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Begin your school by forming a regular plan of government; settle in your own mind the principles by which you will be guided in your little administration; propose to yourself certain definite results, and aim steadily at their attainment.
In forming your plan of government, avoid the multiplication of trilling rules ; seize upon principles as comprehensive as possible for your administrative laws; and be careful to draw a broad line of distinction between your rules and those eternal principles of morality which have their foundation in the revealed will of God, and are therefore obligatory upon all rational creatures every where, and at all times.
Let your pupils distinctly understand, and feel that your will is the supreme law; establish your authority upon a firm basis ; and require invariable, unconditional, unhesitating submission to it.
Seek continually, by prayer, Divine aid and guidance in the performance of your duty ; cultivate in your heart, and manifest in your life, a spirit of sincere, though unostentatious, piety.
Make the word of God your constant study, for the double purpose of becoming familiar with its principles and imbued with its spirit.
Strive, by all suitable means and on all proper occasions, to convince your pupils that you love them; that you sympathize with them; and that you desire their improvement in knowledge and virtue.
Formal lectures on moral subjects, delivered with unction and in simple style, will be productive of happy effects on your pupils; attend, therefore, assiduously and affectionately to the discharge of this duty ; but do not rest there : seize the occasions, as they rise in the daily occurrences of the school and conduct of the scholars, to enforce more pointedly the principles and dispositions of virtue ; and, above all, teach by example even more than by precept.
Do not confine your attention to your pupils to school hours ; let it embrace also, as far as practicable, their seasons of relaxation and amusement.
Be reasonable in your requirements ; be firm in exacting obedience; be uniform in your mode of governing; be impartial in your treatment of all under your care.
Take an early opportunity, after becoming acquainted with your pupils, of conversing with each privately ; make their dispositions and habits your constant study; and as far as may be, adapt your management of each to his individual peculiarities.
Court openness, candor, and confidence from your pupils; accustom them to regard their faults as diseases, and you as their moral physician, capable of giving them wholesome advice, and pointing out appropriate remedies.
Endeavor to excite in your pupils an interest in their own improvement, moral as well as intellectual ; and point out clearly the means whereby this improvement can be effected.
In speaking to your pupils of their faults do not overlook their true source, depravity of heart; yet, in animadverting upon any particular offence, qualify your censure by introducing, when you honestly can, some commendation of the culprit, and always by laying a stress on the means of improvement, and the hope and expectation that these means will be employed.
Endeavor to produce in your pupils a cordial concern for their faults.
In treating what we have denominated the moral diseases of your pupils, look for occasional relapses; do not expect too much immediately from your best exertions ; patient continuance in a course of judicious management and instruction will certainly, in the end, be crowned with success.
Maintain a sleepless vigilance over your pupils, but with as little appearance of it as may be ; mark the beginnings of evil, and use your utmost endeavors to counteract and overcome them; and cherish with parental solicitude, the feeblest developments of good feelings and principles.
Speak often and freely to your pupils of the peculiar dangers and temptations to which the young are exposed, especially those incident to their position as members of a school ; point out and urge upon them the means of overcoming these dangers, and resisting these temptations.
Endeavor as far as you can without sacrificing more important considerations, to sweeten the necessary restraints and labors of your pupils.
Punish as sparingly as you can, and always with evident grief and reluctance; never in an angry or revengeful spirit, nor with reproaches on your lips ; but do not attempt to dispense altogether with the use of the rod.
By simple explanations of the nature, objects, means, and advantages of education, endeavor to awaken in your pupils a love of learning for its own sake, and to incite them to diligence in seeking it.
Finally : If you would govern with complete success, and have the influence of your government upon the character of your pupils of the most desirable kind, you must know how to control, and you must control, the public opinion of your school; you must be able to make it tell, and you must make it tell, in support of law, order, and virtue.
Art. IV.–ENGLISH UNIVERSITIES.
(From Hollinsbed's Chronicle.) In my time,* there are three noble Universities in England, to wit, one at Oxford, the second at Cambridge, and the third in London ; of which the first two are the most famous, I mean Cambridge and Oxford, for that in them the use of the tongues, philosophie, and the liberall sciences besides the profound studies of the civill lawe, physic ke and theologie are dailie taught and had; whereas in the latter the lawes of the realm are only read and learned, by such as give their mind unto the knowledge of the same. In the first there are not onlie diverse goodlie houses builded four square, for the most part of hard freestone or bricke, with great numbers of lodgings and chambers in the same for students, after a sumptuous sort, through the exceeding liberalitie of kings, queens, bishops, noblemen and ladies of the land ; but also larger livings and great revenues bestowed upon them, (the like whereof is not to be seene in anie other region, as Peter Martyr did oft affirme,) to the maintenance onlie of such convenient numbers of poore mens sonnes as the severall stipends bestowed upon the said houses are able to sup
When these two schooles should be first builded, and who were their original founders, as yet it is uncertain ; neverthelesse, as there is great likelihood that Cambridge was begun
* In the reign of Elizabeth.
by one Cantaber a Spaniard,* (as I have noted in my chronicle) so Alfred is said to be the first beginner of the Universitie at Oxford, albeit that I cannot warrant the same to be so yong, sith I find by good authoritie, that John of Beverlie studied in the Universitie Hall at Oxford, which was long before Alfred was either born or gotten. Some are of the opinion that Cantabridgia was not so called of Cantaber, but Cair Grant of the finisher of the work, or at the least wise of the river that runneth by the same, and afterwards by the Saxons Grantcester. Another sorte affirme that the river is better called Canta than Granta, &c.; but whie then is not the towne called Canta, Cantium, or Cantiodunum, according to the same ? All this is said (as I think) onlie to deface the memorie of Cantaber, who coming from the Brigants, or out of Biscaie, called the said town after his owne and the name of the regions from whence he came.
Of these two, that of Oxford, (which lieth west by north from London) standeth most pleasantlie, being invironed in manner round about with woods on the hills aloft, and goodlie rivers in the vallies and bottoms beneath, whose courses would breed no small commoditie to that citie and countrie about, if such impediments were removed as greatlie annoie the same, and hinder the cariage which might be made also thither from London. That of Cambridge is distant from London about fortie and six miles north and by east, and stands verie well, saving that it is somewhat neare unto the fens whereby the wholesomenesse of the aire is not a little corrupted. It is excellentlie well served with all kinds of provisions, but especiallie of fresh water fish and wilde fowle by reason of the river that passeth therebie ; and thereto the Ile of Elie which is so neere at hand. Onlie wood is the chief want of such as studie there, wherefore this kind of provision is brought them either from Essex or other parts thereabouts, as is also their cole; or otherwise the necessitie thereof is supplied with gale (a bastard of kind of Mirtus as I take it) and sea cole, whereof they have great plentie led thither by the Grant. Moreover it hath not such store of meadow ground as may suffice for the ordinarie expenses of the towne and universitie, wherefore the inhabitants are
• Our author, p. 675, vol. 1, says (from Polydor) that " Sigebert king of the Eastangles began to erect that universitie at Cambridge about the yeare of our Lord 630."
inforced in like sorte to provide their haie from other villages about, which minister the same unto them in verie great abundance. Oxford is supposed to conteine in longitude eighteen degrees and eight and twentie minutes, and in latitude one and fifteen degrees and fifteen minutes; whereas that of Cambridge standing more northerlie, hath twentie degrees and twentie minutes in longitude, and thereunto fifteen minutes in latitude, as by exact supputation is easie to be found.
The colleges at Oxford, for curious workmanship and private commodities, are much more statlie, magnificent, and commodious than those of Cambridge; and thereunto the streets of the towne for the most part more large and coilie. But for the uniformitie of building, orderlie compaction, and politike regiment, the towne of Cambridge, as the newer workmanship, exceedeth that of Oxford (which otherwise is and hath beene the greater of the two) by manie a fold (as I guesse) although I know diverse that are of the contrarie opinion. This also is certaine, that whatsoever the differences be in building of the towne streets, the townsmen of both are glad when they may match and annoie the students, by incroaching upon their liberties, and keepe them bare by extreme sale of their wares, whereby manie of them become riche for a time, but afterwards fall again into povertie, because that goods evil gotten do seldom long indure.
Castels they also both have, and in my judgment it is hard to be said whether of them would be the stronger, if ech of them were accordinglie repaired ; howbeit that of Cambridge is the higher, both for manner of building and situation of ground, sith Oxford castle standeth low and is not so apparent to our sight. That of Cambridge was builded (as they said) by Gurguintus, sometime king of Britaine, but the other by the Lord Robert de Oilie, a nobleman which came in with the conqueror, whose wife Editha, a woman given to no lesse superstition than credulitie.began the Abbie of Osenie neere unto the same, upon a proud (and yet rare) occasion, which we will here remember, though it be beside my purpose to the end that the reader may see how readie the simple people of that time were to be abused by the practise of the clergie.
It happened on a time, as this ladie walked about the fields, neere unto the aforesaid castel, to recreate hirselfe with