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fine country. At the foot of the landing is a large storehouse, at which considerable business is done. On the summit of the bluff is a large plateau, on which the fort, or rather village, stands, for it has far more the appearance of a beautiful village than fort. In the centre are three or four large buildings, much like "city blocks," in which the soldiers have their mess and lodge. At a little distance from these, and at the several corners, are a number of fine houses, the residences of the officers. In the rear is a splendid grove of elms, with their branches bending to the ground, and through the dense foliage a fine prairie breeze is ever playing, rendering the atmosphere cool and healthy. This is the promenade ground."

At the last return Fort Leavenworth was garrisoned by one company of the Fourth Artillery and one of the First Dragoons, under Col. Fauntleroy.

The government has vacillated regarding a western fort in Kanzas, and only last spring established that which seems likely to be permanent, at the junction of Republican Fork. This is called Fort Riley. The report of last winter thus describes its progress :

"The work authorized by Congress, at its last session, to be established at the mouth of the Republican Fork of the Kanzas river, was commenced, under the superintendence of Major Ogden. Much labor has been done, and materials procured for future operations. A steam saw-mill is in operation, with shingle machine, lath saws, and mortising

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machine attached. The original plan contemplated barracks of stone for eight companies. Only three companies were detailed at first for the garrison, and they arrived so late in the season, that, with the difficulties to be overcome, more than quarters sufficient for the officers and men of two companies, according to the plan, could not be completed; they will, however, during the winter, shelter the four companies of which the garrison is now composed.

"Major Ogden reports that the estimate for the work, based upon prices of labor and material at the time it was made, has proved entirely too small. Prices have increased thirty per cent., and in place of two hundred soldiers which it was estimated might be employed as mechanics and laborers, only from sixty to seventy could be spared from other duties. The increase in the prices of labor and materials, with the addition to the hired force rendered necessary by the small military force furnished, will increase the expense of the work about seventeen thousand dollars; and the barn, stables, granaries, and other buildings necessary for a large mounted force, are estimated to cost about twelve thousand dollars more, making together twenty-nine thousand dollars required to complete the work."

This fort is one hundred and ten miles above the mouth of the Kanzas river, which, as we have said, is navigable thus far. It is in latitude 39° 03′ 38′′ N., longitude 96° 24′ 56" W., at an elevation of nine hundred and twenty-six feet

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above the Gulf of Mexico. Its garrison is four companies of the Sixth Infantry, under Capt. Loude.

The necessity of establishing a post on the Arkansas river, to protect emigrants and merchants on the Santa Fé route, early attracted attention. Different sites have been recommended and occupied for a time, under the different names of Fort Sumner, Fort Atkinson and Fort Mann. Last year the force at Fort Atkinson was withdrawn, from the difficulty of obtaining provision and forage, but it has been reëstablished, within a few weeks past, and two companies stationed there. It stands where the Santa Fé.trail crosses the Arkansas river, not far from the Big Timbers, which supply it with wood, and even forage.

At the extreme northerly point of Arkansas river, where Walnut Creek enters it, Walnut Creek post-office was established when the troops were withdrawn from Fort Atkinson.

The Big Timbers, already alluded to, are a favorite council-ground and point of rendezvous. They are thirty-five miles below Bent's Fort. This is Mr. Charles Bent's principal trading-house. The buildings are of adobe, well fortified. The farms have been already alluded to. The Pueblo de San Carlos, already described, is the largest station on the Upper Arkansas. Fort Scott, near the Missouri line, was abandoned in 1853, for Fort Riley.

There is a post-office in Kanzas at the Delawares' City, ten miles above the mouth of the Kanzas.

The Kickapoo mission station is on the Missouri, four

miles above Fort Leavenworth; the Iowa and Sac, just south of the northern line of Kanzas. On the Kanzas river is Rev. Mr. Johnson's farm, of the Shawnee (Methodist South) mission. This is eight miles up the river. The Shawnee Baptist mission is two miles from it, and the Friends' school three miles west. The American Baptist mission, at Briggwall, is in this neighborhood. Farther up is St. Mary's, the Catholic mission to the Pottawatomies, about sixty miles from the mouth of the Kanzas. The success of its farms has already been described. The interesting mission of Mr. Meeker among the Ottowas is south of the river, near the state line. And in that neighborhood is Mr. Lykin's mission, the Baptist Mission and Labor School, supported by the American Indian Missionary Association of Louisville.

The CATHOLIC OSAGE MISSION, on the Neosho river, forty-five miles from Fort Scott, is one of the largest missions and schools in Kanzas. It was commenced in 1847, the boys' school having been opened on May 1st, and the girls' school Oct. 10th of that year. The experiment proved so successful that more ample buildings were needed, which were built in 1849 and 1850. The Rev. John Schoenmaker has been the Superior of this mission from its commencement. He is assisted by two other clergymen of the Society of Jesus, and by several lay brothers. Sermons are preached in Osage and English. There are ten missionary stations at as many different Indian villages within



sixty miles, attended monthly from this mission. The Catholic population of this district is reported to be between six hundred and seven hundred, and that of the upper country at three thousand. Attached to this mission is a Manual Labor School for boys, under the direction of the Fathers, assisted by the Rev. Theodore Heiman and eight lay brothers, who attend to the farm, gardens and household business. During the past year, thirty-nine Osage boys were admitted, of whom thirty-four were in constant attendance. The school lately received an important accession by the United States government's transferring, in April, 1853, the Quapaw school to this. Of the Quapaw children, eighteen attend at the male department. The latter is under the care of the Sisters of Loretto, eight in number, formerly from Kentucky, Mother Concordia, Superior. The number of girls during the year ending Sept. 1, 1853, was thirty-two, and twenty-four of these attended constantly. The girls have improved very rapidly, and are daily instructed in household business, fine sewing, working on lace and embroidery, painting in oil and water colors, etc.

ELM GROVE, or ROUND GROVE, is a noted campingplace on the Santa Fé road, twenty-five miles from Westport, Mo., in lat. 38° 49′ 41′′ N., and lon. 94° 25′ 31′′ W. Col. Fremont encamped here May 31, 1843, at the commencement of his second expedition. Traders often locate here, for a season, in the prosecution of their business.

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