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to obtain longevity, which he is butt of the shaft a ring is let through, supposed to have the power to be- for the purpose of fastening the stow, and which, of course, he un- haunkus to a line; the other end hesitatingly grants; or which, at of which is fastened to some soft least, the disinterested Brahmuns of cord, about half an inch in diameter, his temples unhesitatingly promise. passing, very loosely, eight or ten Hanuman is called Maruty, from times round the elephant's neck, and Pavana being chief of the Maruts, serving in lieu of stirrups, to keep or genii of the winds. He is also the mahout from falling over to the called Muhabar.
right or left, on any sudden motion, HARAMZADEH, literally, “ base- as well as to retain his feet in their
born." A term of abuse obnoxious to due direction. Oriental ears ; but, nevertheless, HAUT, a weekly market, held in much in use in India.
India on stated days. A bazar is a HAREM, or HAREEM, the ladies' daily market.
apartment; the zenana, or seraglio, HAVİLDAR, a native serjeant of sein an Eastern household.
poys or peons. HARGEELAH, the butcher-bird, or HEGIRA, the Mahometan era, which
adjutant, is common in India. By dates from the flight of Mahomet to some persons the bird is called the Medina, on the 15th of July, A.D. 622. bone-eater, from its peculiarity of di- The Mahometan year is purely lugestion, it having the power of swal- nar, consisting of twelve months, lowing whole joints, such as a leg of each month commencing with the lamb, or even entire animals, like appearance of the new moon, withyoung kids, kittens, &c., and of re- out any intercalation, to bring the turning the bones and hair after the commencement of the year to the meat has been digested. When thus same season. By this arrangement rejected the bones appear as clean every year begins much earlier in as though they had been boiled for a the season than the preceding one, considerable time, and the hair is being now in summer, and sixteen accumulated in a single ball.
years hence in winter. In chronoHATRAS, a town in India, situated logy and history, however, as well as
in Lat. 27 deg. 37 min. N., Long. in all documents, the Mahometans 75 deg. 58 min. E., in the province use months of thirty and twentyof Agra. It is a busy town, and nine days alternately, making the flourishing. Its fort, which was year thus to consist of 354 days. strong and well built, was taken in Eleven times in thirty years, one 1817 by the British troops (being day is added to the last month, then occupied by a refractory chief), making 355 days in that year. and destroyed.
HENNA, a plant that grows in many HATTA SCHERIF, a warrant, pro- parts of the East, and is in vogue
clamation, or decree, issued by the among the natives of India and Sultan of Turkey.
Persia for its ornamental properties. HAUNKUS (or driver), the implement The leaves are pounded and mixed
used by the mahouts to stimulate up with a little oil, or ghee, into a and direct the pace of elephants. It is paste, which is applied to the nails, commonly about twenty, or twenty- palms, and soles. After an adhefour inches in length, generally rence of a few hours, it is removed, and made of iron, though some have leaves a beautiful red stain, which wooden hafts; the tip is pointed, and lasts many days, and is considered about six inches below it is a hook, a great set-off to personal beauty. welded on to the stem, forming HERAT, a fortified town in the Afnearly a semicircle, whose diameter ghanistan country, situated on the may be four or five inches. At the western frontier, in Lat. 34 deg. 20
min. N., Long. 60 deg. 50 min. E., in a very beautiful and fertile plain. It is one of the most ancient and celebrated cities in Asia, giving its name to an extensive province at the time of the invasion of Alexander; and subsequently it was for many years the capital of the empire established by Tymoor Lung. It was taken from the Persians by the Afghans in 1715, and was retaken by. Nadir Shah in 1731. It was again captured by the Afghans, in 1749, and has ever since remained in their possession. It usually formed a government for one of the king's family; and on the dissolution of the Dooranee monarchy, in 1823, it became a separate principality under Shah Kamran, the son of the king, Shah Malımood, and has since con
tinued under his rule. HERI HARI, in Hindoo mythology,
the conjoint forms of Siva and Vishnu. This singular union of the two great deities of the Hindoo sects is involved in much obscurity, and the little light that we have on the subject is not of the most becoming description. The union is, perhaps, little else than the caprice of the votaries of the two deities. The sculptures of them in this form somewhat resemble Ardha Nari. In pictures, Vishnu is painted black,
and Siva white. HILSAH, the sable fish of the Ganges,
which seems to be midway between a mackarel and a salmon. Whether for form, general appearance, or flavour, the Hilsah is, perhaps, the richest fish with which any cook is acquainted. It is very oily and bony, and when baked in vinegar, or preserved in tamarinds, the hilsah
is remarkably fine. HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS, the.
These mountains, which are believed to be the highest in the world, form the northern boundary of India, separating it from Thibet. Their greatest height has not yet been determined. The highest peak which has been measured is 27,000 feet.
The sloping brows of the mountains, as they recede from the river, are laid out in fields and orchards, where the apricot and walnut grow to an enormous size; pear and apple trees are also to be found; but the cultivation of the two latter being little understood, the fruit which they produce is of a very inferior quality. The woods and thickets clothing the sides of the hills are filled with pheasants, which, crowing all around, frequently mock the hungry European traveller, who depends upon his gun for a dinner, since, notwithstanding their abundance, it is difficult to get a fair shot, and even though the bird may be winged, it cannot always be picked up afterwards. Wild grapes and currants must be added to the list of fruits to be found in these provinces, and, from the former, two sorts of intoxicating liquor are produced ; the superior kind having some pretensions to the name of wine, while the inferior,-a spirit obtained by pouring, in the first instance, hot water over the residue of the fruit,- being cheaper, is drank abundantly by the lower classes. Wheat, barley, and rice, together with a multitude of smaller and inferior grains, are grown in these provinces, but the quantity does not equal the demand, and a large portion of that which is consumed is imported from other places. Tobacco and opium are also cultivated, but not to any extent, the former, in common with all that has hitherto been grown on the hills, is acrid, and of bad quality. The vegetables consist of spinach, a peculiar kind
carrot, peas, beans, and turnips, the latter bitter and unpalatable; garlic, not of the best kind, and abundance of useful herbs. In some parts of the hills, the arable land is so circumscribed, that the poverty-stricken inhabitants are compelled to support a miserable existence upon horse-chestnuts, mixed with a small portion of the coarser grains. Where apricot trees grow, much better fare may be obtained from the kernels, mingled in the same manner with pulse, while the fruit dried serves to feed the cattle. The inhabitants of the Himalaya gather themselves together in villages, a custom which prevails over every part of the hills, isolated habitations being very seldom to be seen. The quantities of apricot trees, which mark the sight of former hamlets, and which grow so abundantly, as to leave a doubt upon the mind of the most scientific botanist, whether they are indigenous to the soil, or an introduction from foreign countries, show that the population was much more numerous at a former period. This fact is also attested by the terraced fields, once blooming with cultivation, but now suffered to run to waste in the midst of the most profound solitudes. The ravages of the Goorkas, who made a very tyrannical use of their conquests, selling whole families into slavery, and oppressing the people in every way, are adduced as the principal causes of the scantiness of the present population. Sickness also,—those frightful pestilences, the small-pox and the cholera,--have had their full share in thinning the ranks; it is well known, that the inhabitants of whole villages have been swept away in this manner, and, in many places, the facilities for communication are so small, that a large tract of country might be reduced to a desert, without the people of the adjacent districts knowing any thing about the matter. Villages are frequently perched upon some steep hill, surrounded on all sides by almost unfathomable ravines, access being only afforded by a tree thrown across the narrowest part of the chasm; people thus situated, if struck with disease, would die off like sheep, alike destitute of friends to assist them in their utmost need, or to mourn over their untimely fate.
The villages seldom consist of more than twenty-five or thirty families, and though sometimes occupying commanding sites, are usually situated midway on a mountain side ; the high crowning peak sheltering them from the storms. Occasionally they are to be found in valleys, but only in the more elevated ; the glens, low down at the foot of the mountains, being usually too warm, while the labour of climbing to their crops would be greatly increased. Some of the houses are three stories in height, but the generality are only two; a few, but these are much less common, having but one. In external appearance, they greatly resemble the picturesque cottages of Switzerland. The roof, projecting all round, forms a shelter to the verandah or balcony, which either encircles the house, or communicates with the one adjoining. The walls are a mixture of wood and stone, very substantially put together, and cemented with mud.
The apartments are not very spacious, but are commodious, and have the appearance of being well kept ; the floors are composed of planks of cedar, and the interiors whitewashed or plastered with mud, which, if sufficiently beaten, affords a very fair kind of stucco. The fire-place occupies the centre, and is always. well swept, but the smoke, which has no aperture for its escape, excepting the doors and windows, and the vermin, which in consequence of the habits of the people, abounds, render their interiors abhorrent to the European travellers, who always prefer the shelter of a cow-house. Usually the cattle are accommodated upon the ground floor, the: family occupying the apartments, above, which are entered either by a rude staircase on the outside, leading to the verandah, or by a notched plank or inclined plane within. The doors and windows are extremely small, the latter being merely closed with wooden shutters, no substitute
for glass having yet been found. As them, could scarcely give them credit the severity of the weather fre- for ; and there can be little doubt, quently obliges the inhabitants to that if proper pains were to be close these apertures, nothing, save taken in their improvement, they long endurance, could enable them would shortly emerge from their to tolerate the smoke, which must present low and degraded condition. impregnate the whole atmosphere. HINDEE, a town in the province of The fuel burned being wood, it is of Khandesh, in the Deccan, situated course less offensive than if coal on the river Nerbudda, in Lat. 22 were the material ; but still it can- deg. 56 min. N., Long. 77 deg. 5 min. not fail to contribute to the coating E. It is the head of a district of the of dirt, which is allowed to accumu- same name, occupying the north-eastlate upon the skin of the moun- ernmost part of the Sindia division. taineers, who, with few, if any ex- HINDOO, or HINDU, one of the aboceptions, testify a great dislike to rigines of India, by the Persians come in contact with water. The called Hind. furniture of the houses is exceed- HINDOOISM, a religion which may ingly scanty, consisting merely of a be briefly described as a very comfew culinary utensils, and a chest plicated system of idolatry, combinto contain the clothes. The ward- ing a kind of vague declaration of robes of the people, to judge from the unity of a Supreme Being with their appearance, can neither be the worship of a multitude of gods very extensive, nor very costly ; and goddesses, amounting, according there is, however, among the richer to some accounts, to upwards of classes, some attempt at magnifi
three hundred millions. There are cence, the gold and silver ornaments three principal sects of worshippers, worn being profuse in quantity, and the Saivas, followers of Siva; Vaishsometimes of considerable value. navas, followers of Vishnu; and the Crime, in its very worst form, seems Sactas, followers of the Sactis, or rare, but the virtues of the native wives of the gods. There are two character, in these mountainous re- other religions, which, although disgions, must be pronounced to be of tinct from Brahminism, appear to a negative description. They appear belong to the same stock ; these are to be kind and good-humoured to the Booddhist and Jain systems. each other, attaching less import- | HINDOSTAN, or INDIA, Hindoance to the distinctions of rank and stan is situated in the southern part wealth, than is usual in even less of Asia, and lies between the 8th civilised societies. At their public and 35th deg. of N. Lat., and the festivals, rich and poor, the ragged 68th and 92nd deg. of E. Long. The guest, whose
tattered garments extreme length from north to south scarcely afford a decent covering, is about 1900 miles, and from east will be seen joining hands with per- to west about 1500. It is bounded sons arrayed in costly attire, and on the north by the Himalaya decked out with an abundance of Mountains ; on the east, by Assam, ornaments ; and, though divided racan, and the Bay of Bengal; into castes, the distinctions between south, by the Indian Ocean ; and them are less invidious than those to west, by the Arabian Sea and the be found in the plains. The great river Indus, separating it from Beingenuity displayed by these people loochistan and Afghanistan. Hinin the construction of numerous dostan is divided into four large small articles, as well as in their portions, called Northern Hindobuildings, and some of their bridges, stan, Hindostan Proper, the Decshows intellectual capabilities, which can, and Southern India. the stranger, holding converse with HINDOSTANEE, the common lan
guage of India. It bears some re- begin before they have half breaksemblance to Persian in its charac- fasted, smoking, with little inter
ters and the termination of verbs. mission, till they retire to rest. The HISSA, share, portion, division, part. usual mode of preparing tobacco for
Hissa-lands are such as are divided, the hookah, is by first, chopping it with respect to the rent, into shares, very small, then, adding ripe planpayable to twoor more zemindars, who tains, molasses, or raw sugar, toge
are called hissadars, or shareholders. ther with some cinnamon, and other HOGA, do. “That won't hoga,"ordo, is a aromatics; keeping the mass, which
phrase in every man's mouthin India. resembles an electuary, in close vesHONAWUR, a town on the coast of the sels. When about to be used, it is
province of Kanara, in India, and again worked up well; some, at that formerly a place of considerable trade, time, add a little tincture of musk, or Hyder Ali having established a dock- a few grains of that perfume; others yard for building ships of war there; prefer pouring a solution of it, or a litwhich was afterwards entirely de- tle rose-water, down the snake, or stroyed by Tippoo Sultaun. The Por- pliable tube, at the moment the tuguese erected a fort at this place as hookah is introduced. In either case, early as 1505. There is a lake here of the fragrance of the tobacco is effecgreat extent, reaching nearly to the tually superseded.
mountains, and abounding with fishı. HOOLY, a Hindoo festival, held in the HOOBLEE, a town in India, in the vernal equinox, to commemorate the :
province of the Dooab, situated thir- beginning of a new year. teen miles S. E. from Dharwar, is a HOONDEE, a draft or bill of exchange, large and populous town, and has written in the language of the counlong been celebrated as one of the try. The Hoondee is the ordinary principal places of trade in this part instrument of remittance from the of India. The English had a fac- Shroff or Banker in the remote in-. tory here in 1660.
terior of India to the house of agency HOOKAH, a species of pipe, much at the Presidency. It is usually pre
in use in India, both among the pared on a small piece of yellow principal natives and the Euro- glazed paper, and is valid with or peans. It consists of several parts.
without a stamp. A bowl of silver or earthenware, HOORMUT, personal respectability, called a chillum, receives the prepared Great men, and, in fact, all persons tobacco and the lighted charcoal. of consideration in India, are most teThis is placed on a hollow stem or nacious of their personal dignity, and tube, which rests upon a bell-shaped will suffer death rather than permit glass vase, filled with water, whence any disgrace to be offered them. another tube, in connexion with the This sensitiveness is often taken adforegoing, rises, and is linked to a vantage of to extort money. In the long pliable hose, covered with cloth- larger towns of Hindostan there is a velvet, or keemkaub, and decorated class of persons who realise large with gold or silver thread. At the sums of money from respectable but end of the hose is a mouth-piece of defenceless people, by threats of incane, silver, or amber, through flicting in public some indignity, which the cooled and fragrant fumes such as knocking off the turban, of the tobacco, or guracco (q. v.) pass pelting with dirt, or even giving foul into the mouth of the smoker.
abuse in default of their demands, HOOKAH-BURDAR, the preparer of being satisfied ; and it requires a
the pipe; a domestic of consequence very strong and active arm to prewith many gentlemen in India, who vent this custom. give themselves up, almost wholly, HOSHUNGABAD, or, as it is someto the enjoyment of smoking. Some times called by the English, Hus