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Whole number of youth in the State between 4 and 20,
Do. do. Female do.
186,000 263,379 78,975
Paid from Public Funds,
$342,354 209,900 132,454
200,000 201,179 87,000
$488,179 Average amount of income to each youth between 4 and 20 is only 82} cents.
Such is an abstract of the facts collected by the Superintendent, on the subject of common school education.
NORMAL SCROOLS in MASSACHUSETTS.
The most material point, in regard to the Normal Schools, relates to the course of instruction to be therein pursued. The elements for a decision of this question are found in the existing wants of our community. We want improved teachers for the Common Schools, where the mass of the children must look for all the aids of education, they will ever enjoy. In the Common School, whether it be better or poorer, the great majority of the future members of the State,-those who are to form its society and uphold or overthrow its institutions,—are to obtain the principal part of all the education, they will ever receive. Others, of different fortunes, will have superior advantages. But whosoever cares most for the greatest number will look first to the welfare of the Common Schools, In establishing the regulations for the Normal Schools, and the course of studies to be pursued therein, the idea has not for a moment been lost sight of by the Board, that they are designed to improve the education of the great body of the people. We proceed to state some of the leading rules in the code, by which they will be governed.
Admission.— As a prerequisite to admission, candidates must declare it to be their intention to qualify themselves to become school teachers. If males, they must have attained the age of seventeen
years complete, and of sixteen, if females; and must be free from any disease or infirmity, which would unfit them for the office of teachers. They must undergo an examination and prove themselves to be well versed in orthography, reading, writing, English grammar, geography and arithmetic. They must furnish satisfactory evidence of good intellectual capacity and of high moral character and principles. Examinations for admission will take place at the commencement of each academic year, and oftener at the discretion and convenience of the Visitors and the Principal.
Term of Study.—The minimum of the term of study is fixed at one year. If application have been assiduous and proficiency good, the pupil may receive, at the expiration of that time, a certificate of qualification.
Course of Study.—The studies first to be attended to, in the Normal Schools, are those which the law requires to be taught in the district schools, viz. orthography, reading, writing, English grammar, geography and arithmetic. When these are thoroughly mastered, those of a higher order will be progressively taken.
Any person wishing to remain at the school more than one year, in order to increase his qualifications for teaching a public school, may do so, having first obtained the consent of the Principal; and therefore a further course of study is marked out. The whole course, properly arranged, is as follows :
1. Orthography, Reading, Grammar, Composition and Rhetoric, Logic.
2. Writing, Drawing.
3. Arithmetic, mental and written, Algebra, Geometry, Bookkeeping, Navigation, Surveying.
4. Geography, ancient and modern, with Chronology, Statistics and General History.
8. Constitution and History of Massachusetts and of the United States.
9. Natural Philosophy and Astronomy. 10. Natural History. 11. The principles of Piety and Morality, common to all sects of Christians. 12. THE SCIENCE AND ART OF TEACHING, WITH REFERENCE TO
ALL THE ABOVE NAMED STUDIES.
A portion of the Scriptures shall be read daily, in every Normal School.
A selection from the above course of studies will be made for those who are to remain at the School but one year, according to the particular kind of school, it may be their intention to teach.
Visiters.-Each Normal School will be under the immediate inspection of Visiters, who are, in all cases, to be chosen from the Board, except that the Secretary of the Board shall be competent to serve as one of said Visiters.
Instructors.—The Board will appoint for each School a Principal Instructor, who shall direct and conduct the whole business of governient and instruction, subject to the rules of the Board and the supervision of the Visiters.
At all examinations, the Principal shall attend and take such part therein, as the Visiters may assign to him ; and he shall make reports to them, at such times and on such points, as they may require.
The Visiters will appoint the assistant Instructors, when authorized and directed to do so by the Board. The assistants will perform such duties, as the Principal may assign to them.
To each Normal School, an Experimental or Model School will be attached, where the pupils of the Normal School can apply the knowledge, which they acquire in the science of teaching, to practice.
For aught that can be now foreseen, the first system of Normal Schools, properly so called, to be founded in this country, will be established in Massachusetts. Strong indications are given, however, that other States, emulating this noble example, will soon enter upon the career of furnishing higher and more efficient means for the education of the rising generation ;-thus providing new guaranties for the permanency of their institutions, and adopting the most direct course to make a wiser, a better and a happier people. - Common School Journal.
Bishop Chase is about to establish a College at Peoria, Illinois, under the above name. At the land sales in December last, he purchased 2500 acres of land in Peoria county, with funds obtained in England for the benefit of the institution. He supposes the income of the lands will ultimately prove an abundaut endowment for the projected Seminary.
LITERARY FUND AND COMMON SCHOOLS IN NORTH CAROLINA.
We have selected the following information from a Report of the President and Directors of the Literary Fund of N. C. on the subject of common schools, made in November, 1838. It was prepared, we believe, by the President of the University of North Carolina.
" North Carolina extends over an area of 50,000 square miles, or 32,000,000 of acres. In 1830 her population consisted of 472,843 whites, 19,543 free persons of color, and 245,601 slaves. The average aggregate population to the square mile was about 14 7-10, and of wbite population 94-10. The aggregate population in 1840 will probably be about 850,600, or 17 to the square mile, and the white population 550,000, or 11 to the square mile. The number of wbite cbildren between the ages of five and fifteen years was, in 1830, 129,583—in 1840 the number will be about 150,000, or 3 to the
Out of one hundred and eleven voters who gave testimony, in relation to the contested election in the first session of the 22d Congress, twentyeight made their marks ; in other words, one fourth could not write their names. It must be remembered however, that the Congressional District referred to is on our western frontier, and that although it certainly yields to no section of the State in the exbibition of mental and physical vigor, nevertheless, owing to its comparatively recent settlement and the sparseness of its population, the means of education are less generally diffused than elsewbere. The class of individuals too whose votes are most likely to be challenged are not always the most intelligent portion of the community. But after all proper allowances are made, the existence of such a fact in the most populous Congressional District in the State, and the one for which it will be most difficult to provide, in any general scheme of education, is startling. In 1840, more than one eighth of the voters of the State will be found in this region. In the samne district of country, there are not more than two well regulated seminaries, where instruction is given in classical learning; and in these, no means are provided for the illustration of the physical sciences. With the exception of the University, we have but one institution in the State possessed of philosophical and chemical apparatus; a third will in a short time be supplied. There are not probably a dozen acadeinies prepared to give instruction in the use of the maps and globes, or half of this number furnished with Jibraries.
The average number of students on the catalogues of the University for the last twenty years, is one hundred and eighteen, or in the ratio of about one to every four thousand of our wbite population in 1830. During this whole period however, many of our young men, probably a third, were educated at the colleges of other States, and if so, the ratio of students at college to the white population would be as one to three thousand.
Sources of Revenue.—The tax imposed by law upon the retailers of spirituous liquors-the tax on auctioneers—all moneys paid into the Treasury on entries of vacant lands (except Cherokee lands) – and all profit accruing to the State, for subscriptions to works of Internal Improvement, and from loans made from the Internal Improvement Fund.* Estimated Annual Income.-The Bank and Navigation
stock will probably yield a yearly profit of six per
66,000 Wilmington and Raleigh Rail Road stock, 6 per cent. on $600,000,
36,000 Tax on retailers of spirituous liquors,
2,800 Do. on auctioneers,
1,200 Moneys paid for entries of vacant lands,
Of the 30,000 square miles, or $2,000,000 acres, constituting the surface of North Carolina, a million and a half of acres were estimated by the Engineers appointed to examine them, to consist of vacant and inaccessible swamp lands in the Eastern section of the State. If this estimate approximates accuracy, and we add to the extent of the swamps, the mountainous districts of the west unsusceptible of cultivation, we may safely conclude that at least one tenth of the State is uninhabited. There remain, then, 45,000 square miles of inhabited territory. If this area be divided into common school districts, six miles square, or as nearly so as the nature of the country will admit, the State will contain 1250 districts If the population were diffused throughout the State, with precise equality, each district would contain about one hundred and eight children, between the ages of five and fifteen, and the most remote child would be a little more than four miles, in a direct line, from
* The permanent property belonging to the Literary Fund is estimated at $1,732,485.