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the ends of justice nor to the swered, “I am to sell all I have prisoner's health and happiness and give unto the poor." Still it that he should indulge in such would be a dreary conclusion to luxurious superfluities as he may reach that no good results come have addicted himself to in the from the costly efforts to plant days of his freedom. The stop- teachers of religion among the inpage of his wine is of course a mates of prisons, and it must at serious element in his punishment, least be believed that it is good to and so is the wearing of the con- bring them into contact with people vict uniform. But it is clean, like of earnestly religious views and everything else about him; and high culture. the consideration of exempting him In the way of other methods of from any rules of prison discipline bringing such influences to operate must be considered in its influence on the criminal nature there are on his fellow-prisoners of humbler difficulties. A prison is a place condition.

where precision and order are the Liberal efforts have been made rule. All exciting novelties are a in recent times to distribute clergy- source of intense anxiety and great men and lay teachers through our trouble to the discipline officers, prisons. It is one of those works whose services, even when they are to which people bid God-speed supported and encouraged, are not without too closely criticising the of a kind to be cheerful or enjoyextent of its efficiency. The toler- able. Yet it would not be wise, or ant and pliant nature of the habits consistent with British notions of ual criminal prompts him to mani- the sacredness of personal liberty, festations of acceptance apt to mis- that none but the officers of a prison lead the teacher – especially the

especially the should have access to it, and opporreligious teacher—as to the prac- tunity of communication with its tical extent of his services. It is criminal inhabitants. Reference unfortunately, a notion familiar to has been made to that instinct of all to whom prison life is familiar, the jail-bird that warns him against that a fresh chaplain is delighted any attempt to plead innocence of to find that the spiritual harvest to the offence attributed to him, and be reaped is now spread before him. induces him to found his complaint He will not perhaps announce the of the injustice done to him on blasting of his hopes; but it is some technical irregularity. But a common opinion among those ac- this weakness loses its restraint in quainted with prison interiors, that the presence

of the benevolent there is perhaps no officer within stranger, who is often perplexed the walls 'more thoroughly sceptical and vexed by the heavy burden of any moral or religious good hav- laid upon him in the distinct and ing been effected among the flock fervent declaration of perfect inthan the prison chaplain. The nocence made by every inmate of a members of his congregation will prison who has had an opportunity remember the words uttered by of appealing to him. him, and will perhaps repeat them Chaplains and teachers are, to to others in a manner not tend- a certain extent, a wholesome eleing to edification; as where an emi- ment of influence on the pedantries nent statesman questioning a pri- and conventionalities of the officers soner about to be released as to trained to monotonous daily duties; his intentions for the future, was and other visitors are received un

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der certain conditions in conform claimed for themselves, as the ity with the established routine “Secretary of State's convicts,” of discipline. If they generally something like a position of exconform with these, and consent clusive dignity. to visit the establishment, not as Convicts are signally susceptible a show, but as a sphere of useful to those emotions that are somelabour, they do an eminent service times spoken of as the amiable to the public.

defects of human nature. There has been of late years a minent place among these is vanity. gradual but wholesome pressure Personal vanity is naturally more against the practice of making any conspicuous among the women than inmate of a prison a public show on on the male side. Some of them account of the atrocity or will appropriate and adorn themother exciting quality in the crime selves with any strip of ribbon, silk, for which the imprisonment has or even tinfoil

, that may happen to been inflicted. The love of fame be found; and there is an unaccountis powerfully at work in the crim- able oddity in the exercise of the inal mind; and it is not an en- passion, since it must be done in tirely preposterous conclusion, on secret, and especially since it is prethe part of people who have had cluded from attracting the attention opportunities for observation, that of any male admirer. the homage of curiosity paid by The susceptibility of the criminal the foolish public to the martyr to the influence of vanity someundergoing punishment for some times takes a troublesome shape in flagrant crime has been an element efforts to deceive or mystify his of temptation to others to attempt custodiers. The steady perseverthe accomplishment of the like. A ance and long endurance of misery certain grade of rank, in fact, in often expended in the gratification the criminal world, is conceded to of this passion, is one of the standthe perpetrators of crimes of a high ing marvels of prison-life. “Maland startling character. Vidocq, ingering," or feigning sickness, is the illustrious French policeman, the most ordinary form taken by gives more distinction to this pecu- the passion, and, with the other liarity than it is perhaps entitled vanities, it prevails on the female to claim with us; and among the side. Instances could be recalled inmates of a prison he gives a lively of women keeping themselves bedaccount of the miseries of a poor ridden for years to this end. In creature, whose crime was limited one instance the poor patient was to the theft of certain cabbages, enabled, by a peculiar muscular under the sneers of a high-class power, to create the external sympconvict, whose plunderings had toms of a dangerous structural been among diamonds and other

A surgeon celebrated precious articles. It seemed, how- for successful operations on such ever, to persons experienced in maladies was called in. His first act prison-work, an unexpected novelty was to administer chloroform, and when a body of men, under sen- this deprived the malingerer of the tences of penal servitude, com- physical capacity to create the plained of the humiliation of oc- phenomenon. This woman was an cupying the same premises with instance of the elements of profuse petty offenders sentenced to short health and strength, often the gift periods of imprisonment. They of criminals. After having lain for several years an abject wasted reformation of the habitual crimwretch, when restored to the dis- inal has evidently given much uncipline and hard work of the easy concern to those who have healthy, she gained weight and undertaken it. We are told that colour, and all the elements of an in Ireland the feat has been accomexcellent constitution.



plished, and the assertion is supIn another instance, the convict ported by a crowd of instances betrayed herself by an imprudent where fiends have been converted exercise of the virtue of cleanliness. into angels of light; but Ireland Criminals, while in their own hands, is always producing some phenoare generally dirty in their habits; menon flagrantly contradictory to and the personal cleanliness enforced our experience in other parts of under good prison discipline is one the empire. An official man conof its most effective hardships. In nected with the administration of this instance, however, there was justice elsewhere having visited the innate love of cleanness peculiar Ireland for the purpose of practito the respectable English woman.cally examining the whole matter, The keeping of this woman's cell brought back some curious items in order had to be performed by of information. He had had the some one of her comrades in afflic- good fortune to enjoy the hospition. It was observed, however, tality of an ardent admirer of the that it was always in a more per- system - so ardent that he had fectly clean condition in the morn- selected all his servants from jailing, before the assistant had access birds; and his table was served by to it, than at any other time. It ticket-of-leave men. The presiding seemed like the result of visits female genius of the house gave from the “drudging goblin," whose practical confirmation to the success capacity was tested

of the scheme, saying, that since she

had been served by ex-convicts she "When in one night ere glimpse of had never thought it necessary to His shadowy flail had thrashed the lock up her plate and jewels. In corn."

people who find their way to conclu

sions of this kind there must be a But the source of the phenomenon store of sunny happiness much to in the eyes of the attendants was be envied by people less fortunate. simple and obvious. The convict How much they must enjoy, for inhad risen in the night to the work, stance, of all that is denied to persons and given a precedent for setting like a sceptical old prison officer who, her to work at regulation hours. in the course of some practical disAn instance occurred when a clevercussions on the Irish convict milofficer suggested the pitting of per- lennium, remarked that “there are sonal vanity against the vanity of no thieves in Ireland because there mystification. The convict was is nothing there to steal"! But paralysed. She was proof against there is a partial meaning in the all attempts to surprise her out of abrupt conclusion. It is not by her malingering by physical means, the wealth of the inmates of palaces but she could not resist the temp- and castles that the thief is suptation of a pair of new shoes, and ported, but by the abundant sums presented her feet promptly to be of money and articles of value disinvested with them.

tributed in other parts of the The question of the possible empire among multitudes individually possessed of moderate means. has inherited the Irish name from The convenience and value of this his grandfather, by the brogue, or stock-in-trade gives the English other peculiarity of speech. It may thief a prejudice against Scotland, be desirable that we should have where the ready cash of the farmer closer information on such points or shopkeeper is despitefully de- as these, and on many others conposited in a bank, or, if retained, nected with the pedigree of crimiis kept in the form of traceable nals. Earnest attempts have been bank-notes, instead of the stocking made to collect and arrange statisfull of gold pieces so welcome in tics embodying the pedigree, the England.

place of birth, and the places they As appropriate to the exemption have frequented since birth, of of Ireland from the depredations of all persons who come under the the accomplished thief, it may be lash of the criminal law. But there noted that few natives of Ireland is a fatal obstacle at the outset of find their way into the prisons on such inquiries. Criminals—thieves this side of the water. On the especially—are found to be people other hand, names indicating un

of a modest and retiring disposition. doubted Irish descent abound in As to their past career, however them, so as sometimes to distin- they may luxuriate in conceit and guish nearly half the population vanity, they exhibit reticence to within the walls of some of the those having charge of them for the larger prisons. Hence it is to be time. To any questions about the inferred that Milesian descent does past their instinct ever is to give not exclude its possessor from the a lying answer. The only thing acquisition of the furtive propen- one can feel assured of, therefore, sities of his neighbour living in in the statistics so collected is, the richer country. The native that the truth in each instance Irishman is, of course, distinguish- lies somewhere else than in their able from him who, born elsewhere, record.



The most striking object which irig description of Monsieur Lenoir,* meets the eye from the summit of in an account which he gives of a the highest mound of ruin of the hurried visit to the Fayoum, and its ancient city of Arsinoë, is the Pyra- chief town, of the general accuracy mid of Howara, distant about five of which his description of its commiles as the crow flies from the merce may serve as an illustration : modern town of Medinet el Fay

“ Boats and immense barges," he oum, but considerably farther by says, "are moored as far as the eye the

road,-if the narrow paths can reach along its brick quays, which which traverse the fields can be come hither to obtain grain and straw, called roads,-for the country is so the produce of the last harvest. Numintersected by canals, that one is berless caravans compete with this frequently obliged, in riding, to navigation transport, and serve to make long detours in search of a

connect Medinet with Cairo." bridge. As our capacity for endur- Out of the twelve boats and ing fatigue was somewhat limited, barges which exist, I never saw we determined, under these circum- more than two fastened to the riverstances, to make the expedition in bank at one time. “The brick quays a boat-a mode of locomotion not along which they are moored as far usually employed in the Fayoum. as the eye can reach," exist entirely There are, indeed, only about four- in the writer's imagination, and it teen miles of navigable river, the is evident, as the canal is only sluices at Illahoon barring all far- navigable for about fourteen miles ther progress eastwards, and the in an exactly opposite direction to subdivision of the Bahr Youssef that of Cairo, which is about seventy at Medinet into numerous minor miles distant, that the "numberless canals blocking it by dams and caravans” have not much reason to water-wheels in all directions. I fear competition. It is true that in held converse with the head of the former years, during the inundation, boating fraternity on the feasibility boats came up from the Nile by the of my project, and found that ten El Magnoun canal to Illahoon, heavy barges and two small boats where produce was transferred from composed the entire carrying ca- the barges from Medinet; but this pacity of the river. The barges route has long been discontinued, are used for conveying manure to and there is now no connection the fields adjoining the canal, and between Illahoon and Cairo, exbringing their produce to the town. cepting by following the tortuous I inspected the small boats, and course of the Bahr Youssef up to having selected the one which was Siout, which would involve a cirleast old and leaky, had her cleaned, cuit of nearly 500 miles. As a matter and an awning put up in the stern. of fact, the produce of the Fayoum I am thus particular in describing goes to Cairo neither by camel nor the boating resources of the canal, boat, but by railway. Sails are not because I was misled by the glow- used by this magnificent fleet of

* Le Fayoum, Sinai et Petra, par Paul Lenoir.

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