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and useful works, besides urging the importance of the subject with great force of argument, furnishes specific directions of great value, to all who desire to learn that they may teach. We should be pleased to quote largely from this volume, but our want of room confines us to a single selection from each discourse. The first is from Dr Stone.
“ The Bible, moreover, is a book of philosophy; of philosophy the deepest and most spiritual ever studied. I do not mean ibat it analyzes, arranges, or teaches philosophy as a system. But it is philosophy. li knows what inan is made of; it enters into man; it finds hiin out thoroughly; it has power over the secret workings of his heart; and it can carry a torchlight of truth into the very darkest closets of the soul. 'i' he Bible is not a theory spun out of the buman brain; but it is practical philosophy, taking man just as he is, and making him feel that he has a Master, who has studied him deeply, and who understands the darkest mysteries of his spirit. This feature is one of the best proofs that He who created man, indited also the Bible.
Again: The Bible is a book of thought. In a manner, it may be said, it is all thought. No book speuds so little time as this on the accessories or enbellishinents of thought; none so little in unfolding and pursuing thought. It has been well said, that it is a look full of the seeds of things.' It is a book in which systems often lie compressed within the limits of a sentence; or in which many a lofty tree, covered with the flowers, foliage, and fruit of expanded and ripened thought, may, by the skilful eye, be seen comprehended as yet in the unbranched root of a single word. It is a book full of bints, suggestions, sketches, outlines; in taking, following, filling up, and finishing which the mind may work for ages, and yet leave its work growing under its hand, and waiting for its last and perfecting touches. Hence the Bible never tires, and is always full for those who wish to draw; full of thoughts, no one of which is light or trivial, but multitudes of which are profound as eternity, and rich with the interests of salvation to the soul.
“Once nore: The Bible is a book of the Spirit. Its great, philosophical, moral, and spiritual truths have all been revolved in the mind of God. His Spirit taught tbem to holy minds of old. His Spirit taught those hands to trace only truth on the sacred page; truth without a tincture from error. And his Spirit is still the companion of his Holy Word; shining in its truths, speaking in its thoughts, and acting through its philosophy.
“Hence, combining all the characteristics which have been pamed, the Bible is, emphatically, a book of power. No other book, nor all other books, can match it. It is to the minds of men like the atmosphere to the earth; which moves resistlessly the ocean or the land, according as the mighty one may bid it blow. The Bible is a book of power, not as the masterpieces of men are books of power. Its great strength does not lie in harrowing up the passions, in ihrowing the bosom into unnatural tumults, or in leading away the mind amidst the mazes of metaphysical, or along the track of logical
reasoning. When it acts on the individual mind, its power is that of a silent light, ot' a purifying fire, ot' a comforting energy, of a new-creating touch. And when it acts on the collective mind, it is that of a universally applicable agency, capable of reaching, with its influences, all times and all places; capable of working up permanent features on the face of nations; capable of breathing an undying spirit into the dead bodies of earthly dominions.
“ Clothed, then, in these characteristics, and with this power, it is not a matter of wonder, as it is a matter of fact, that the Bible has not only had, but actually made, more students than any other book, perhaps than all other books on earth; and that it has left the traces of its influence more widely and more indelibly than any, or than all, on the literature, the history, the living men, of the world. Looking back over the wide past, we can see its deep marks almost every where; and in numberless cases where we cannot see them, we know nevertheless, that they are, or have been felt. Pp. 30-34.
Mr Winslow, among other means of mental cultivation, insists on the following.
“Form right babits of reading.
“ There is a way of reading which improves the mind; there is one which enfeebles it. If you read at random, read whatever happens in your way, without any object, and when you have read a book, throw it aside, and think no more of its contents, you might as well not read at all. Always read with an object in view, and see that you secure the object.
“ Reading may be divided into three kinds–First, that of elementary and standard works. These are to be read with very close attention and repeated thought. When seeking acquaintance with an important subject, cousult some competent adviser for the best book upon it. Do not borrow the book, but purchase it; for you should keep it for reference. A good book is worth much more to you after you have read it, and marked it, and thus prepared it to become to you a book of future reference and instruction. Read the book at intervals, very slowly and attentively, always pausing and thinking as you proceed, till you get full possession of the author's meaning. You are not of course to take his opinions for granted, but to consider them, weigh them, apply to them the test of princi. ples which you may have previously settled; then, so far as you see their truth and importance, incorporate them with your own views.
“Mark with a pencil, for future consideration, passages which you do not understand, or of which you have doubts, or which contain the gist of the matter, or some important principles, or striking thoughts, or splendid imagery. Proceed step by step in this way, and if it is a book of intellectual power, before you have proceeded far, it will begin so to kindle up your thoughts, that you will perhaps wish to make a book yourself upon the same subject. It will put your mind in possession of the subject, add greatly to your inierest and profit from future discourses or conversations upon it, and will thus make you a more capable teacher.
“ The second kind of reading is that of history, biography, works of literary taste, &c. Here the object should be to acquire a know
ledge of historical facts; to furnish your mind with materials for thought and argument; and to enliven your imagination, and cultivate the beauties of tasteful composition. Here, again, be very choice in your selection of books. In reading history, fix the most important facts in your mind, in their natural order; but do not attempt to retain all the particulars. Be able, when you have read a volume, to state the substance of its bistory. Mark the most important facts for future reference. When you have gone through the history, it is well to write off from memory a brief synopsis of it. This will help to arrange it in your mind, and to imprins its facts upon your memory.
" It will assist you to remember history, as well as to secure the advantage of it, if you read it not merely to learn its facts, but to think upon them, to reason from them, to deduce from them principles of action, and to employ them for argument and illustration. " Works of taste and imagination should be read with similar
Mark the richer and more spirited passages; read them over and over; ponder them; study the secret of their charm; catch their beauties, and impress them strongly upon your imagination. By this means, your literary taste and power of description will be constantly improving.
“ The third kind of reading is that of miscellaneous subjects, floating literature, newspapers, &c. These should usually be despatched with much brevity. Still there are occasionally important facts, and sometimes jewels of thought, scattered here and there in them, which are worthy of special attention.
“ The world groans with books; but few of them can be read. Fro'n the vast library select a few of the very choicest; do them full justice, and let all the rest alone. By mastering a few of the best books on difierent subjects, you learn all that is valuable in all the rest:- like the botanist or the mineralogist, who, by carefully studying a single plant or mineral of a particular genus, learns the qualities of all the rest of the same genus; while a superficial and untaught observer might wander through a whole kingdom of them, and not learn the qualities of a single one. So fares it with us in reading books. It is the principal design of a collegiate education to take the minds of pupils off from a careless reading of the great world of books, and to confine them down to a close and faithful study of a few of the best of them. Follow up the same design, and your mind will grow.” pp. 97-101.
The Rev. Wm. Hodgson, D. D., Master of St. Peter's College, has been elected Vice Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, for the year 1839.—The Seatouian Prize for the best English Poem upon a theological subject, has been adjudged to the Rev. T. Hankinson of Corpus Christi College; Subject, Ethiopia stretching out her hands unto God.—The theme for the Norrisian Prize Essay for the year 1838 is, The Divine origin of the Holy Scriptures may be inferred from their perfect adaptation to the circumstances of Human Nature.— The Board of Trinity College, Dublin, have established a Professorship of Biblical Greek, to which the Rev. G. Sydney Smith, one of the Fellows, has been appointed. This is auxiliary to the Divinity School, which of late years has made rapid improvement in the Dublin College. The course now extends through two years, one of which is devoted to the critical study of the Greek Testament. The proficiency of the student is tested by constant catechetical instruction, and periodical examinations.—The Flaherty Scholarship recently established in University College, London, is worth £50 a year, to be held for four years.-Count Carlo Pepoli is the successor of Dr Pannizi as Professor of the Italian language and literature in University College, and Mr P. S. Carey, Professor of English law in the same.-Sir John Herschell has declined to allow himself to be put in nomination for the rectorship of the University of Glasgow. The Duke of Sussex will probably be nominated.-A history of Madagascar has been published by Fisher & Co. London, compiled chiefly from original documents, by Rev. Wm. Ellis, Secretary of the London Missionary Society, in 2 vols. 8vo.-Saunders & Otley, London, have published in 3 vols. a work by Mrs Jameson, entitled Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada.--A second edition of Lieutenant Conolly's Overland Journey to India, has just been issued. -The source of the Oxus has been recently explored by Lieutenant Wood. It issues from a sheet of water, encircled on all sides except the west, through which the infant river runs, commencing its course at the great elevation of 15,600 feet above the level of the sea, or within a few feet of the height of Mont Blanc. Lieutenant Wood was a companion of Capt. Burns in his mission to Caubul.–Among the works recently published in England, we notice The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, illustrated in a series of letters of Sir John Pell, &c. Edited by Robert Vaughan, D. D., 2 vols. Evo.— Narrative of a voyage from Alexandria to Jerusalem, by the Rev. N. Burton, L.L. D., 12mo.-Geraldine, a sequel to Coleridge's Christabel; and other poems. By M. F. Tupper.-A new collection of Haslitt's Sketches and Essays, by his son. At a meeting of the Archæological Society of Roine, May 17th, the Secretary Visconti read an account of the recent discovery near the church of Ss. Peter and Marcellinus, of a Mosaic pavement, seventytwo palms in length, and five in breadth. It is of the most elegant and varied design, and beside ihe figure of a dove, bearing an olive branch, contains ornaments einblematic of the cross, repeated in different forins. It is supposed to be of the age of Constantine. A large basso relievo has also been founil near the Porta Maggiore, which represents a Roman bakehouse, with all the operations of bread baking.
ANCIENT CARTHAGE. Sir Grenville Temple has employed himself for the last six months in making excavations in the classic sojl of Carthage. On the site of the temple of Ganath, or Juno Cælestis, the great protecting divinity of Carthage, he found upwards of 700 coins, and various articles of glass and earthenware. The most remarkable of his discoveries, is that of a villa, situated on the sea shiore, and buried fifteen feet under the ground. Eight rooms have been completely cleared, and their size and decorations prove that the house belonged to a wealthy personage. The wails are beautifully painted, and the floor paved with Mosaic, in the same manner as those at Herculaneum and Pompeii, representing marine deities and plants, a vessel with female figures dancing on the deck, and surrounded by admiring warriors, lions, leopards, herons, &c. Ten buman skeletons were found in the different chambers. In another house, are mosaics, representing gladiators in the arena, contending with wild beasts, and over each man is written his name. In another part are seen horse races, and men breaking in young horses. Sir G. Temple will shortly publish a complete account of his discoveries. A company has also been formed in Paris for exploring the ruins of the same ancient city, and fifteen cases of antiquities have been brought to France.
ANTIQUITIES OF Athens. In a letter addressed by M. Raoul Rochette, entrusted with an ar? chaiological mission into Greece, to the French Minister of Public
Instruction, is a description of the recent purgation of the Acropolis of Athens froin the modern structures with which it was encumbered. Much of the architectural elements of the Propylæa, which bad been employed as materials in the Turkish fortifications, have been restored to their places; others are lying on the ground where they can be measured with greater facility and studied very closely. Among the most interesting appearances which have resulted froin this restoration is the little Temple of Victory without wings, which bad been so long a problem to Antiquarians. This temple is now found entire, with its four columns on its four facades, and with its walls of cella on three of its sides. Each block of marble marked with the imprint of the time of Pericles, has been brought from the middle of a mass of masonry, and restored to its ancient place. The sculptures of the frieze bave also been found, and all that is now wanting are the four fragments of the frieze, which are now in London. The mosque erected in part of the cella of the Parthenon will soon disappear ; excavations are making in the inasses of rubbish