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but he will not even exert himself to same wretched condition. A really steal, unless the article is placed very miserable day is the harvest-time of handy. He lives for the pure sake the tattered and shivering vagrant ; of living, and therefore is, in the of course, although he may appear truest sense of the word, the only ten times more affected by the pierchuman being without a single respon- ing blast in his rents and rags than sibility, motive, care, obligation, or you are in your overcoat, he is not sensibility. In fact I can only com- 80 in reality. Like the savage, he pare him to the domestic cat who has has become inured by a lifetime of every desire gratified by her indulgent exposure to the different seasons, and owner. The tramp is a general pet

carries beneath those scanty looking of society who has been smoothed rags a hide as hardened as a rbinoby indulgence down to mere good- ceros.

What is making you, in your natured easy animalism.

He is truly

warm coat, shiver to the marrow, is a lily of the field, who neither toils only bracing up this sturdy rogue nor spins and yet is amply provided and sharpening his appetite for the for.

Irish stew, or steak and onions, which He quarrels sometimes when in he knows will be waiting for him at drink, but not often, and his rages the end of his exceedingly short day's are extremely short-lived. Having journey.

bo domestic ties, nor household gods, Spring with its east winds and he has no jealousies. He may form depressing damp, late autumn with a union for « few days, or months, its howling blasts and savage downwith a tramp of the opposite sex, and pours, winter with its ice and snows be for the time a step-father to the have all their comforting aspects to half-naked progeny who are trooping these charity provokers. The differabout with her; but, as both their ent seasons mean only a very gentle tastes are erratic, some day they will stroll, a few shivers and abject moans take different roads without a thought and a cosy evening at the first village of regret, and no more affecting leave- inn devoted to the service of his kind. taking than a parting glass to friend- And it is during the evening that ship. They will meet again, with our adventurer is seen at his best, other ties formed, or if it suits their

when he has reached his caravansary fancies, contract another short partner- and, throwing aside all hypocrisy, he ship together. Their consciences are gives his donation to the general fund the easiest, their hearts the lightest, and prepares for a boisterous night of and their memories the shortest for freedom and festivity. either benefits or wrongs received. Little beer-shops by the side of the

Summer-time is the pleasantest road these inns are, with such names season of the year for the tramp, as THE BEGGAR'S OPERA, or Noal's but the winter months are the most ARK, THE Sailor's REST, LUCKY profitable; therefore I think, on the HORSESHOE, and

80 forth.

Quiet whole, that he does not mind sacri- places, as to the frontage, with a ficing the pleasures of green woods, small bar and a dingy parlour beside and warm suns, for the more solid it, where the landlord sedately attends advantages of icy blasts, slushy roads, to stray customers; while to the rear, and driving snow.

through a long passage, are the tramp's When a man is cold and drenched quarters, large kitchens which serve he is all the readier to sympathise to cook and dine in, with sleepingwith the tramp who may be in the dens leading from them.

some

The landlord has generally a small Pipes are set alight and drinks orcloset to the rear of the parlour, with dered. It might be supposed that a little counter and ticket-like box as this is a beer-shop, ale and beer made into the wall of the kitchen. would be the order, but with the 'exHere he can receive orders, and watch ception of a few pots by way of that his guests do not make too much what Mr. Swiveller would call modest disturbance to call down the remon- quenchers, the true tramp, if in funds, strance of the police, which might despises this poor tipple. Bottles of place his licence in danger. Inside brandy, gin, rum, and whiskey, are these bar-closets I have spent many brought from the spirit shops and interesting hours, getting my experi- consumed copiously. The ladies and ence of the queer customers on the street-singers take port wine by the other side, when it was not always pint. One evening I saw three blind convenient to join in the festivities. men empty six flagons of wine at a

Irish-stew, ham and eggs, steak sitting, winding up with a bottle of and onions, and chops mostly occupy brandy by way of a night-cap. the early part of the evening. The Singing, swearing, dancing, and fire is always kept blazing merrily, courting fill up the intervals, in the and the cook busy with her pots, delicate manner that might be supfrying-pans, and gridirons, for the posed from the refined company, so customers drop in from sundown to that by the time the worthy landlord nine or ten o'clock at night, after has shut up his front bar, the revellers which hour no legitimate tramp would are in a high state of conviviality. be on the road. Whoever comes in Tramps do not possess any fixed later must be poor paltry property, neither do they hold on to searcher after base toil, who is glad anything transferable very long, but of the leavings which these pros- sometimes I have met them in comperous sons and daughters of charity pany with a dog. discard. I must say for them that Now dogs are the most imitative of they are extravagant and lavish in animals, as well as the most reflective. their donations when they have been The hour they make up their canine lucky themselves. What they have minds to accept a biped as their gleaned during the day they spend leader, they begin to mould their conscientiously before bedtime, leaving personalities into the likeness of that the next day to provide for itself. biped. A cat will retain her indi

They are not epicurean in their viduality to the last gasp of her ninth eating. A jolly gorge is what they life, but a dog allows himself to be come here for, and they sit down to absorbed into the personality of the enormous dishes, devouring as much being he decides to follow, and he as they can, until they are purple in quickly becomes a feasible replica of the face with repletion. Then they his master. contemptuously pass over the remain- The tramp's dog is an animal apart der of the feast to the poor wretches from all other dogs, as the master is. who crawl in late. Those despised different from all other castes of manobjects, who really want work, are kind. He is a mongrel, as might be too proud to beg, yet must play the supposed, and has the blending, with hungry dogs to these robust cadgers, the other qualities, of a hundred and eat humble pie for their futile different breeds in him. He is about attempts to be honest.

the size of a fox-terrier, with a shaggy A merry night succeeds the supper. coat, dirty white and rusty black in colour, & long solemn snout, small He knows perfectly well that when crafty eyes, enormously thick legs, and he comes to a crowded part of the an attenuated barrel. His tail hangs road, or where houses are, he must limply down, or, if it curls at all, skulk behind and appear as if he takes an inward curve between the were an objectless and ownerless dog. hind legs, which generally have a He must wag his tail to every one he backward and a downward tendency, meets and fawn upon them as if he that shrinking appearance which the was on the look out for a master. He hind legs of dogs are apt to take must give a wide circuit to all villages when the master has tied a rope to and towns where policemen are likely their collar, after openly expressing to be, and in general obliterate his his intention of drowning his faith individuality, as well as his similitude, ful follower. Cruiksbank has drawn on every possible occasion, if he the animal to the life in one of his intends to continue in the land of illustrations to OLIVER TWIST.

the living, which like his master, he The ribs of the tramp's dog pro- wants very earnestly to do. Theretrude, because he does not fare so well fore the stranger does not often see as his master. His rough coat hangs

His rough coat hangs the tramp and his dog together. The also in ragged patches, not with dis- dog is never to be met inside the temper (because it requires breed in a cadger's inn, nor even within its dog to take the distemper), but with vicinity. On a lonely part of the frequent and violent scratchings road you may chance upon the pair which are his only pastime. He together, but the dog will sneak out could not be a tramp's dog, if he did of sight, and take refuge in the not imitate, to the best of his ability, adjoining field the moment the his master's rags and other peculi. stranger, and possible victim, appears arities.

in sight. It can easily be understood that a As a mongrel, he is accustomed, dog who wears no collar, and who like his master, to all sorts of knows that no taxes are paid for him, weather. During the day he follows: has not much cause for pride. A dog at a respectful distance, prepared to that must pass through parts of the make himself scarce at a moment's country where police regulations are notice. Like the Australian dingo, sometimes very stringent has to be on he has lost his bark, and when his his mettle and keep a wary eye about master comes in sight of the night's him for casualties. He is perfectly refuge, he sneaks away to some well aware that his leader cannot, and hedge, where he can keep his eye on will not, take his part, or even own the place and wait patiently for his him, if he gets into any trouble with master's reappearance next day. He the authorities. He cannot afford the then takes a circuit of some fields in luxury of a free fight with any of the order to avoid the houses, and rejoins dogs he may meet, for that would call the wanderer on the other side of too much public attention to his civilisation. master, a state of affairs that he tries His master never thinks about in every way to avoid, for his own him, nor considers his wants in the sake and for the sake of the object slightest. What he can pick up in that he follows. His main aim, there- the shape of old bones, or dig up fore, is to speak through life as unos- from the buried treasures of other tentatiously as possible and avoid dogs, constitutes his food. His scent anything in the way of publicity. is keen for such finds and he is No. 636.-VOL. XC.

D

generally fairly successful, at least have the jolliest life imaginable while he manages to keep the soul within with these parents. The boys and those bulging ribs, and that is girls have no reason to dread the enough for his

for his desires. Covered waking up in the morning, with stern with feas, he has more occupation parental orders about clean necks and than his master, because he bothers hands, and a board-school nightmare himself to a greater extent over these to haunt their innocent slumbers invaders. Sometimes he is caught through the night. They may lie and shot, or drowned, or stoned to down like the puppy-dogs and get death, but he takes all this as the up next morning with a yawn, a chances of war. Sometimes you may scratch, and a shake, and with no find him in a snow-drift trying his one to make a single reflection about hardest to keep life and warmth in their private habits. Society must the little body of a tramp's aban- cover their nakedness, so that they, doned brat, or lying frozen and stiff with their parents leave that task upon it; for not being human, he to society. They have nothing whatwill take responsibilities upon him- ever to do with either births, deaths, self, in spite of his nomadic training. or habiliments; society manages all

Before a nation is civilised, children that for them. What they alone are a source of wealth to the parents. have to consider is how best to When we are bound down by the satisfy the vacuum which Nature obligations of civilisation they become creates in their internals, and that a decided burden to a poor man.

It is easily done with the gifts which is not the fault of the children that they have inherited from a long and they seem like curses instead of boons varied line of accomplished sires. when they arrive. It is the entire To the like of us unfortunato fault of exacting civilisation. payers of rents and taxes the coming Why cannot we be like the savages of a baby is a very sorrowful subof New Guinea, the free and easy ject for contemplation. The doctor, parents of the Solomon Islands, or Mrs. Gamp, long robes and christenthose extremely indigent poor who ing parties, vaccination, measles and carelessly pitch the entire responsi

the rest,

thousand and one cares bility on the shoulders of the rate- troop in the footsteps of that minute payers ?

Better still, why not be stranger from mystery-land. But, to like the regular tramp which is the the happy tramp these are consideranearest approach to those sons and tions and miseries unknown. daughters of Nature, the savages, Like the savage, he leaves his welcome our progeny with careless female at the first Union, when she merriment, and leave the providing can no longer keep up with him. of them to the casual passer-by? There he expects her and her brood

The male tramp is absolutely de- to be looked after by the authorities void of any responsibility or care for appointed by a

appointed by a charitable country his nameless children. He is much

for that purpose.

He goes on his more careless than the savage papa, way cheerful and contented with his yet he is quite ready to take up any lot, and probably wipes her and them, family for the time, no matter how with other present troubles, entirely numerous, and enjoy himself with out of his mercurial mind. The the results of their mendicant glean- female is just as careless about her ings. He is the easiest father with present and future. She is young these hardy young savages, and they and healthy as a savage, and most

an

likely a great many degrees more " What is he?" she burst out laughshameless. Beside her run five or ing as she brought her glance to bear six sturdy young half-naked savages. full on me, while she replied menAt the last moment she drops into daciously : "Ah, sir, you want to the Union Hospital, adds another know a great deal more than I know to the superabundant population of myself." paupers, and so soon as she is strong In my capacity as an artist, I enough goes on her way rejoicing, all regard these nomads with great affecthe richer by another beggar, the tion and would not want them out of possession of which no one is likely the landscape for a great deal. They to contest with her.

are always ready and willing to pose There is one singular point about as models, and never hurry me in these tramps, both male and female. my work, while being free and They are mostly light-haired, blue- natural in their actions, they ineyed, and ruddy in colour. When variably strike picturesque attitudes. you can get past the dust and dirt While I sketch them they open to the original colour, the females their hearts without stint, regarding are not as a rule beautiful, but they me, I suppose, as a kind of fellow are generally robust, brick-tinted, and craftsman who imposes on society, as healthy. They do not need to carry they do with their fictions. They or nurse their offspring very long; at tell me their adventures and what six or eight months the beggar's brat luck they have had lately, thus helpis generally trying its own legs and ing me with the incidents needful to using its own gums on

a crust.

an author; also in many cases they While the mother is carrying it, she put me up to the most likely houses is almost sure to reap a rich harvest to appeal to, and what houses I should of pity, with its equivalents, so that avoid as of no use. a nursing tramp has no need to go So and so's dog is all bark, you a-begging for a new husband.

She

may go safely past him, but look out may take her own pick, for she is for the next place, its a vicious brute as good as a well-jointured widow to and likely to plant its teeth in you the fellow who can get her to link without a warning." ber fortune with his.

“How old is this little chap?” A large family is also a decided “The Lord knows, for I don't ; advantage to the mother who can you'll be asking me next, who's his parade them in their rags and step- dad,” replies my model with a merry and-stair stages. She can go from laugh ; "all I know or care about is door to door with the best of pros- that he is the best kid in the world pects, and tell her story about a sick for drawing a tanner out of old ladies. father out of work with splendid effect. They all pities him when he tackles

One day I asked a female who had come, with her filled quiver, “Have you seen my mother passing to appeal to my benevolence, what this way?" asked a young mendicant ailed her husband. With an upward about six, as I was sitting painting cast of her roguish blue eyes she one day by a roadside. answered, “That's what we all want “What is she like?I enquired to know." " Where is he?" I next in turn. asked, which evidently took her “She's a long, skinny, yellow-faced unawares for she gave me the same

woman with a broken nose and a reply, and to my next question of torn-down-eye.”

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'em.”

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