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singabad, a large town in the pro- duce of Muscat and the Persian vince of Khandesh, in the Deccan, is Gulf, and is much consumed in situated on the south bank of the Western India. river Nurbudda, in Lat. 22 deg. 40 HUMMAUL, a porter, or palankeen min. N., Long. 77 deg. 51 min. E. bearer, a word in use in the West It is a large town, and of consider- and South of India. able importance on account of its HUMMAUM, a Persian bath. The position, as it commands the principal operation of bathing is an elaborate fords in this direction. In 1827 a process in Persia and in Turkey, vein of blind coal was discovered here. rendered necessary by the filthy The town with its dependent district habits of the people, who seldom inbelongs to the British, and may be dulge in personal ablutions. Stripconsidered as annexed to the Gurra- ping to the skin, the bather is at Mundla division of Gondwana.

once deluged with warm water, in HOWAH-KHANEH, literally in Hin- an apartment constructed of brick,

dostanee, to “eat the air.' When stone, and marble (or sometimes only a gentleman leaves his house for of the latter) and heated to a high purposes of exercise or change of temperature. Streaming atevery pore, air, he is said by his domestics to he is covered by an attendant with have gone to eat the air. The term soap, and then rubbed with a hair is very expressive, but can only be glove, or the fibres of some root, until thoroughly appreciated by those every thing that lies upon the surface who know, from personal experience, of the body has been removed. Anwhat a substantial repast is obtained other copious shower of hot water by inhaling a cool and pure atmo- succeeds to this friction—the bather sphere of an evening after the torrid is covered with a warm cotton sheet, horrors of the day.

and conveyed into an adjoining HOWDAH, a square enclosure, four apartment of a somewhat more mo

feet by four, formed of wood, or cane derate temperature. Here he is sufstretched upon a wooden frame, and fered to dry, and while he waits that provided with a seat slung across for result an attendant barber shaves The convenience of the occupant. him, or trims and dyes his beard and This machine is placed on the back moustaches, pares his nails, and of an elephant and strapped round shampoos (kneads) his body and the body by means of broad leathern limbs. This last process is very girths and chains. Seated herein, soothing and agreeable, producing a and provided with rifles, ammuni- drowsiness, which often terminates tion, and a day's provision of biscuits, in sleep. In Persian and Turkish sandwiches, and a bottle of ale or hummaums, coffee or sherbet, with brandy and water, a European can the kaleeoun, or chibouk, are often travel in a single day a distance of served after the purifying operation forty miles, either in search of tigers, has been gone through. or to reach a station to which he may HUNZA, the Brahminy duck, a game

be summoned by business or pleasure. bird of the Ganges. These ducks HUBSHEES, African slaves, many of fly in couples, have a plaintive cry,

whom are taken from Zanzibar, and and are considered emblems of conusually form a considerable portion stancy by the natives. The hunza of the establishment in a Mahomedan is the ensign of the Burmese, as was family in the west of India.

the eagle of the Roman empire. HULWAEE, a sweetmeat, composed | HURDASSES, Hindoo preachers, pro

of candied sugar, butter, and the perly called “sadoos.' They chiefly juice of fruit, boiled to the consist- pursue their vocation in the west ency of a thick jelly, and then baked of India, after the following manner: in small earthen pans. It is the pro- the hurdass stands with certain col

leagues, and while he chaunts town of each, but which need not stanzas, verses, odes - the various be enumerated, as they are liable to forms of prayer and homily-they occasional alteration. The rivers perform upon sitars and other in- are the Godavery, Munjera, Moosa, struments. A wreath of flowers is and Kistna. The Munjera flows thrown around his neck, a nose- northerly into the Godavery, the gay placed in his turban, and an Moosa, easterly and southerly into odoriferous powder (called uben) the Kistna. The surface of this rubbed on his forehead. A small province is an elevated table-land, collection is made for his benefit hilly, but not mountainous, and after the recital.

generally open. Southward of the HURKARUH, Hindostanee. A mes- city of Hyderabad, the country is

senger; formerly, servant used much covered with jungle, and solely for carrying expresses, or such thinly peopled. The climate is letters, messages, &c., as were to be temperate, and the soil naturally sent beyond the circle of ordinary, or fertile, but it is indifferently cultidaily communication; he was, in fact, vated. In former times this prowhat is now commonly called a cossid. vince was thickly populated and The duty of the hurkaruh, as an prosperous, but from being very attendant upon a gentleman in badly governed, it has long been in office, &c., is similar to that of the a declining state. The productions

peon, or piada, or running footman. are wheat, cholum, and other dry HUSSEIN, and HOSSEIN, the sons grains, and a little opium. The

of Alee, who were murdered at Ker- towns are, Maiduk, Warungol, belah by the soldiers of Yezid. Hyderabad, Neelcoonda, and KumTheir assassination is mourned to mum-nait. There is a large prothis day by one of the sects of Ma- portion of Mahomedans in this prohometans. See MoHURRUM.

vince, but the Hindoos still form the HUZZOOR, literally, “the presence.” most numerous class. The religion

The seat of government, or of the is Mahomedanism and Hindooism, European authority in a collectorship and the language Teloogoo and in India. It is also used in a respect- Hindostanee. ful sense by servants to their masters, HYDERABAD, a city in the province

and means, his, or your, worship. of Hyderabad, in India; also styled, HUZZOOREE, relating to the pre- in former times, Bag-nuggur, stands

sence, or chief station, of European on the south side of the river Moosa, authority. Applied to talookdars, in Lat. 17 deg. 15 min. N., Long. &c., the term indicates, that they 78 deg. 35 min. E. It is a large, but pay their revenue immediately to meanly-built town, containing about the European officer of government, 200,000 inhabitants, and having been and not through Zemindars.

for a long time the capital of a HYDERABAD, a province of India, Moosulman government, is now the

bounded on the north by the river chief resort of the principal MaGodavery, separating it from Beder homedan families of the Deccan. and Gondwana; east, the Godavery, It was founded about the year 1585, and ranges of hills separating it by Kootb Shah. Three miles to the from Gondwana and the Northern west of the city of Hyderabad, stands Circars; south, the rivers Kistna the fortress of Golconda, formerly and Toombudra (dividing it from the capital, first, of a Hindoo, and the Ceded Districts), and part of afterwards of a Mahomedan kingthe Dooab; and west, Beder. It is dom. Under the empire of Delhi, divided into several small districts, this fortress was frequently used as or collectorates for revenue pur- a prison for the Moghul princes. poses, named after the principal Hyderabad is under the government

of the Nizam, who maintains, be- god is the king of the immortals and sides an army of his own, a British the lord of the firmament. He is resubsidiary force. The military can- presented as a white man sitting tonment of Hyderabad is called upon his celestial vahan, the elephant Secunderabad.

Airavat, produced at the churning HYDERABAD, a city in India, the of the ocean, and holding in his

modern capital of the whole country hand the vajra, or thunderbolt. He of Sind, and formerly the residence of is depicted, like Argus, covered with the principal Ameer, stands on the eyes, and is thus called the thousandbank of the river Fulalee, a branch of eyed god. the Indus, in Lat. 25 deg. 22 min. N. INDUS, the. A river in India, called It contains about 20,000 inhabitants. by the natives the Sind, and by MaThe armourers of this place are noted homedan writers the Hind. It has for the excellence of their workman- not yet been ascertained with cership, as also are the artificers, who tainty where this river rises. It enembroider in leather. Hyderabad ters Hindostan through the mounwas the scene of a desperate battle, tains of Cashmere, passes along the in which the British troops, under western side of Lahore, and running Sir C. Napier, completely routed the to the south through Mooltan and Scindian army.

Sind, falls into the Arabian Sea. It is said to be navigable for vessels of

200 tons as far as Lahore. IncludI.

ing its windings, the course of this

river is supposed to be not less than ICHLOGANS, boys brought up at 1700 miles in length.

Constantinople to act as pages to the INSHALLAH! Persian. “ Please Sultan. They are for the most part God!” the children of Christian captives, IRAK, the central and principal procarefully instructed in the principles vince of Persia. of the Koran.

IRAN, the namegiven by the Persians in INAH (or looking-glass), an Indian former times to the empire of Persia.

ornament formed of a ring fitting ISKANDER, the name by which Alerupon the thumb, and having a small ander the Great is known and celemirror, about the size of a half- brated all over the East. penny, fixed upon it by the centre, ISKARDOH, a mountainous country, so as to accord with the back of the divided into valleys of various exthumb. Each finger is provided tent. It is situated towards the with its quota of angooties, or point where the Belat Tak and Mus rings, of various sorts and sizes, Tak mountains converge and sepagenerally of gold; those of silver rate the lofty ledges of Thibet, from being considered mean. The inah the plains and valleys of Turkistan: should correspond in this particular; among the natives it is generally but, on account of the quantity of known by the name of Beldestan. gold required wherein to set the The tradition is, that Alexander the glass, many content themselves with Great came here on an expedition silver mounting.

towards Khatai or Scythia (modern INDORE, a town in India, in the pro- China), and that the Koteli Mustak,

vince of Malwa, situated in Lat. or the Mustak mountains, which lie 22 deg. 42 min. N., Long. 75 deg. between Yarkand and Khatai, being 50 min. E. It is the capital of the at that time impassable, on account Holkar Mahrattas, and is a large and of the depth and severity of the populous town, but contains few snow, the Macedonian halted on the buildings of any note.

present site of the capital, until a INDRA. In Hindoo mythology this road could be cleared for his passage;

when, leaving every part of his superfluous baggage, together with the sick, old, and infirm of his troop, behind, in a fort which he erected while there, he advanced against Khatai. These relics of the army founded a city, which they named Iskandaria or Alexandria, now pronounced Iskardoh. In length, the territory of Iskardoh is estimated to be a journey of eleven days, and its average breadth about nine days' journey. On the east it is bounded by · Ladakh, which is a journey of eleven days from the capital; and on the west, by Gilget, a journey of nine days. Yarkand bounds it on the north, at a distance of twelve days' journey, and Cashmere, on the south, a journey of nine days. No correct estimate can be formed of the population of the country. It is said to amount to 300,000 families, which in all probability greatly exceeds the actual number. The people are divided into several different tribes, but they are generally known by the name of Baldi. Among them there is a tribe called Kerah, the members of which are enjoined by their religious laws to follow four ordinances, viz. first, to destroy their female infants ; second, not to tell falsehoods; third not to desert their party in the day of battle ; fourth, not to slander any one. The natives are described to be of a phlegmatic disposition, likeother Thibetan tribes. Asiatic physiologists maintain the opinion, that the temperament of man is affected by the nature of the animal or vegetable production on which he feeds! and the phlegmatic character of the inhabitants of little Thibet is accordingly ascribed to barley, millet, and fruits, being their chief articles of food. They are a stout, well-made, race of people, with ruddy complexions and good features, but have little hair on their body, and scarcely any beard. It is said, they are deficient in enterprise, and of a treacherous and designing disposition. Barley, wheat, and

flesh are the chief articles of food; rice is not generally used. All those who can afford it are in the habit of drinking tea at their breakfast, and in the course of the day it is usual with them, as with their neighbours of Ladakh, to greet their visitors with a cup of tea. There is little variation in the dress of the people from their neighbours of Ladakh. The wealthy classes generally wear kabas (a kind of coat, with skirted margin all round), and caps, &c. ; while the dress of the peasantry consists of jamahs (another kind of coat, formerly much used in India); it resembles the vest worn by the Indian dancing girls, and is made of pattu, which is manufactured both of a coarse and fine quality, from goat's wool. They wear caps of the same stuff. Cotton is not produced here. It is imported from Yarkand to Cashmere, but very few people show a desire to wear cotton clothes. Their houses are mostly made of layers of stones and wood, with flat roofs, and are two or three stories high, with far projecting roofs, somewhat similar to those on the southern face of the Himalaya range. The common religion of the people is Mahomedan, of the Shia sect, and the followers of the Imam Jafar; but towards Gilget, there is a race of people which does not seem to possess any well-defined religious system: some of them are idolators, and worship trees; while others, like the Hindoos, do not eat the flesh of kine, and yet profess to be Mahomedans. Thibetan is the common language of the country, but the people have no books in it. They are beyond the influence of the Lamas, and receive their education, which is exclusively confined to the chiefs and priesthood, in Persian. They have no system of coinage in the shape of rupees, pice, or cowries. The only means of exchange known among them is in small pieces of unwrought gold, which is found in the country, both in mines and in

the beds of rivers. The government parts of the island, of one story, with of Iskardoh is absolute. The re- very wide verandahs. In the Pettah venue of the state is collected in

are situated the Cutchery, a church kind in the following form:-one belonging to the Tamul Protestant kharwar of wheat, one of barley, Christians, called St. John's, and a and one of mustard or millet, are Wesleyan chapel. At the distance levied from each landholder. Some of about a mile and a half, is a large of the zemindars pay their rents in Hindoo temple, grander and more one kharwar of ghee each, instead of magnificent than any other in the the other three articles. A kharwar district of Jaffna. It was built seis about forty seers in weight.

veral years ago, and is called the ISLAMABAD, a large town in India, Kanda Swamy Temple.

in the province of Cashmere. It is JAGGERY, sugar; sugar in its unsituated on the north side of the refined state ; refuse molasses. river Jelum, about 30 miles E. S. E. JAGHIRE, or JAGHEER, from jau, a from Cashmere.

piace, and geruftun, to lay hold of. ISPAHAN, or ISFAHAUN, a city of Literally, the place of taking. An as

Persia, the largest and finest. There signment of the government share of is an expression in every Persian the produce of a portion of land to mouth,“ Isfahaun nisfeh Jehan eu !"- an individual. There were two kinds Ispahan is half the world. The city of Jaghires, one called jay-gir-i-tan, is now nearly in ruins.

bodily or personal jaghire, being for ISSAU, Persian, Jesus. The Persians the support of the person of the

are very fond of discussing the rela- grantee; the other, jay-gir-i-sar Jagtive merits of Issau and Moussa hire, of the head, or an assignment, (Moses).

particularly of a military nature. ISTACKBAL, the ceremonial of send- Jaghires may be said to be a military

ing forth a deputation to receive a tenure. Their origin in India may great man, on his approach to any probably be traced to the following place.

practice of Timour. “He ordered ISTAMBOUL, the Turkish title for the whole of the revenues of the Constantinople.

country to be divided into lots of different amount; and that these

lots should be written on a royal asJ.

signment, yurleegh. These assign

ments were brought to the Deewan JAFFNA, or JAFFNAPATAM (Ya- Khana (exchequer, to be entered, panepatnam), lies on the north of

perhaps). Each of the omrahs and the island of Ceylon, in Lat. 9 deg. mingbaushees (officers of horse, who 47 min. N., and Long. 80 deg. 9 min. received sixty times the pay of a E., and is 219 miles distant from trooper), received one of these asColombo. The fort is built in the signments. If the amount form of a pentagon, and contains, be- greater than his own allowance, he sides the barracks, a few good build- was to share it with another; if ings, and a Dutch church, which is less, he got another to make up the made use of by the English. The amount.” Timour directed, howPettah is about half a mile to the ever, “that no ameer or mingbanshee, east of the fort. It contains many should collect more from the subject large, broad streets, running parallel than the established revenue and taxes; to each other, and crossed at right and for this purpose, and to keep an angles by smaller ones. The houses account of the jumma, and of the are, in general, large and convenient, payments and shares of the ryots, and, like the greater part of the &c., to every province on which houses built by the Dutch in all royal assignments were granted, he


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