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Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present

the seventeenth day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.

GEO. WASHINGTON,
President and Deputy from Virginia.

Geo. Read,
New Hampshire.

John Dickinson,
Jacob Broom,

Delaware.
Nathaniel Gorham,

Massachusetts.

Gunning Bedford, jr.,
Richard Bassett,

John Langdon,
Nicholas Gilman,

Rufus King,
Win. Saml. Johnson,
Roger Sherman,

Connecticut.

Alexander Hamilton, New York.

Wm. Livingston,
Wm. Paterson,

New Jersey.
David Brearley,
Jona. Dayton,
B. Franklin,
Robt. Morris,
Thos. Fitzsimons,
James Wilson,
Thomas Miffin,

Pennsylvania.
Geo. Clymer,
Jared Ingersoll,
Gouv. Morris,

Attest:

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AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.

At the first session of congress under the National Constitution, begun in the city of New York on March 4, 1789, many amendments to that instrument were proposed. Ten of these congress proposed to the legislatures of the several states, all of which were ratified by the requisite number by the middle of December, 1791. The eleventh was proposed on March 5, 1794, and ratified in 1798. The twelfth was proposed December 12, 1803, and ratified in 1804. These, with the other ten, then became a part of the National Constitution. Another article, proposed on May 1, 1810, was never ratified. It was for the purpose of prohibiting any citizen of the United States

accepting or retaining any title of nobility or honor, present, pension or emolument from any “person, king or foreign power, without the consent of congress, under the penalty of disfranchisement.” The amendments are as follows:

ARTICLE I.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or of the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

ARTICLE II.

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

ARTICLE III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.

ARTICLE V.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a fresentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

ARTICLE VI.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district

wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense

ARTICLE VII. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Article VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

ARTICLE IX. The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

ARTICLE X The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respect ively, or to the people.

ARTICLE XI. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

ARTICLE XII.

1. The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and vice president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as vice-president, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as vice-president, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate; the president of the senate shall, in presence of the

senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the house of representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the house of representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the vice-president shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

2. The person having the greatest number of votes as vice-president shall be the vice-president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the senate shall choose the vicepresident; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. 3. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of vicepresident of the United States.

[These first ten amendments were ratified by the following states, and the notifications of the ratification by the governors thereof were successively communicated by the President to congress: New Jersey, November 20, 1789; Maryland, December 19, 1789; North Carolina, December 22, 1789; South Carolina, January 19, 1790; New Hampshire, January 25, 1790; Delaware, January 28, 1790; Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790; New York, March 27, 1790; Rhode Island, June 15, 1790; Vermont, November 3, 1791, and Virginia, December 15, 1791. There is no evidence on the journals of congress that the legislatures of Connecticut, Georgia and Massachusetts ever ratified them at all.]

ARTICLE XIII.

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

[This amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the legislatures of the several states by the Thirty-eighth congress, on the first of February, 1865, and was declared, in a proclamation of the secretary of state dated the eighteenth of December, 1865, to have been ratified by the legislatures of twenty-seven of the thirty-six states, viz.: Illinɔis, Rhode Island, Michigan, Maryland, New York, West Virginia, Maine, Kansas, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, Missouri, Nevada, Indiana, Louisiana, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Vermont, Tennessee, Arkansas, Connecticut, New Hampshire, South Caro.ina, Alabama, North Carolina and Georgia.]

ARTICLE XIV.

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor deny tu any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, including Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and vice-president of the United States, representatives in congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.

Section 3. No person shall be a senator or representative in congress, or elector of President and vice-president, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath as a member of congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or

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