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Central Railway, which unfortu- scription privately raised, which nately were not fully paid up. The amounted to the sum of £40,000.” enthusiastic anticipations of pros- It is with a feeling of pity for perity which coloured Cobden's Cobden that we have followed Mr. business, not less than his political, Morley through these details; but views, led him to expect almost it is our duty to ask whether the immediate returns from a railway public views of a man who could possessing such immense natural make such “miscalculations” in advantages.

his own private affairs, deserve to "I recollect,' says Mr. W. S. Lind- carry the weight that his disciples say,'having many conversations with attach to them? The same overCobden on this subject. I agreed with sanguine spirit that misled Cobhim entirely as to the prospects of the den in his own business transacline, but we differed as to the time tions coloured all his views of when the large prospective profits of financial policy. He failed in his the undertaking could be realised. He thought they were close at hand; personal expectations; who can say 1, on the contrary, held the opinion that his public prognostications that, while all the land would in time have come more true? He believed find purchasers, they would belong that Free Trade was to prove a rather to the next generation than to panacea for all the distresses of

In this instance my views the nation; have periods of comcame true.'

mercial and agricultural depression The upshot was, that in 1858 been less frequent or less severely a call was made upon the shares, felt since we gave effect to his which Cobden was in no condition views ? He prophesied that Brito meet

tain had only to set the example “Mr. Thomasson of Bolton hearing to make all the great commercial from Mr. Slagg, their common friend, states of the world converts to that Cobden was embarrassed by one

Free Trade; has a single nation of these outstanding loans for the Il followed his lead ? and is not Prolinois shares, amounting to several thousand pounds, released the shares,

tection to-day gaining fresh conand sent them to Cobden, with a re

verts among the ablest statesmen quest that he would do him the favour and economical thinkers in both to accept their freedom at his hands, Germany and America ?

And yet in acknowledgment of his vast ser- the authority of Cobden is largely vices to his country and mankind. On appealed to as a ground why we a later occasion, when the same difficulty recurred for the same reasons,

should accept Free Trade as a dogma, Mr. Thomasson went down to Mid

to be received implicitly and withhurst, ascertained the circumstances,

out question. The intolerance with and insisted that Cobden should ac

which the League pressed its princept a still larger sum, refusing a for- ciples upon the country is still exmal acknowledgment, and handing it erted in their maintenance; and over in such a form that the trans- even a demand for a fair consideraaction was not known to any one but tion of the Free Trade system is Cobden and himself."

decried as sacrilege. Every quesTwo years after Cobden was tion is admitted to have two sides again in snch straits that he had to it, but Free Trade must form the to apply to one of his oldest and exception. Yet we see from Cobmost confidential friends in Man- den's life that the system was formchester for aid and advice.” The ed upon very imperfect premisses, result on this occasion was “a sub- and that it was pressed upon the country in the light of expecta- pertinacious and dogmatic as he tions which have never been real- often was forced to be in carryised. Cobden's friends might bearing on his struggle, he conducted the burden of his private miscal- his campaign, with a few excep: culations; for his public errors the tions, in a spirit of geniality and country has had, and will have, to good-humour. He never gave way pay.

to the spirit of brutality which has We have said that we do not unfortunately marred too many of think Cobden's reputation will Mr. Bright's most powerful speeches. stand higher in the minds of those On the other hand, Cobden wants who read Mr. Morley's volumes; the semblance of dignity with and yet, if we can only turn away which a sterner and more uncomfrom the picture of the political promising attitude has invested the agitator, and concentrate our atten- career of the latter. Cobden's intion upon the man himself, we stincts of honour were not of a meet with many qualities that are high order. He was not above both likeable and estimable. His making the fact of his being a unvarying kindness to his relations, member of the Church of England the strength of his friendships, bis subservient to his popularity as a real sympathy with the cause of the Free Trade agitator. distressed and the oppressed, sprang In these days, when books like from a better side of his nature shooting stars pass across the firmathan that which he presented to ment only to shine and disappear, the public from the platform. We it is information to be told, upon believe him to have been in the the authority of the author, that main sincere in his convictions, the Life of Cobden' is to be read although the methods which he re- and annotated by the next generasorted to when impressing them on tion (vol. i. p. 101). For our own the public were very often those of humble part we would have hesithe charlatan. He was unfortunate tated to bazard such a prediction. enough to think that political wis- We are not surprised, however, to dom was the monopoly of himself find that the press has done its and his own party. He hated but best to encourage Mr. Morley in respected the Tories, as may be this delusion, and to puff him up clearly seen from his correspond- in the conceit that he is very little ence. His contempt for the Whigs short of being a Boswell or a Lockis only equalled by the withering bart. The fraternity that prevails scorn with which his biographer among the claqueurs of journalism pursues that suffering remnant; would be touching if it were either and he had but little respect for sincere or disinterested. We cannot the collective wisdom of the masses, ourselves assign Mr. Morley a place simply looking upon them as the in the first rank of biographers. We raw material of agitation. It have already alluded to the serious would be well for the "teeming error which he commits of obtrudthousands” who cheer our Radical ing his own opinions too frequently, statesmen to the echo if they could and of interposing himself too much see the opinions that their leaders between Cobden and the reader. express of them in private corre- No great writer would commit such spondence, such as we find in a blunder ; but it is an old trick of Cobden's letters. It says, however, Mr. Morley to make the subject of much for Cobden's character that, bis studies merely a stalking-horse VOL. CXXX.NO. DCCXCIV.

37

for airing himself. His own impos- cite numerous other flights equally ing personality is kept as assiduously high above the regions of sober and before us throughout his chapters sensible prose. But the greatest as on his title-pages. Nor are the defect of these volumes is the dogliterary merits of the book suffi- matic and intolerant tone which Mr. cient to secure it a place among Morley considers himself-heaven the standard biographies of English knows why!-permitted to use all statesmen. The reader is conscious through them. Had Mr. Morley's that Mr. Morley's style is weakened Life of Cobden' appeared in the by his excess of mannerisms, and, League era, when criticism was we are bound to say, by not a little much more outspoken than in the slip-shod English. Our space will present day, the book would have only allow us to quote two instances, at once been pronounced to be the but we had marked a good many Biography of a Bagman written by more on our way through the vol. a Cockney. umes. “Nothing could surpass the One of the latest additions to the childlike simplicity with which Scotch calendar was characterised every absurd and improbable rum- by his successor as having been "ane our was believed, unless it were the sair sanct for the Crown." If Cobstolid scepticism with which all of- den is to be canonised, we fear the fers to demonstrate their falsehood cry will come from many quarters was rejected” (ii. 131). “ No great that he has been "ane sair sanct body was conciliated, nor attrac- for the country." His doctrines ted, nor even touched with friendly were hastily accepted, but we have interest,” &c. (i. 171),—we shall had leisure to weigh them if not to not follow Mr. Morley's irreconcil- repent of them; and the longer they able misunderstanding with the are considered, and their practical double negative farther. And as application felt, the less reason the for metaphors, here is one culled country has to congratulate itself at random, from the third page upon them. It is little satisfaction of the first volume, - “Poverty in the present state of depression to oozed in with gentle swiftness, understand that Mr. Cobden was a and lay about him like a dull man of great cconomical and politicloak for the rest of his life." But cal genius, falling short, if of any it is neither pleasant nor profitable one, only of his biographer; but to dwell upon Mr. Morley's hostil- we feel certain that no person of ity to the precise observances of unbiassed mind will lay down these the English language. We have volumes without a conviction that quoted at length the stilted pas- Cobden bad few of the qualities sage in which he describes the two which make a man a great statesFree Trade apostles as setting out man, and none of the caution that on their pilgrimage ; and it would marks one out as a safe leader of be easy, if our space permitted, to the populace.

INDEX TO VOL. OXXX.

Abode of Snow,' the author of the 141. a sergeant's exploit, 280—the armis-
ADVENTURES OF A WAR CORRESPON- tice, 282—news of peace, 285–pre-
DENT, THE, 724.

sentation of address, 286.
Advocate, the calling of a Venetian, BOERS AT HOME, THE: JOTTINGS FROM
530.

THE TRANSVAAL, 753-Boer patriots,
Æschylus, the “Choëphori” of, con- 754-manner of living, 758—religion,

trasted with Sophocles's “Electra," 761—Native question, 766—massacre
306 et seq.

of Bronker's Spruit, 769.
Agates, 168.

Boers, siege of Standerton by the, 1,
“Alchymist, the," by David Scott, 604.

264.
Alfieri's 'Oreste,' 330.

Booth, Mr. Edwin, his Shakespearian
ALIVE, AND YET DEAD: SOME Pas- representations, 252.

BAGES IN THE LIFE OF A FRENCH Bricks, Egyptian, 215.
CONVICT, 646.

Britain, Great, her relations with Tunis,
ALMER, WITH CHRISTIAN, IN THE 130.

OBERLAND, 375—the Bergli liut, 376 "Brochs" in Orkney, 399.
-ascent of the Jungfrau, 378—view Bronker's Spruit, massacre of, 769.
from its summit, 379—Grimsel val. Buckle's early reading, 231.
ley, 380—the Lauteraarjoch, 381— “Buried Alive; or, Ten Years of Penal
the Schreckhorn, 383.

Servitude in Siberia,' by Fedor Dos-
Ameni, King of Egypt, bis tomb, 352. toyeffsky, 29.
Ammon, the priest-kings of, 214. BURTON, THE LATE JOHN HILL, 401.
Ammonites, 165.

Campbell, Professor, his · Three Plays
Andorra, the Republic of, 632.

of Sophocles,' 308 et seq.
'Architecture of the Heavens,' by CANONISATION OF COBDEN, THE, 793—

Nichol, Scott's illustrations to, 607. Mr. Morley's life, ib.—the Free Trade
Augerville, Berryer at, 71 et seq.

movement, 796 et seq.-peace princi.
AUTOBIOGRAPHIES: No. IV., EDWARD ples, 804-French treaty, 806-finan-

GIBBON, 229–No. V., CARLO GOL- cial difficulties, 807 et seq.
DONI, 516.

Carnarvon, Lord, his translation of the
AUTUMNAL RAMBLE, HINTS FOR AN, " Agamemnon," 308 et seq.
BY AN OLD TRAMP, 393.

Cervantes, Mr. Duffield's blunders re-
Aytoun, his sheriffship of Orkney, 395. garding: 472.
Bahr Youssef, 37 et seq.

Claretie, M. Jules, his Monsieur le
Bank-notes, State claim to issue, 509. Ministre,' 718.
BANK-NOTES, THE THREATENED ABOLI- Colley, Sir George, 1.
TION OF, 502.

Concordia hut, the, 379.
Banks, the Scotch, their application to Coptic marriages, 379—funerals, 343.

Parliament for unlimited liability, Cowper's early training, 231.
507.

Crocodile-worship, 43.
Basque Song of Roland, the, 630. Curchod, Susan, Mme. Necker, 240 et
Bedouins, the Sheikh of all the, 49. seq.
Belgiojoso, Princess do, 76.

Cyprus, capture of, by the Turks, 473.
Ben Lomond, rambles on, 170.

Daira Sanieh, administration of the,
Bergli hut, the, 376.

224.
Berryer, Mme. Jaubert's recollections Daudet, M., his 'Numa Roumestan,'
of, 71.

704—Le Petit Chose,' 715.
BESIEGED IN THE TRANSVAAL: THE David SCOTT, R.S.A., 589—ideals in

DEFENCE OF STANDERTON, Part I., painting, ib.-pre-Raphaelite move-
1-interview with Sir George Colley, ment, 590—Scott's early years, 591-
ib.-journey to Standerton, 2 et seq.- studies, 592—visit to Italy, 595—writ-
preparations for defence. 8-message ings on art, 598—return to Edin-
from the Boers, 10-proclamation of burgh, 599—designs, 604—death, 609.
martial law, 12-appearance of the DECADENCE OF FRENCH WOMEN, THE,
Boers, 14 et seq.—the Standerton 429 -- abandonment of principles
• Times,' 20—Conclusion, 264—posi- under the Republic, ib.-the influ-
tion of the town, ib.-a Zulu messen- ence of French women in the past,
ger, 269, 270—"dodges," 273–execu- 431—the Faubourg St. Germain, 434
tion, 274-a night sally, 275 et seq.- -Frenchwomen under the Second

Empire, 436—their effacement under Garcia, Pauline, De Musset and, 77.
the Republic, 437—the degree of de- Gavarnie, the Cirque of, 626.
cadence, 441-prospects of a survi- German studies in Shakespeare, 248.
val, 445.

GIBBON, EDWARD: AUTOBIOGRAPHIES,
DECOYS AND DECOYING, 745-history No. IV., 229-his family, 230_life

of decoys, ib.--mode of working, 747 at Oxford, 233-becomes a Roman
---statistics of decoying, 751.

Catholic, 235—banishment to Lau-
DENIS, 491.

sanne, 237 - love-passages, 240 -
Derbyshire, rambles in, 166.

Essai sur l'étude de la Littérature,
“Descent from the Cross," by David 242-life in England, 245-comple-
Scott, story of, 601.

tion of the Decline and Fall,' 246-
Don QUIXOTE, A NEW, 469.

death, 247.
Dostoyeffsky, Fedor, his ‘Buried Alive; Gladstone, his sensational legislation,

or. Ten Years of Penal Servitude in 405—his financial reputation, 502–
Siberia,' 29.

his threat to the Scotch banks, 509-
Drury Lane, the Meiningen Company his supersession of his party, 634
at, 248.

deterioration of Parliament under,
Duffield, Mr. A. J., his translation of 641.
Don Quixote' reviewed, 469. GLADSTONIANISM,

THE ETHICS OF, 634.
Egypt, change in character of the GOETHE, WORDS OF WISDOM FROM, by
natives of, 221.

J. S. B., 785.
ELECTRA, 306--the Electra of Sopho GOLDONI, CARLO: AUTOBIOGRAPHIES,

cles, 307-compared with the Electra No. V., 516-early days, 518-adven-
of Æschylus and Euripides, ib. et seq. ture with players, 519-career at
Enfida case, the, 133.

Pavia, 521-return from college, 522
· Essai sur l'étude de la Littérature,' -law studies at Modena, 525—his
242.

examination, 529 - scene at the
ETHICS OF GLADSTONIANISM, THE, 634 Giant's Stairs, 530—theatrical career,

-Mr. Gladstone's supersession of his 534_tutor to the French princesses,
party, ib.--the policy of cant, 636_ 539—visit to Rousseau, 540.
speeches at Leeds, 638—influence of Grampians, the, 169, 173.
the Premier on Parliament, 641-on Greville, Henry, Perdue,' by, 719.
society, 644.

Grimsel valley, the, 381.
Euripides, the Electra of, 306 et seq. Haller, Dr., death of, 381.
Fair Trade, suggestions for, 547. Hamirs, French expedition against,
FALSE START, A: A MORAL COMEDY, 135.
331.

Haybee, 212 et seq.
Faubourg St. Germain, its society, 434. Heine, Mme. Jaubert's recollections of,
Fayoum, attractions of the, 52.

87-his death, 90.
Female criminals, their subjugation to Heredity in crime, 26 et seq.
the males, 22.

Herodotus, his account of the Laby-
Five Years' Penal Servitude,' 25. rinth, 39.
FIXED PERIOD, THE: Part I., 413– Himalayas, the, compared with the
Part II., 553-Part III., 681.

Alps, 178.
FLORIO: A LITTLE TRAGEDY, 179. HINTS FOR AN AUTUMNAL RAMBLE, BY
FOURCHETTE, RECOLLECTIONS À LA, AN OLD TRAMP, 393-touring in
106.

Orkney, 394—the Orkney sheriffs,
Free Trade, predictions regarding, re- 395 - the Orcadian appreciation of

futed, 542-campaign, 796 et seq. celebrities, 398—"Brochs,” 399.
FRENCH CONVICT, SOME PASSAGES IN HINTS FOR THE VACATION RAMBLE, BY
THE LIFE OF A, 646.

AN OLD TRAMP, 164—Isle of Wight
French influence in Tunis, 130 et seq. and its geology,ib.-Derbyshire high-
FRENCH LADY AND HER FRIENDS, A, lands, 166 - Ben Lomond, 170 —

70—Souvenirs de Mme. C. Jaubert, mountain dangers, 172-Grampians,
ib.-Berryer, 71 et seq.-De Musset, 173--Moffatdale, 175—the Alps, 177.
74 et seq.-Heine, 87 et seq.

HOLIDAYS, BY J. LOGIE ROBERTSON,
FRENCH NOVELS, A FEW, 703-Numa 228.

Roumestan,' 704—Le Petit Chose,' Howara, Pyramid of, 39.
715—Monsieur le Ministre,' 718– IO VICTIS, BY W. W. S., 665.

Perdue,' 719-Séduction,' 721. Ireland and the Tariff, 531.
French Republic, the, and the influ- Irish Land Bill, the, 405 et seq.

ence of French women, 430 et seq. Irrigation in Egypt, 226.
FRENCHWOMEN, THE DECADENCE OF, Irving, Mr. Henry, 254.
429.

ISEMBHEB, EXCAVATIONS AT, 572

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