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no business of his, and that, so long by reason I learned him some points as strangers kept the laws and traded

of geometry and understanding of the honestiy, he cared not who they were art of mathematics with other things, nor to whom they might be nominally I pleased him so, that what I said he subject. On the last occasion of a would not contrary." His services Hispano-Portuguese memorial being indeed were rewarded with an estate presented on this question, he lost all near Yedo, called Hemimura, “like patience and hounded the petitioners unto a lordship in England, with 80 from his presence, emphatically declar- or 90 husbandmen that be as my ing that if " devils from hell " visited slaves or servants." With all this, his realm, they should be treated like however, Adams was home-sick. He angels from heaven, “so long as they had left a wife in England, and seems behaved like gentlemen." In the to have been an attached and, all present instance also, Ieyasu, recog. things considered, a faithful husband, nising that the advice of the Portu- often making remittances to Mrs. guese was not remotely related to Adams through the East India Comtheir own commercial and religious pany. After five years, therefore, he interests, flatly declined to follow it. bosought his master to permit him to Adams was released, and with his visit his native land, “desiring to see shipmates rejoined their vessel, which my poor wife and children according in their absence had been plundered to conscience and nature.” ApparLiberal restitution was, however, ently he had not yet married in made by Ieyasu, and after some Japan, but by 1616 he had a Japanese wrangling the money was divided wife and a son and daughter, Joseph among the crew according to relative and Susanna, who are frequently rank.

mentioned in the diary of Richard What became of his companions is Cocks. Ieyasu refused leave of abunknown ; we have now only to deal senco; probably he feared that if his with Adams himself, whose fortunes Englishman crossed the broad seas, waxed greater after the dispersal of he would think twice before returning. the band. The abortive Dutch expe- The application was renewed when dition proved of some historical note, tidings came of the Hollanders being since it led to an Englishman setting in Java and Patani ; Adams now told foot in Japan for the first time, and the Shogun that if his departure were becoming the assistant and friend of permitted, he would bring both Dutch its ruler. He has left us no details and English to traffic in the country. of the first five years of his service for But the answer

was still in the Ieyasu, but about the end of that negative. period he was invited to construct Meanwhile he was living a busy a ship on the European model, and life. He made several tours round the vessel was designed and builtthe coast, and advised on naval and giving the Shogun great satisfaction. military matters ; probably he did A second and larger ship was after- some private trading as well. His wards made to convey home a Spanish experience enabled him to be of governor of the Philippines, who had service to the Dutch traders who been wrecked on the Japanese coast. came to Japan in 1609 and 1611, Adams, who from his letters seems to when Spex established the factory have been an educated man, was also at Hirado, and, owing to his standuseful to Ieyasu as an instructor. ing at court, he was also useful to “Now being in such grace and favour, them as a diplomatist. He rendered


like service to other foreigners in tain John Saris had started on April Japan, for he says in one of his 18th, 1611, six months before it was letters: “The Spaniard and Portugal written. It must have been some hath been my bitter enemies to death; earlier letter of Adams, now lost, and now they must seek to me, an which inspired this enterprise, and in unworth wretch, for the Spaniard as Saris's commission he was instructed well as the Portugal must have all to take counsel with Adams on all their negosshes go through my hand. questions. It must not be supposed, God have the praise for it.” From however, that Saris was sent with the Dutch ship of 1611 he learned the sole object of opening trade with that his countrymen were trading in Japan. He had other duties to perthe East, and, hoping that some of form, the main object of the expedithem might know him, he wrote on tion, as originally planned, being to October 22nd, 1611, the interesting call at Surat, where Sir Henry narrative of his life in epistolary Middleton had been fostering the form, which has fortunately been Company's interests. The East India preserved with other letters of his in merchants had regard for their serthe India Office. There is a touch vants' spiritual welfare as well as of pathos in the superscription of this commercial ends, though Foxe's Book letter which the lonely Englishman OF MARTYRS can scarce have been sent forth upon its travels, trusting cheerful reading for little groups of it might reach a sympathetic reader: Christians living amid men of alien "To my Unknown Friends and Coun- faiths who were experts in torture. trymen : desiring this letter by your In the forty-first article of Saris's good means, or the news or copy of instructions we read that “for the this letter, may come into the hands better comfort and recreation ” of the of one or many of my acquaintance factors in the Indies, the Company is in Limehouse or elsewhere, or in Kent, sending " the works of that worthy in Gillingham by Rochester.” He servant of Christ, Mr. William Per. concludes with a brief appreciation of kins, to instruct their minds and food his adopted country, in the course of their souls with that heavenly food which he says: "The people of this of the knowledge of the truth of island of Japan are good of nature, God's word, and the Book of Martyrs courteous above measure, and valiant in two volumes, as also Mr. Hakluyt's in war : their justice is severely Voyages to recreate their spirits with executed without any partiality upon variety of history.” transgressors of the law. They are

The earlier part of Saris's voyage governed in great civility. I mean, need not be dealt with here. In not a land better governed in the October, 1612, he anchored off Banworld by civil policy.”

tam. There he saw Adams's letter Probably through their factors of the previous year, which had recently settled in Bantam, two already been answered by Augustine copies of this letter were transmitted Spalding, chief merchant of the East to the “Worshipfull Fellowship of the India Company in Java, who sought Merchants of London trading into the further information of Japan's commerEast Indies." It has been said to cial prospects. Long before Adams's have led to the opening of British response to this letter reached Ban. intercourse with Japan, but this is tam, Saris had sailed for Japan in the a mistake, for the first English ex- CLOVE, reaching (June 12th, 1613,) pedition to that country under Cap. Hirado (then called Firando) on the

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island of the same name, which lies they fell down and worshipped it for our off Kiushiu, the southern member of Lady with shows of great devotion, telling the Japanese group. Hirado had long of their own companions, which were not

me in a whispering manner (that some been a busy port. From an early so, might not hear), that they were period travellers to or from China Christianos, whereby we perceived them passed through it; the Mongols had

to be of the Portingale-nade papists. made it their point of attack in their attempted invasion of Japan in the

On another day : thirteenth century; in the sixteenth it was a resort for Chinese traders

The king came aboard again, and

brought four chief women with him. and smugglers. The Portuguese had They were attired in gowns of silk, clapt formerly been settled at Hirado, and the one sort over the other, and so girt the Apostle of the Indies, St. Francis to them, bare-legged, only a pair of half

buskins bound with silk riband about Xavier, had founded a church there, while the Dutch, as we have seen,

their instep; their hair very black and

very long, tied up in a knot upon the had set up a factory about two years crown in a comely manner: their heads before Saris's arrival.

nowhere shaven as the men's were. He had a cordial reception from

They were well faced, handed and

footed ; clear skinned and white, but Matsura Hoin, the ex-daimyo of

wanting colour which they amend by Hirado, who, in accordance with art.

The king's women seemed Japanese custom, continued to ad- to be somewhat bashful, but he willed minister the district, though his

them to be frolic. They sang divers nephew or grandson, Tono Sama,' was

songs and played upon certain instru

ments (whereof one did much resemble nominally in power. Both noblemen,

our lute, being bellied like it, but longer attended by forty galleys, rowed out in the neck and fretted like ours, but to the CLOVE, and Saris led them to

had only four gut-strings). his cabin, where he had prepared a banquet and music for their Matsura, who appreciated English delectation.


then handed cooking, especially powdered beef and letter over from James the Firstpork "sod with onions, radishes and but Matsura did not open it at turnips," continued amiable and attenonce, saying he would await Ange's tive to his visitors, and by his consent (Adams's) arrival. The latter was they rented a house. With about a absent at the time on

one of his third of his officers and men Saris court missions, but the daimyo under- took

up his abode in it, and the lead, took to send him a letter from the powder, cloth, copper and other goods captain. For the next few days the of the cargo were stored in its goEnglish ship was a resort for the down or warehouse. Saris employed gaping curious of Hirado, and, ac- his time in making friends with the cording to Saris's journal, some of merchants, Japanese and foreign, of the Catholic Japanese ladies fell into the port, and to that end distributed an error of judgment in admiring his gifts right and left, an essential factor decorations.

in Japanese commerce and diplomacy.

Seven weeks slipped by without any Giving leave to divers of the better more serious trouble than the escasort of women to come into my cabin, pades of Christopher Evans, gunner's where the picture of Venus hung, very lasciviously set out, and in a great frame,

mate, who persisted in going ashore

without leave and running wild there, * An official designation equivalent to his

“for which cause," says the captain, Highness,

“I gave order to set him in the

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bilboes, where before the boatswain his letters to Ieyasu (who in 1605 had and most of the company he did most delegated the Shogunate to his son, deeply swear to be the destruction of but still retained supreme power), Jack Saris, for so it pleased him to and to that son, Hidetada. The call me.”

daimyo provided a galley for the On July 29th Adams returned, journey, and with eighteen men, half and to Saris and Richard Cocks, of them English, Saris and Adams who had come in the Clove as chief set out for Ieyasu's court, then at merchant, detailed the prospects of Shizuoka. On the way they visited Japanese trade, speaking warmly of Kamakura and the great copper the natives. Saris's journal indicates image of Dai Butsu, and, faithful that from the first there was a cool


the traditions of the British ness between the two men. They tourist, "some of our people went rubbed each other the wrong way. into the body of it and hooped and Adams was invited to settle at the hollowed, which made an exceeding English factory, but preferred his own great noise," while others inscribed quarters in the town, where he had their names on the image. a St. George's ensign flying; while On September 8th Saris delivered willing to do all in his power for his the royal letter to the imperial secrecountrymen, he had no intention of tary, who banded it in turn to Ieyasu, throwing over his clients of other court etiquette not permitting direct nationalities. Saris complains that presentation. Saris then withdrew, whenever he wants Adams, the latter and Adams was summoned for conhas an engagement elsewhere and sultation, the result being that Saris says that, if wanted, he can always was permitted to send in a petition, be heard of at the Dutch factory. stating what privileges he desired, Probably it was the old story: the and duly received a charter authorisofficial from home coming out and ing trade all over Japan. The party wishing to command the man then proceeded to Yedo, where the the spot, who knew the ways of the Shogun Hidetada gave it audience ; natives and to whom red tape was and on the return journey four days repellent, and the latter retaliating were spent at Adams's house near with independence and brusqueness Uraga, a small port outside the of manner. It must be remembered entrance to Yedo Bay. Adams took that Adams was not yet in the service the opportunity to renew his counsel of Saris's employers; he was merely that the factory should be set up giving help and advice, and on a vital there, but Saris, while acknowledging point his counsel was not followed. the merits of Uraga harbour, remained He was against the English factory bent on his former scheme. being set up at Hirado on the con- After the return to Hirado the fines of the empire, and urged that breach between the two men it should be in eastern Japan, near tinued to widen. Tales were set Yedo, which, as a great city and seat afloat

Adams's disadvantage. of government, offered an excellent Even Cocks, despite genuine friendmarket. Saris, however, pleased with ship, a friendship apparently mingled his treatment by the local ruler, Mat- with awe, writes : “I cannot choose sura, determined that Hirado should but note it down that both I myself be the headquarters of British trade and all the rest of our nation do see in Japan; it was even with difficulty that he is much more friend to the that Adams persuaded him to present Dutch than to the Englishmen, which

No. 535.-VOL. XC.




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ile First Englishman in Japan.


are his own wuntrymen, God forgive indeed, entitled to a free passage him.” One trumpery incident caused home in Saris's ship, and Ieyasu had much mutual irritation about this now consented to his going; but the time. A servant of Adams's, whom prospect of many months with Saris he had left at Hirado to cater for the in the confined space of a small vessel merchants, "did most unreasonably cannot have been enticing, and he

them; he seems, in fact, by resolved to let the Clove sail without illegal commissions to have made him. about ten shillings on the wine bill. Informed of this decision, Saris, Saris, indignant with the man, went who, however he might dislike the to the master. “In friendly manner,” other, had to recognise his value to he says, “I acquainted Mr. Adams in the factory and the certainty that if the presence of Mr. Cocks, of his it did not employ him some foreign man's dishonest and villainous deal- one would, made an offer for his ing, being put in trust and to cheat services. After some negotiations us so unreasonable.

He took it very

Adams accepted a salary of £100 evil that his servant should be so a year. Eleven days after the conthought of, and so highly took his tract was signed, Saris wrote a mepart, as by the persuasion of Mr. morandum for Cocks, in which the Cocks I did not say further, but gave references to Adams are nothing less order to Mr. Cocks to let him go no

than venomous. He is only fit to be more to market for us."

master of the junk or an interpreter, Adam's attitude can be attributed requires constant supervision, and to his wider acquaintance with the must not be trusted to disburse the Asiatic servant's elastic code of morals. Company's money. Saris, then, proA more serious cause for friction was fessed to believe Adams a fool, idler, of a financial nature. Saris had at and knave, yet left him in a respon. Uraga bought for the Company some sible post at what was then a high Kioto ware from a stock kept by salary. In the circumstances the Adams as agent for some Spaniards. latter, ignorant of the captain's Adams expected payment in Spanish Parthian dart, must have been well ryals, then the international currency pleased to see the Clove fading away of the East, but Saris insisted on on the horizon in December, 1613. paying Japanese money and thereby Despite Saris's insinuation, Cocks reduced the price five per cent., such reports to the Company in the followa discount being then customary. ing year, “I find the man tractable Adams protested that he was thus and willing to do your Worships the out of pocket, as he had to pay ryals best service he may," and mentions to those for whom he had sold the that he has repaid £20 advanced by goods, but Saris would not give way. the Company to Mrs. Adams in Altogether their relations were far England. from pleasant, especially towards the Before Saris left, the factory was end of the captain's stay in Japan. in working order. Cocks at its head, Adams could not but reflect that, so with the title of Cape-merchant, left far, his services to the Company had an interesting diary, from which a been gratuitous; he had received gifts good idea of the life of the colony amounting to £42, but tliis was not can be derived. He established two fair remuneration for a man to whose branch factories at Osaka and Yedo, influence and knowledge the success each with several sub-agencies, and of the expedition was due. He was, fitted out one or two oversea expedi

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