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But better days were dawning. On our return to Dresden,' says Heyne, • I learned that inquiries had been made after me from llanover; I knew not for what reason.' The reason by and by came to light. Gessner, Professor of Eloquence in Gottingen, was dead: and a successor was wanted. These things, it would appear, cause difficulties in Hanover, which in many other places are little felt. But the Prime Minister Münchausen had as good as founded the Georgia Augusta himself; and he was wont to watch over it with singular anxiety. The poted and notorious Klotz was already there, as assistant to Gessner, but his beautiful latinity,' says Heeren, 'did not dazzle Münchausen; so Klotz, with his pugnacity, was not thought of.' The Minister applied to Ernesti for advice : Ernesti knew of no fit men in Germany, but recommended Rhunken of Leyden, or Saxe of Utrecht. Rhunken refused to leave his country, and added these words : ‘But why do you seek out of Germany, what Germany itself offers you ? why not, for Gessner's successor, take Christian Gottlob Heyne, that true pupil of Ernesti, and man of fine talent, (excellenti virum ingenio,) who has shown how much he knows of Latin literature by his Tibullus ; of Greek, by his Epictetus? In my opinion, and that of the greatest Hemsterhuis (Hemsterhusii Tod závu,) Heyne is the only one that can replace your Gessner. Nor let any one tell me that Heyne's fame is not sufficiently illustrious and extended. Believe me, there is in this man such a richness of genius and learning, that ere long, all Europe will ring with his praises.'
This courageous and generous verdict of Rhunken's, in favor of a person as yet little known to the world, and to him known only by his writings, decided the matter. Münchausen,' says our Heeren, believed in the boldly prophesying man.' Not without difficulty Heyne was unearthed; and after various excuses on account of incompetence on his part,--for he had lost all his books and papers in the siege of Dresden, and sadly forgotten his Latin and Greek in so many tumults, -and various prudential negotiations about dismission from the Saxon service, and salary, and privilege in the Hanoverian, he at length formally received his appointment; and some three months after, in June, 1763, settled in Gottingen, with an official income of eight hundred thalers, which, it appears, was by several additions, in the course of time, increased to twelve hundred.
Here then had Heyne at last got to land. His long life was henceforth as quiet, and fruitful in activity and comfort, as the past period of it had been desolate and full of sorrows. He never lest Gottingen, though frequently invited to do so, and
sometimes with highly tempting offers ;* but continued in his place, busy in his vocation; growing in influence, in extent of connexion at home and abroad ; till Rhunken's prediction might almost be reckoned fulfilled to the letter ; for Heyne in his own department was without any equal in Europe.
However, his history, from this point, even because it was so happy for himself, must lose most of its interest for the general reader Heyne has now become a professor, and a regularly progressive man of learning ; has a fixed househould, his rents and comings in ; it is easy to fancy how that man might flourish in calm sunshine of prosperity, whom in adversity we saw growing in spite of every storm. Of his proceedings in Gottingen, his reform of the Royal Society of Sciences, his ed. iting of the Gelehrte Anzeigen (Gazette of Learning,) his exposition of the classics from Virgil to Pindar, his remodelling of the library, his passive quarrels with Voss, his armed neutrality with Michaelis ; of all this we must say little. The best fruit of his endeavors lies before the world, in a long series of works, which among us, as well as elsewhere, are known and justly appreciated. On looking over them, the first thing that strikes us is astonishment at Heyne's diligence ; which, considering the quantity and quality of his writings, might have appeared singular even in one who had been without other duties. Yet Heyne's office involved him in the most laborious researches : he wrote letters by the hundred to all parts of the world, and on all conceivable subjects; he had three classes to teach daily ; he appointed professors, for his recommendation was all-powerful ; superintended schools; for a long time the inspection of the Freytische was laid on hiin, and he had cooks' bills to settle, and hungry students to satisfy with his purveyance. Besides all which he accomplished, in the way of publication, as follows:
In addition to his Tibullus and Epictetus, the first of which went through three, the second through two editions, each time with large extensions and improvements :
His Virgil, (P. Virgilius Maro Varietate Lectionis et perpetuâ Annotatione illustratus,) in various forms, from 1767 to 1803; no fewer than six editions.
His Pliny, (Ex C. Plinii Secundi Historia Naturali er. cerpta, que ad Artes spectant ;) two editions, 1790, 1811.
*He was invited successively to be Professor at Cassel, and at Klosterbergen; to be Librarian at Dreslen; and, most flattering of all, to be Prokanzler in the University of Copenhagen, and virtual Director of Educa. tion over all Denmark. 'He had a struggle on this last occasion, but the Georgia Augusta again prevailed. Some increase of salary usually follows such refusals; it did not in this case.
His Apollodorus, (APOLLODORI Atheniensis Bibliothecæ Libri tres, &c. ;) two editions, 1787, 1803.
His Pindar, (Pindari Carmina, cum Lectionis Varietate, curavit Ch. G. H.) three editions, 1774, 1797, 1798, the last wtih the Scholia, the Fragments, a Translation, and Hermann's Eng. De Metris.
His Conon and Parthenius, (CONONIS Narrationes et ParTHENII Narrationes amatorice,) 1798.
And lastly his Homer, (Homeri Ilias, cum brevi Annota. tione ;) 8 volumes, 1802 ; and a second, contracted edition, in 2 volumes, 1804.
Next, almost a cartload of Translations : of which we shall mention only his version, (said to be with very important improvements,) of our Universal History, by Guthrie and Gray.
Then some ten or twelve thick volumes of Prolusions, Eulogies, Essays; treating of all subjects, from the French Directoral to the Chest of Cyprolus. Of these, six volumes are known in a separate shape, under the title of Opuscula : and contain some of Heyne's most valuable writings.
And lastly, to crown the whole with one most surprising item, seven thousand five hundred (lleeren says from seven to eight thousand) Reviews of Books, in the Göttingen Gelehrte Anzeigen! Here of itself was work for a lifetime!
To expect that elegance of composition should prevail in these multifarious performances were unreasonable enough. Heyne wrote very indifferent German ; and his Latin, by much the more common vehicle in his learned works, flowed from him with a copiousness which could not be Ciceronian. At the same time these volumes are not the folios of a Montfaucon, not mere classical ore and slag, but regularly melted metal, for most part exhibiting the essence, and only the essence of very great research, and enlightened by a philosophy, which, if it does not always wisely order ils results, has looked far and deeply in collecting them.
To have performed so much, evinces on the part of Heyne no little mastership in the great art of husbanding time. Heeren gives us sufficient details on this subject; explains Heyne's adjustment of his hours and various occupations; how he rose at five o'clock, and worked all the day, and all the year, with the regularity of a steeple-clock ; nevertheless, how patiently he submitted to interruptions from strangers, or extraneous business; how briefly, yet smoothly, he contrived to despatch such interruptions ; bow his letters were indorsed when they came to hand; and lay in a special drawer till they were answered : nay, we have a description of his whole locality,' his bureau and book-shelves and port folios, his very bed and strong box are his rank and merits as a critic and philologer, we cannot but consider as beyond our province, and at any rate superfluous here. By the general consent of the learned in all countries, he seems to be ackuowledged as the first among recent scholars ; his immense reading, his lynx-eyed skill in exposition and emendation are no longer here controverted ; among ourselves his taste in these matters has been praised by Gibbon, and by Parr pronounced to be exquisite.' In his own country, Heyne is even regarded as the founder of a new epoch in classical study; as the first who with any decisiveness attempted to translate fairly beyond the letter of the classics; to read in the writings of the ancients, not the language alone, or even their detached opinions and records, but their spirit and character, their way of life and thought; how the world and nature painted themselves to the mind in those old ages ; how, in one word, the Greeks and the Romans were men, even as we are. Such of our readers as have studied any one of Heyne's works, or even looked carefully into the Lectures of the Schlegels, the most ingenious and popular commentators of that school, will be at no loss to understand what we mean.
By his inquiries into antiquity, especially by his labored investigation of its politics and its mythology, Heyne is believed to have carried the torch of philosophy towards, if not into, the mysteries of old time. What Winkelmann, his great contemporary, did, or began to do, for ancient plastic art, the other, with equal success, began for ancient literature. * A high praise, surely ; yet, as we must think, one not unfounded, and which, indeed, in all parts of Europe is becoming more and more confirined.
So much, in the province to which he devoted his activity, is Heyne allowed to have accomplished. Nevertheless, we must uot assert that, in point of understanding and spiritual endow
*ll is a curious fact that these two men, so singularly correspondent in their early sufferings, subsequent distinction, line of study, and rugged en. thusiasm of character, were at one time, while both as yet were under the horizon, brought into partial contact. An acquaintance of another sort,' says Heeren, . the young Heyne was to make in the Bruhl Library; with a person whose importance he could not then anticipate. One frequent visitor of this establishment was a certain almost wholly unknown man, whose visiis could not be specially desirable for the librarians, such endless Jabor did he cost them. He seemed insatiable in reading; and called for so many books, that his reception there grew rather of the coolest. It was Johann Winkelmann. Meditating bis journey tor Italy, he was then laying in preparation for it. Thus did ihese iwo men become, if not confidential, yet acquainted; who at that time, both still in darkness and poverty, could little suppose, that in a few years, they were to be the teachers of cultivated Europe, and the ornaments of their nation.'
ment, he can be called a complete, or even, in strict speech, a great man. Wonderful perspicuity, unwearied diligence, are not denied him ; but to philosophic order, to classical adjustment, clearness, polish, whether in word or thought, he seldom attains; nay, many times, it must be avowed, he involves him. self in tortuous, long-winded verbosities, and stands before us little better than one of that old school which his admirers boast that he displaced. He appears, we might almost say, as if he had wings but could not well use them. Or, indeed, it might be that, writing constantly in a dead language, he came to write heavily ; working for ever on subjects where learned armor-atall-points cannot be dispensed with, he at last grew so habituated to his harness that he would not walk abroad without it; nay perhaps it had rusted together, and could not be unclasped ! A sad fate for a thinker! Yet one which threatens many commentators, and overtakes many.
As a man encrusted and encased, he exhibits himself, moreover, 10 a certain degree, in his moral character. Here too, as in his intellect, there is an awkwardness, a cumbrous inertness; nay, there is a show of dulness, of hardness, which nowise intrinsically belongs to him. He passed, we are told, for less religious, less affectionate, less enthusiastic than he was. His heart, one would think, had no free course, or had found itself a secret one; outwardly he stands before us, cold and still, a very wall of rock; yet within lay a well, from which, as we have witnessed, the stroke of some Moses'-wand (the death of a Theresa) could draw streams of pure feeling. Callous as the man seems to us, he has a sense for all natural beauty ; a mer. ciful sympathy for his fellow-inen: his own early distresses never left his memory; for similar distresses, his pity and help were at all times in store. This form of character may also be the fruit partly of his employments, partly of his sufferings, and, perhaps, is not very singular among commentators.
For the rest, Heeren assures us, that in practice Heyne was truly a good man; altogether just; diligent in his own honest business, and ever ready to forward that of others; compassionate ; though quick-tempered, placable : friendly, and satisfied with simple pleasures. He delighted in roses, and always kept a bouquet of them in water on his desk. His house was embowered among roses; and in his old days he used to wander through the bushes with a pair of scissors. Farther, says Heeren, in spite of his short sight, he was fond of the fields and skies, and could lie for hours 'reading on the grass. A kindly old man ! With strangers, hundreds of whom visited him, he was uniformly courteous; though latterly, being a little hard of hearing, less fit to converse. In society he strove much to be