat of justice. William Dummer Powell was the first judge who presided over this court, and afterward was chief-justice of Upper Canada. From this time on the court sat regularly. Besides the first court, there were courts of common pleas and quarter sessions. The common pleas judges were all reputable laymen, and the court was held in high esteem. Louis Beaufait was the first chief judge, and James May, Patrick McNiff, Charles Girardin and Nathaniel Williams were associates. All were old citizens familiar with French and English, and allied by marriage or blood with the French inhabitants. Things continued in this shape until Jay's treaty went into operation, in 1796, when the British courts were removed to the other side of the river.

Then for the first time the country came under the control of Amer. ican institutions. Michigan formed a part of the Northwest Territory set apart under the famous Ordinance of 1787. Under it the governor and three judges, appointed by the President and confirmed by the senate, were made a legislative board and were given judicial powers. Winthrop Sargent, acting governor, set apart Wayne county, which comprised northern Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and all of Michigan and eastern Wisconsin which contained settlements. The judicial tem of the Northwest Territory became operative, and included the supreme court, common pleas, probate and orphans' court and quar.

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