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boundary to latitude thirty-eight; thence following said boundary westward to the east boundary of the territory of Utah, on the summit of the Rocky Mountains; thence northward on said summit to the fortieth parallel of latitude; thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the state of Missouri; thence south with the western boundary of said state to the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby, created into a temporary government by the name of the Territory of Kanzas; and when admitted as a state or states, the said territory, or any portion of the same, shall be received into the Union with or without slavery, as their constitution may prescribe at the time of their admission: Provided, That nothing in this act contained shall be construed to inhibit the government of the United States from dividing said territory into two or more territories, in such manner and at such times as Congress shall deem convenient and proper, or from attaching any portion of said territory to any other state or territory of the United States: Provided further, that nothing in this act contained shall be construed to impair the rights of persons or property now pertaining to the Indians in said territory, so long as such rights shall remain unextinguished by treaty between the United States and such Indians, or to include any territory which, by treaty with any Indian tribe, is not, without the consent of said tribe, to be included within the territorial limits or jurisdiction of any state or

territory; but all such territory shall be excepted out of the boundaries, and constitute no part of the territory of Kanzas, until said tribe shall signify their assent to the President of the United States to be included within the said territory of Kanzas, or to affect the authority of the government of the United States to make any regulation respecting such Indians, their lands, property, or other rights, by treaty, law, or otherwise, which it would have been competent to the government to make if this act had never passed.

[Here follow in the act sections nineteen to thirty-six, inclusive, which, being word for word the same as sections two to seventeen, excepting that they refer to the territory of Kanzas, are here omitted.]


SEC. 37. And be it further enacted, That all treaties, laws, and other engagements made by the government of the United States with the Indian tribes inhabiting the territories embraced within this act, shall be faithfully and rigidly observed, notwithstanding anything contained in this act; and that the existing agencies and superintendencies of said Indians be continued with the same powers and duties which are now prescribed by law, except that the President

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of the United States may, at his discretion, change the location of the office of superintendent.


Speaker of the House of Representatives.

President of the Senate pro tempore.

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Emigration to Kanzas -The Emigrant Aid Companies.

THE "Missouri Compromise" had settled the question of slavery in Kanzas and Nebraska, "forever." At the end of a generation this settlement was set aside by the act establishing their territorial governments.

So far as there is any especial principle regulating the provisions of that act, it is its intention of leaving the institutions of the territories to those who may inhabit them. This principle is familiarly called "the principle of squatter sovereignty," in language attributed to General Cass.

To carry out this principle fairly, it would be, of course, necessary that no restriction of any kind should be placed upon the emigration into these territories.

It has appeared, however, from the whole experience of the United States, that there is scarcely any disposition on the part of emigrants from Europe, or from the Northern States, to move into regions where the institution of slavery is permitted. Free labor will not place itself side by side



with slave labor, and the great preponderance of northern and foreign emigration has always been to the free states and territories of the North-west.

As the discussion upon the Nebraska and Kanzas bill proceeded, it became evident, from the very nature of the case, that there was a desire of extending slavery into Kanzas, the southern territory of the two. There was no need of repealing the Missouri Compromise, except to gratify this desire.

It was just as evident, that the great mass of the emigration would turn away from Kanzas, in proportion as there probability of the establishment of slavery there. No single man or single family, unwilling to enter a slave state, would trust themselves, unsupported, in a territory which would probably become one.

To secure to Kanzas, therefore, a fair proportion of the western emigration; to secure for the principle of "squatter sovereignty" a fair trial; and to make sure that the institutions, both of Kanzas and Nebraska, should be digested by settlers of every class; it became necessary that some organization of the great current of western emigration should encourage each emigrant from the North, by showing him how strong a force was behind him and around him.

Some organization of western emigration was also necessary on pure grounds of humanity. The immense pilgrimage of four hundred thousand persons, arriving annually in

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