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for a succession of crops) it will not effect a perfect fermentation; and yet the same yeast, employed by another brewer, shall do its duty. In confirmation of this, having a concern in a vinegar brewery at Beverley, I am frequently necessitated to promote the fermentation there, by yeast taken from the brewery at Hull; and to invigorate, the same operation at the latter place, with yeast brought from the former; notwithstanding the malt employed at both places is made at the same malthouse, the process of brewing, as near as circumstances will admit, is the same, and the difference exists only in the water; one brewery being supplied by a well, the other by the river Hull. This is the more remarkable, as when these exchanges take place, the yeast at Hull will not at all produce a fermentation to be depended on; though it operates perfectly well at Beverley, where the yeast is precisely in the same predicament, as far as respects its non-performance there, and its perfect operation so exchanged. This latter was so strikingly exemplified to me, in the course of the last summer (1797), that the yeast produced sometimes at Beverley, would in no wise ferment a loaf of bread; nor could it be trusted in the gyle-tun there, at the same time that it was highly instrumental in effecting a perfect fermentation in the brewery at Hull.”
ON FEMALE EDUCATION,
WOMEN have not their livelihood to gain by knowledge; and that is one motive for relaxing all those efforts which are made in the education of men. They certainly have not; but they have happiness to gain, to which knowledge leads as probably as it does to profit; and that is a reason against mistaken indulgence. Besides, we conceive the labour and fatigue of accomplishments to be quite equal to the labour and fatigue of knowledge; and that it takes quite as many years to be charming, as it does to be learned.
Another difference of the sexes is, that women are attended to, and men attend. All acts of courtesy and
politeness originate from the one sex, and are received by the other. We can see no sort of reason, from this diversity of condition, for giving to women a trifling and insignificant education; but we see in it a very powerful reason for strengthening their judgment, and inspiring them with the habit of employing time usefully. We admit many striking differences in the situation of the two sexes, and many striking differences of understanding, proceeding from the different cir- cumstances in which they are placed: but there is not a single difference of this kind which does not afford a new argument for making the education of women better than it is. They have nothing serious to do;— is that a reason why they should be brought up to do nothing but what is trifling? They are exposed to greater dangers ;-is that a reason why their faculties are to be purposely and industriously weakened? They are to form the characters of future men ;-is that a cause why their own characters are to be broken and frittered down as they now are? In short, there is not a single trait in that diversity of circumstances, in which the two sexes are placed, that does not decidedly prove the magnitude of the error we commit in neglecting (as we do neglect) the education of women.
If the objections against the better education of women could be overruled, one of the great advantages that would ensue, would be the extinction of innu. merable follies. A decided and prevailing taste for one or another mode of education there must be. A century past, it was for housewifery,-now it is for accomplishments. The object now is, to make women artists, to give them an excellence in drawing, music, painting and dancing, of which, persons who make these pursuits the occupation of their lives, and derive from them their subsistence, need not be ashamed. Now, one great evil of all this is, that it does not last. If the whole of life, as somebody says, were an olympic game,- -if we could go on feasting and dancing to the end, this might do; but this is merely a provision for the little interval between coming into life and settling in it; while it leaves a long and dreary expanse behind, devoid both of dignity and cheerfulness. No.
mother, no woman who has passed over the few first years of life, sings, or dances, or draws, or plays upon musical instruments. These are merely means for displaying the grace and vivacity of youth, which every woman gives up, as she gives up the dress and manners of eighteen she has no wish to retain them; or, if she has, she is driven out of them by fear of derision. The system of female education, as it now stands, aims only at embellishing a few years of life, which are in themselves so full of grace and happiness that they hardly want it; and then leaves the rest of existence a miserable prey to idle insignificance. No woman of understanding and reflection can possibly conceive she is doing justice to her children by such kind of education. The object is, to give to children resources that will endure as long as life endures,-habits that will ameliorate, not destroy,-occupations that will render sickness tolerable, solitude pleasant, age venerable, life more dignified and useful, and therefore death less terrible and the compensation which is offered for the omission of all this, is a short-lived blaze,—a little temporary effect, which has no other consequence than to deprive the remainder of life of all taste and relish. There may be women who have a taste for the fine arts, and who evince a decided talent för drawing, or for music. In that case, there can be no objection to their cultivation; but the error is, to make these things the grand and universal object,-to insist upon it that every woman is to sing, and draw, and dance-with nature, or against nature,-to bind her apprentice to some accomplishment; and, if she cannot succeed in oil or water-colours, to prefer gilding, varnishing, burnishing, box-making, or shoe-making, to real and solid improvement in taste, knowledge, and understanding.
A great deal is said in favour of the social nature of the fine arts. Music gives pleasure to others. Drawing is an art, the amusement of which does not centre in him who exercises it, but is diffused among the rest of the world. This is true; but there is nothing, after all, so social as a cultivated mind. We do not mean to speak slightingly of the fine arts, or to depreciate the good humour with which they are sometimes exhibited;
but we appeal to any man, whether a little spirited and sensible conversation, displaying modestly useful acquirements, and evincing rational curiosity, is not well worth the highest exertions of musical or graphical skill. A woman of accomplishments may entertain those who have the pleasure of knowing her for half an hour with great brilliancy; but a mind full of ideas, and with that elastic spring which the love of knowledge only can convey, is a perpetual source of exhiliration and amusement to all that come within its reach ;-not collecting its force into single and insulated achievements, like the efforts made in the fine arts -but diffusing, equally over the whole of existence, a calm pleasure-better loved as it is longer felt-and suitable to every variety and every period of life. Therefore, instead of hanging the understanding of a woman upon walls, or hearing it vibrate upon strings; -instead of seeing it in clouds, or hearing it in the wind, we would make it the first spring and orna, ment of society, by enriching it with attainments upon which alone such power depends.
If the education of women were improved, the edu» . cation of men would be improved also. Let any one. consider (in order to bring the matter more home by an individual instance) of what immense importance to society it is, whether a nobleman of first-rate fortune and distinction is well or ill brought up ;- what a taste and fashion he may inspire for private and for political vice; and what misery and mischief he may produce to the thousand human beings who are dependent on him! A country contains no such curse within its bosom. Youth, wealth, high rank and vice, form a combination which baffles all remonstrance and invective, and beats down all opposition before it. A man of high rank, who combines these qualifications for corruption, is almost the master of the manners of the age, and has the public happiness within his grasp. But the most beautiful possession which a country.can have, is a noble and a rich man, who loves virtue and knowledge;-who, without being feeble or fanatical, is pious and who, without being factious, is firm and independent;-who, in his political life, is an equitable
mediator between king and people; and, in his civil life, a firm promoter of all which can shed a lustre upon his country, or promote the peace and order of the world. But if these objects are of the importance which we attribute to them, the education of women must be important, as the formation of character for the first seven or eight years of life seems to depend almost entirely upon them. It is certainly in the power of a sensible and well-educated mother to inspire, within that period, such tastes and propensities as shall nearly decide the destiny of the future man; and this is done, not only by the intentional exertions of the mother, but by the gradual and insensible imitation of the child; for there is something extremely contagious in greatness and rectitude of thinking, even at that age; and the character of the mother with whom he passes his early infancy, is always an event of the utmost importance to the child. A merely accomplished woman cannot infuse her tastes into the minds of her sons; and, if she could, nothing could be more unfortunate than her success. Besides, when her accomplishments are given up, she has nothing left for it but to amuse herself in the best way she can; and, becoming entirely frivolous, either declines the fatigue of attending to her children, or, attending to them, has neither talents nor knowledge to succeed; and, therefore, here is a plain and fair answer to those who ask so triumphantly, Why should a woman dedicate herself to this branch of knowledge? or why should she be attached to such a science?-because, by having gained information on these points, she may inspire her son with valuable tastes, which may abide by him through life, and carry him up to all the sublimities of knowledge;-because she cannot lay the foundation of a great character, if she is absorbed in frivolous amusements, nor inspire her child with noble desires, when a long course of trifling has destroyed the little talents which were left by a bad education.
It is of great importance to a country, that there should be as many understandings as possible actively employed within it. Mankind are much happier for the discovery of steam-engines, barometers, thermome