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have gone before, so distinct injuries as we have pro. gressively received them, have continued to engross for their day, our never tiring remonstrances.
Continuation of Mr. Rush's Oration. IT is cause of the deepest regret, fellow citizens, that while we are about to enter upon a conflict with one na. tion, our multiplied and heavy causes of complaint against another should remain unredressed. It adds to this re. gret, that, although a last attempt is still depending, the past injustice of the latter nation, wantoning also in rapa. city, leaves but the feeblest hope of their satisfactory and peaceful adjustment.
Some there are who shrink back, at the idea of war with Britain! War with the nation from which we sprung, and where still sleep the ashes of our ancestors ? Whose history is our history, whose fire sides are our fire sides, whose illustrious names are our boast, whose glory should be our glory! Yes, we feel these truths! We reject the poor definition of country which would limit it to an occupancy of the same little piece of earth! A common stock of ancestry, a kindred face and blood, the links that grow upon a thousand moral and domestic sympathies, should indeed reach farther, and might once have been made to defy the intermediate roll of an ocean to sunder
But, who was it that first broke these ties? Who was it that first forgot, that put to scorn such generous ties? Let their own historians, their own orators answer. Hear the language of a member of the British House of Com. mons in the year 1765 : “ They children planted by your care! No! your oppression planted them in America. They fled from your tyranny into an uncultivated land, where they were exposed to all the hardships to which human nature is liable to the savage cruelty of the enemy of the wilderness, a people the most subtile and the most formidable upon the face of the earth ;--and yet they met all these hardships with pleasure, co
compared with those they suffered in their own country, where
they should have been treated as friends. They nourished by your indulgence ? No, they grew by your neglect. When you began to care about them, that care was exercised in sending persons to rule over them, who were the deputies of some deputy, sent to spy out their liberty, to misrepresent their actions, to prey upon their sub. stance ; men whose behaviour has caused the blood of those sons of liberty to recoil within them. They protected by your arms? They have nobly taken up arms in your defence; have exerted their valour, amidst their constant and laborious industry, for the defence of a coun. try, the interior of which has yielded all its little savings to your enlargement, while its frontier was drenched in blood."* Yes, who was it we ask first tore such generous sympathies? Let the blood of Concord and of Lexington again answer! Our whole country, converted into a field of battle, the bayonet thrust at our bosoms! and for what? for asking only the privileges of Britons ; while they claimed “ to bind us in all cases whatsoever.” Against all that history teaches, will they raise upon us the crime of rending these ties. They compelled us into a rejection of them all—a rejection to which we were long loth-by their constant exercise of unjust power; by laying upon us the hand of sharp, systematic oppression ; by attacking us with fierce vengeance. With the respect due from faithful subjects, but with the dignity of freemen, did we, with long patience, petition, supplicate, for a removal of our wrongs, while new oppressions, insults, and hostile troops were our answers !
When Britain shall pass from the stage of nations, it will be indeed, with her glory, but it will also be with her shame. And, with shame, will her annals in nothing more be loaded than in this That while in the actual possession of much relative freedom at home, it has been her uniform characteristic to let fall upon the remote subjects of her own empire, an iron hand of harsh and vindictive power. If, as is alledged in her eulogy, to touch her soil proclaims emancipation to the slave, it is more true, that when her sceptre reaches over that confined limit, it thenceforth, and as it menacingly waves throughout the globe, inverts the rule that would give to her soil this purifying virtue. Witness Scotland, towards whom her treatment, until the union in the last century, was marked, during the longest periods, by perfidious injustice or by rude force, circumventing her liberties, or striving to cut them down with the sword. Witness Ireland, who for five centuries has bled, who to the present hour continues to bleed under the yoke of her galling supremacy; whose miserable victims seem at length to have laid down, subdued and despairing, under the multiplied inflictions of her cruelty and rigor. In vain do her own best statesmen and patriots remonstrate against this unjust career ! In vain put forth the annual efforts of their benevolence, their zeal, their eloquence; in vain touch every spring that interest, that humanity, that the max. ims of everlasting justice can move, to stay its force and mitigate the fate of Irishmen. Alas, for the persecuted adherents of the cross she leaves no hope! Witness her subject millions in the east! Where, in the descriptive language of the greatest of her surviving orators, sacrilege, massacre, and perfidy pile up the sombre pyramids of her renown."
* So actively did the American colonies co-operate with Great Bri. tain in the memorable seven years' war, to which this speech of Col. Barre alludes, that they are said to have lost nearly thirty thousand of their young men. See Marshal': Life of Washington, vol. 5, p. 85.
But, all these instances are of her fellow-men of merely co-equal, perhaps unknown, descent and blood; co-existing from all time with herself, and making up, only accidentally, a part of her dominion. We ought to have been spared." The otherwise undistinguishing rigor of this outstretched sceptre might still have spared us. We were descended from her own loins : bone of her bone, and flesh of her flesh; not so much a part of her empire as a part of herself-her very self. Towards her own it might have been expected she would relent. When she invaded our homes, she saw her own countenance, heard her own voice, beheld her own altars! Where was then that pure spirit which she now would tell us sustains her amidst self-sacrifices in her generous contest for the liberties of other nations? If it flowed in her nature, here it might have delighted to beam out; here was space for its saving love ;-the true mother chastens, not destroys the child: but Britain, when she struck at us, struck at
her own image, struck too at the immortal principles which her Lockes, her Miltons, and her Sydneys taught ! And the fell blow severed us for ever as a kindred nation. The crime is purely her own; and upon her, not us, be its consequences and its stain.
Extract from a Lecture on the opinions and modes of
practice of HYPOCRATES ;-delivered 3d Nov. 1806, in the room appropriated for the lectures on the Institutes of Medicine, and the Materia Medica, by BENJAMIN Rush, M. D.
[The subsequent extracts, it is believed, will not discord with the design of this volume, notwithstanding a number of local circumstances are introduced. They are the only suitable passages that I could find, from the classic pen of our late illustrious countryman.]
IN entering this room, and taking my seat in this chair, I have felt unusual emotions. I have been carried back to the year 1762, when the first anatomical lecture was delivered in this country by Dr. Shippen. It was in the State House, and to an audience composed of the most respectable citizens of Philadelphia. I have been led to review the little class of ten pupils, of whom I one, that attended his first course of lectures upon anatomy, in a small room over his father's office. I have been borne, by my memory, to the time of a public commencement in the year 1765, when Dr. Morgan delivered a plan for co-operating with Dr. Shippen, in establishing a school, in which all the other branches of medicine should be taught, in this city--My imagination has carried me to a back parlour in Dr. Morgan's house, in which he delivered, to about half a dozen pupils, a course of lectures upon the elements of botany, chemistry, and the materia medica. From hence I have traced the
progress of our school through successive appointments to profes. sorships, and different places of lecturing, (the last of which have been in most instances small, inconvenient, and remote from each other) to the present day, when we
behold a numerous and respectable class of students, * assembled in a room appropriated to the professors of the institutes and practice of medicine, and of the materia medica, and connected with a new and spacious building, provided with all the conveniences necessary for the accommodation of the professors of anatomy, surgery, and chemistry. Delightful prospect! and truly honourable to the trustees of the university, who have added this fresh and expensive act to many other instances of their patronage of the medical sciences ! In contemplating this splendid building, I imagine I see a mighty bulwark for opposing disease and death, erected in our country. I behold the votaries of medicine, crowding from every part of the United States, to seek, within these walls, for the means of conducting this humane and honourable warfare. From every valley and mountain, and from the shores of every river in the union, I hear blessings pronounced upon the
the physicians who have been instructed in this place, in those arts, by which they have saved a husband, a wife, and a child from a premature grave; or perhaps preserved a village, a city, or a state, from the exterminating ravages of a pestilential fever. Elevated with the retrospect of the rapid progres of our medical school from its humble origin, to its present flourish. ing situation, and animated with the prospect of its future and more extensive usefulness, I feel more than I am able to express.
To that ALMIGHTY BEING who took our infant insti. tution by the hand and conferred upon it, by the instrumentality of its trustees and professors, its present reputation and prosperity, it becomes us thus publicly to offer our united thanks ; and further, to supplicate him to inspire its teachers with wisdom and knowledge, and its students with diligence, and all the virtues which adorn the profession of medicine, till science and sickness, and time and death, shall be no more.
From these acts of homage to the Supreme Being, and to the founders of our newly created temple of medicine, I am naturally led to contemplate the origin of our science in ancient Greece, and to select from a group of phy