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bassy, and the Cancelleria Palace, generous to the city of their adoption. built by Cardinal Riario, nephew of They threw open their beautiful parks Sixtus the Fourth and still papal and villas to the people, and they enproperty. The Simonetti and Fal- dowed hospitals, asylums, and orphanconieri Palaces are in the Via Giulia

ages. The Roman ladies had always by the river.

patronised and promoted works of Latest of the great papal families charity. Nevertheless the later custo settle in Rome were the Braschi, tom, which persists to this day, of relatives of Pius the Sixth, whose personally visiting the poor and the palace stands in the Piazza Navona. hospitals began with Gwendolen Talbot, The Patrizi Palace and the Giustiniani the daughter of the last Catholic Earl Palace are near the French church of of Shrewsbury, who, as the wife of San Luigi in the street of the same Prince Borghese, was the first of the name. The Giustiniani are also Earls Roman ladies to walk alone at all of Newburgh in the peerage of Scot- hours, intent on her errands of mercy. land, through the marriage in 1757 The wit, which made her present a of the heiress of the title and estates gold coin to a man who on one occato the Prince Giustiniani of that date. sion followed her, was the talk of the

Great was the opulence and magni- city, where her name is still a houseficence of the Roman princes. When hold word in Roman mouths, and they went forth into the city they where her tragic death when only were attended by mounted grooms twenty-four years old, leaving four with staves, while running footmen little children, one only of whom, the cleared a way before them. An army present Princess Piombino, survived of servants waited upon them ; their the infection which killed their mother stables were filled with horses, and -moved the entire population. their coaches were wonderful equip- Many of the Roman palaces are as ages of gilding, glass, and painting, big as barracks. The Palazzo Pamwith powdered footmen in silk stock phili-Doria can accommodate a thouings at the back, three on a prince's sand persons; but this was none too carriage, two on a cardinal's. One of large for the patriarchal style of these carried an umbrella and living which, in a modified form, surcushion. If during his drive, the vives to the present day. Much space prince chanced to meet his Holiness was taken up by the great libraries, the Pope, or a religious procession in museums, picture galleries, and statewhich the Host was carried, he would rooms. A small army of officials were stop his coach and alight, the cushion housed within the walls,-steward, would be laid upon the pavement for bailiff, major-domo, secretaries, accounhim to kneel upon, and the umbrella tants, with all the underlings neceswould be held up to protect his bared sary to the management of great and head from the sun.

distant estates. A wing would be set Many of the Roman nobles had entirely apart for the prince cardinal, private theatres in their houses; they a cadet of the house; the domestic were great collectors of art, pictures, chaplain would require his own rooms, statues, books, bronzes, tapestries, and - he would say the daily mass in the mosaics. The Borghese alone possessed private chapel of the palace but would four Raphaels and what is said by some not dine with the family; the sons of to be the finest Titian in the world, the house would need tutors, the as well as their famous collection of daughters governesses and companions. statues. At the same time they were The great double gates of every


Roman palace, securely locked and lackeys bearing lighted torches, who barred at night, leads into a central should escort him to the threshold of court. Round it are open colonnades, his hostess's reception room. This is sometimes in two stories, and in the still done for cardinals on state occacentre a fountain splashes amidst ferns sions. Again, every prince has the and palms. A porter presides at the right to, and still in fact has, a throne gates, magnificent in a cocked hat, knee- room and throne in his palace, not for breeches, and a long coat trimmed with his own use, but for the Pope should coloured braid into which are worked he elect to visit him. In the first hall the arms of the family, and carrying a of a Roman palace a great shield, emlong staff twisted with cord and blazoned with the family arms, is crowned with an immense silver knob. affixed to the wall. A prince may This personage is the descendant of surmount this with a canopy, beside the janitor who in ancient Rome which should stand the historic umwatched the house-door day and night, brella and cushion. Four marquises, and whose fidelity was occasionally and these only, the four Marchesi di ensured by chaining him to his post. Baldacchino, are entitled to these

A grand staircase leads to the first privileges. floor, and this, the piano nobile, is still A good deal of natural confusion occupied by the head of the family, exists in the mind of the foreigner with whose rule is absolute and sometimes regard to the different ranks and the tyrannical. The eldest son upon his distribution of titles in the Italian marriage is given the second floor to


These in fact follow no live in, the second son the one above, general rule but depend in each case while beneath the roof is accommoda- upon the patent of creation. Princely tion for an immense retinue of ser- titles conferred by the Holy Roman vants and attendants. It is still the Empire affect every member of the custom for the whole family, married family equally ; titles conferred by sons and their families included, to the Pope, on the other hand, as a rule dine together; and elaborate accounts are restricted to the head of the are kept of the allowances given to family only. Thus in the Colonna each son, of the quota contributed by family every meinber is a prince or each to the general expenses, of the princess; among the Ruspoli, a papal dowry of each daughter-in-law, and creation, only the head of the eldest strict account is kept as to whether branch is legally a prince. In these she is enjoying the number of dishes latter cases, however, it is usual to of meat per meal, and the number of give the eldest son one of the other horses and carriages stipulated for in family titles upon his marriage, and her marriage settlement. In the case the same with the second son. Such of an English wife a carpet used to be an act is in the father's option, but among the stipulations.

he is obliged to notify the assumption Though the state coaches, the run- of the title to the civil authorities. ning footmen, the external pomp and In the same way a certain amount ceremony have

have disappeared, some of latitude is allowed him as to the curious relics still remain of an order title he uses himself, or grants to his of things fast passing away. Every sons. Prince Gaetani, for example, Roman prince has the right, should he prefers to be known by the older title wish it, to be received at the foot of in his family, Duke of Sermoneta, the great staircase of any house he bestowing that of Prince di Teano honours with his presence by two upon his eldest son. The titles Don


and Donna are only correctly used to the Padri Coscritti or Senators of for the younger sons and daughters the City, the old Patres Conscripti. of princes and of the four Marchesi Their number was limited and defined di Baldacchino, though they are often by a constitution of Benedict the used for all the children of marquises. Fourteenth, but later popes added

In the same way, the distribution names. The patrician families of the titles of marquis, count, or are now sixty in number. The nobles, baron among the various members on the other hand, often owed their of the family depends upon the terms titles not only to the pope, but to of the original patent. In some cases their respective communes, which, every member bears the title, in until the one fount of honour was others the head of the family only; defined to be the Sovereign, frequently in the latter case, a cadet of the house bestowed titles on their citizens. The would be styled Giovanni or Marc popes have always conferred titles of Antonio dei Principi N-, or dei Conti nobility, as did the Holy Roman EmN— as the case might be, "John of pire, whose heir in this matter the the Princes So-and-So,” or “of the

popes claim to be.

At present an Counts So-and-so.”

Heraldic Commission is sitting in The distinction again between the Rome to regulate the use of titles, patrician and the noble is one that many of which have been assumed is not understood by the foreigner. for generations without any warrant. A patrician belongs by ancestral pre- Henceforth every one will be called scriptive right to the governing class

upon to prove his right to the title he of his province. The names of the bears, and it will be illegal for the patricians were ballotted annually, communes to recognise it until he and one of the number chosen as has done so.

Foreign titles, and prior or governor of the province. among them papal titles, will in all He is in fact and history of senatorial cases have to be ratified and allowed

In Rome the patrician families by the Sovereign of Italy. are called the Coscritti, an allusion



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As long as my boat,” says Old stroyed it at leisure in the depths ; Billy firmly, looking with pride upon once again, when a stout new salmonthe great pool at our feet. We have cast parted like cotton on the strike. been speaking of certain legendary But these events are of the now carp that lend romance to the place. distant past, and time has induced Old Billy, it appears, has from time wiser incredulity; probably in both to time seen a colossal tail threshing cases we hooked a pike, a circunthe surface, and he will not permit stance that often precedes angling himself to estimate the weight of the misfortune. body to which it belongs. Old Billy On this sharp winter morning it is one of those grandly untruthful is somewhat out of place to speak persons who will not occupy them- of carp, and, but for Old Billy, we selves with the smaller statistics at should not have done so, for we are all. The carp are undoubtedly there; intent on pike and pike only. Old they are numerous ; and they are as Billy, however, must always ease his long as Old Billy's boat : that is the mind on that subject; in some obscure thread of his discourse unravelled way he seems to think his own credit from the tangle of metaphor and and reputation greatly increased by illustration. “ You can't catch 'em," the presence in the pool of fish is his impolite conclusion ; "nor can which are enormous and uncatchable; nobody," is his afterthought, dictated possibly, too, he has some unrecogprobably from interested motives, for nised vein of poetry in him which have we not on sundry occasions given finds vent in. frequent allusion to the the old villain the wherewithal to buy wonders of the deep. Having disbeer? Even Old Billy recognises the missed the carp, however, he brings unwisdom of particular charges of in- the punt round to the landing-stage efficiency against the person who, for without further delay, and points the time being, represents a day's with pride to the live-bait in the wage of unknown quantity.

bucket; finer live-bait, he says, you However, we are not prepared to could not see anywhere; money, in quarrel with his assertion, partly fact could not buy them. Conceding because we have never been able of the point as one

which hardly set purpose to catch carp anywhere, demands emphasis (for Old Billy and partly because we are not quite caught the live-bait himself, and we convinced that these particular carp

have fished with him before), we get have existence other than theoretical. into the punt and instruct him to Twice have we been within measurable push off. distance of belief; once when fishing The pool is some eighty yards in for bream with a bunch of the larvæ width and some hundred and twenty of bluebottles (politely known as in length, and it is in parts very gentles, impolitely known as maggots) deep,—bottomless, according to Old and we hooked something irresistible Billy. The great river which forms which ran out all our line and de- it here plunges over weir-beams for



the last time before it joins a river for ornament than

The air, still greater a mile lower down, and however, is dry and there is it celebrates its last victory over the wind; this is the cold that makes obstacles opposed to it by man in a one vigorous and does not induce fine turmoil of foam. Then the main

Then the main shivering fits. It is in short as fair current sweeps grandly across the a day for winter fishing as could be pool to its channel below, leaving wished. Old Billy paddles the punt behind it two enormous eddies, one out to the marks, if we may borrow on each side. A finer pool for pike. a term from those that go down to fishing it would be impossible to con- the sea in ships, and sticks in his ceive; the bottom is all of gravel, rypecks just at the head of the and the supply of fish seems inex- further eddy. For some unexplained haustible No matter how many may

reason most of the pike inhabit this be caught one day, the next finds the part of the pool; it may be that the pool re-stocked, for it is the Mecca other eddy has less movement, and of all the pike in many miles of the consequently has accumulated a little river Severn. Of this fact Old Billy mud. At any rate nine tenths of is well aware, and he regards the fish the pike taken in the pool are hooked from a base matter-of-fact point of in this eddy, and here we accordingly view ; his avowed object is always to fish. We have a somewhat childish kill as many as he can. That is why liking for a beautiful float, and the he desired us to fish with trimmers one we mean to use is large and fat, to-day, a suggestion which we sternly its upper part a rich crimson and its put away from us. Trimmers are, in lower & deep green.

We are well the first place, an abomination. In aware that it is conspicuous, and that the second place, they are large discs the complete angler would be ashamed of cork painted on the outside white to attach a thing so monstrous to his and on the other red ; a stick runs line. Yet it is not so large as through them, and a line is wound triminer, and its ruddy and cheerful round them, and they are sent out countenance always seems emblematic with a live-bait to fish by themselves of hope, even when the fish are least with the white side uppermost. When in the humour. Equally ruddy and a pike takes the bait the trimmer cheerful are the three little pilot turns over and becomes red; then you floats which we fasten above the go and chase it in a boat. The use other at intervals of eighteen inches. of these things is reprehensible, but, We use them ostensibly to keep the -no, on second thoughts we will not line from sinking, but really for speak of the fascination of the sport; æsthetic effect; our line will not sink we will merely denounce them and so because it has been well greased in leave them.

the manner known to dry-fly fisherIn his heart Old Billy despises us men, but the floats look pretty as for sticking to the rod as good sports- they follow the big one in an obedient men ought; but fish, he admits, we If the rod were long enough shall probably catch, for the water is we should use more. Old Billy would right and the weather. There were not understand our refined pleasure a few degrees of frost last night and in these minute things, so we do not it is still cold. The amiable red sun trouble to explain them to him ;

; that is now well up will make it a instead we dangle our snap-tackle little less cold presently, but not before him, that he may put on a much ; this December day he is more dace from the bucket.



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