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principal seats of Hindoo learning, cient rajahs of Rutturpoor, a district has long since gone to ruins. The of Gondwana, and to contain an modern town, which stands about a image of Bhavani; under whose mile further to the south, was until name the consort of Siva is worrecently the capital of the Scindia shipped in this part of the country. Mahrattas. It is a large and popu- The blessings derived from these lous place, and contains many hand- lakes and rivers, and the wise ensome pagodas and other buildings, forcement of the ablutions enjoined with some remarkably good sculp- by the religious worship performed ture. It had formerly an observa- upon their banks, render every tory, built by rajah Jey Sing, which, stream sacred in the eyes of the Hin

however, has been allowed to decay. doos, and no doubt led, in the first OOLOOS, the tribes of Afghanistan, instance, to the gratitude to the Di

divided into clans, which again are vine Dispenser of all good gifts, sub-divided into Khails. The prin- which, corrupted into idolatry, is cipal tribes are the Dooranees, the now, by the perversion so unfortu

Ghilzies, and the Berdooranees. nately connected with the gross noOOLTA-POOLTA, Hindostanee. Top- tions entertained of the Creator of sy-turvy.

the Universe by ignorant men, renOOMERKANTUK, in the province dered absurd and contemptible. In

of Gondwana, in India, is situated tracing, however, the superstitions at the sources of the rivers Sone and of a nation to their source, we geneNerbudda, in Lat. 22 deg. 55 min. rally find that they have originated N., Long. 82 deg. 7 min. E., on which in something natural and praise· account alone it is noticed, being worthy.

otherwise merely a place of resort OOMRÅWUTTI, a town in India, in for pilgrims. A melah, or religious the province of Berar, situated festival, is held at Omerkantuk once thirty-four miles south-easterly from a year, but notwithstanding the Ellichpore, in Lat. 20 deg. 54 min. alleged superior sanctity of the ri- N., Long. 77 deg. 57 min. E. It is a vers, and the comparative ease with large and populous town, and a which their sources may be attained, place of considerable inland traffic. the attendance is not so much more OOREEAHS, i.e., natives of the pronumerous than that at Gungootree vince of Orissa, who seek employment and Jumnootree, as might be ex- at the several presidencies of India as pected. In addition to the advan- bearers. The Ooreahs are, in some tages of ablution, and of imbibing respects, excellent servants; they the holy waters of Omerkantuk's are very careful of furniture; and thrice-blessed rivers, the true be- being able-bodied men in general, lievers who visit the mountain, if are capable, when bearing a palannot encumbered with too much flesh, keen, of proceeding great distances; may find a speedy and certain road they are, besides, cleanly in their 'to heaven. A large rock rising ab- persons and neat in their dress; ruptly on the summit of the hill, which, however, consists merely of has been carved into the form of an a doty, folded round the middle, elephant; there is a space, or rather and tucked in, together with a hole, between the body of the sculp- wrapper, to be thrown over them tured animal and the earth, and in very inclement weather, but usuthose who can contrive to insinuate ally carried over the shoulder. themselves through this aperture,

When their heights are unequal, are secure, after death, of an en- they use a small quilted pad of trance into the regions of the blessed. linen, stuffed with rags or cotton, The temple of Omerkantuk is said which is suspended from the palanto have been built by one of the an- keen pole, or bamboo, and being

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placed between it and the shoulder of the shortest bearer of the two (they carrying in pairs, two bearers before, and two behind), serves to bring about an even bearing on each. The Balasore bearers, i.e., the Ooreahs, preserve but one lock of hair on the top of their heads; they wear no turban, but touch their faces, arms, throats, and breasts with sandal-wood and vermilion. Some wear a few small beads, chiefly of turned wood, about their necks; and occasionally a bangle, or kurrah, a stout silver ornament of the ring kind, on either wrist. The Ooreah bearers never wear shoes, and prefer clothes of an almond colour. The number of Ooreahs in a single set is generally seven: the head bearer, or sirdar, receiving five, or even six, rupees monthly; sometimes a mate receives, or is said to receive, five,

and the residue about four. OOSTADE, Persian. A master, a

teacher of any profession. OPIUM, a drug; a powerful narcotic,

extracted from the poppy, and used by the Chinese, Turks, Mahomedans, and Hindeos, in their pipes and hookahs, either with or without tobacco. The Hindoo, however, prefers a drug called bang, which produces alternately the exciting and stupefying effects of opium. Opium is grown in large quantities in the provinces of Bahar and Malwa, in India. The East India Company's government monopolise the cultivation, and dispose of the article wholesale to the Bombay and Calcutta merchants, who trade with China and the Straits of Malacca. An enormous revenue is derived from the monopoly at the expense of the morals and physical

condition of the Chinese. ORISSA, a province of India, bounded

on the north by the river Subun. reeka, separating it from Bengal; east, the sea; south, the Ganjam district of the Northern Circars; west, Gondwana. The divisions of the province are, Singhboom, Mo

hurbunj, Balasore, Kunjoor, Boad, and Kuttack, with several smaller zumeendaries. The rivers are Subunreeka, Solundee, Bytoornee, Bahmunee, Mahanudee, and others. This province may be considered as consisting of three distinct regions: the maritime, the central (called the Mooghulbundee), and the western, or Rajwara. The maritime, from the Subunreeka on the north, to the Chilka Lake on the south, and from the sea to about twenty miles inland is a low, flat, swampy tract, covered with wood, and frequently inundated, and intersected in all directions by numerous rivers. Twenty miles inland the country rises considerably, with an open, dry, and fertile surface, forming the second or Mooghulbundee division, which, about twenty miles further inland, swells into wooded hills; and beyond, there is the third, or Rajwara, occupying the western portion of the province, and consisting entirely of ranges of hills. The greater part of the interior of this province is in a very savage state, particularly the Rajwara division, being composed of rugged hills, thick jungles, and deep nullas, and pervaded by a remarkably pestilential atmosphere. The productions are rice, maize, wheat, gram, and other grains; aromatic roots, spices, dyeing drugs, sugar, cotton, tobacco, honey, wax, and dammer. The woods of the mari. time districts are chiefly of Soondree, from which oil is extracted, and Janool; those of the Mooghulbundee abound with resinous trees, and others valuable for cabinet-work and for dyeing; and from the Rajawara forests teak of good quality is procured. Iron is abundant; many valuable and curious minerals are found in Rajwara, and from the mountain streams gold dust is collected. Diamonds also, of a large size, are to be found, but the extrenie unhealthiness of the climate in the districts in which they are met with prevents their being properly sought after.

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Abundance of salt, of a remarkably digo, opium, and tobacco ; saltwhite and pure description, is manu- petre is abundant, and lapis lazuli factured on the coast. The rivers is amongst the mineral productions. abound with fish, and the whole The towns are Khyrabad, Baraitch, province swarms with wild beasts, Luknow, Roy-Bareilly, Fyzabad, particularly leopards of a large size; Tanda, Sooltanpore, Gorukpore, and it is much infested by snakes, and Manikpore. The inhabitants of alligators, and reptiles of all kinds. this province are generally remarkThe towns are Singhboom, Huriur- able as a fine robust race, of an inpore, Balasore, Kunjour, Jaipore, telligent and manly character ; parKuttack, and Juggernaut. The in- ticularly the Rajpoots, who are comhabitants of the province are Hin- monly superior in stature and apdoos, with the distinguishing name pearance to Europeans.

A large of Ooreeahs; but there are also, in proportion Mahomedans of the woods and hills, three distinct Afghan and Persian origin, the tribes, called Koles, Khonds, and province having been for many Soors (q. v.), all differing in lan- centuries under a Mahomedan goguage and appearance from the Hin- vernment. The Bengal army prodoos, and generally supposed to cures a considerable number of its have been the original natives of best Sepoys from this province. A the province. The Ooreeahs are all treaty having been made with the followers of the Brahminical system;

British Government in the year but the wild tribes of Koles, Khonds, 1765, Oude has been preserved from and Soors have no intelligible sys- all external enemies, and has consetem of religion, and are entirely quently enjoyed a long continuance strangers to the institution of caste of peace and prosperity. The Goor other Hindoo observance. There vernor of Oude was originally styled are also Jains in this province. The the Soobadar, and afterwards the language of the Oreeah nation is a Nabob. This was changed in 1814 dialect of the Sanscrit, much resem- to Vizier (Wuzeer), and in 1819 to bling the Bengalee, and called the Padshah, or King, by which he is Ooreah. The dialects of the wild now recognised. The religion is tribes are distinct.

Mahomedanism and Hindocism, the OUDE, a province of India, bounded former the most prevalent. The

on the north by Nepaul; east, Bahar ; language is Hindostanee. south, Allahabad; west, Agra and | OUTAUGH, Persian. A chamber Delhi. Its divisions consist of Khy- or cell in a caravanserai. Also a rabad, Baraitch, Luknow, Fyzabad, business-chamber, an office. Gorukpore, and Manikpore. The ri- OUTCRY, the Anglo-Indian word for vers are the Ganges, Goomtee, and an auction. The sales of houses, Gogra, all flowing through the pro- and every description of article, vince south-easterly. The whole European or Indian, by outcry, are surface of the province, excepting so numerous and extensive, that the upon the northern and north-eastern auctions are regarded as regular frontiers, is perfectly level, well lounges. watered, and very fertile. It is one of the smallest provinces of Hindostan Proper, but has always been

P. one of the richest and most populous. Its length from west to east is PACHA, a Turkish title, signifying a about 250 miles, by 100, the average governor, prince, or viceroy. The breadth from north to south. The pachalics, or local governments, productions are wheat, barley, peas, are all in the gift of the Sultan, and rice, and other grains ; sugar, in- their possessors are bound to obey his firmauns. It is not unusual for and furnished inside with a long the pachas, however, to revolt and cushion, covered with morocco endeavour to establish an indepen- leather, silk, or chintz, and a pillow dent authority, but none have as yet of the same material for the support succeeded. When the Sultan as- of the head or back, the palkee is a sumes, as he is at liberty to do in very commodious and not inelegant extreme cases, the character of a vehicle. At the opposite end of the Caliph, an appeal is made to the palkee is a flat wooden resting-place religious feelings of the rebellious, for the feet, and above that a shelf who then recognise his paramount and small drawer for the reception authority as the representative of of light articles, papers, &c. Some Mahomed, and return to their alle- people take great pride in these vegiance.

hicles, causing the upper part of the PADDY, an Indian term for rice in sides to be provided with Venetian the husk.

blinds, and throwing over the whole, PADDY-BIRD, a sort of small crane, in very warm weather, a covering of

abounding in the rice fields in India. fragrant cuscuss. In the great towns PADISHAH, emperor, imperial. in the Mofussil, the native gentry

There is no sovereign in the East, and pensioned princes, and chiefexcepting the King of Persia, to tains, use the open palankeens, or whom the title strictly applies, and litters, such as are often seen on the that potentate is more frequently British stage in mock oriental called the Shah-in-Shah, or King of pageants. Kings.

PALANPORE, a town in India, in PAGODA, a term, unknown to the the province of Guzerat, situated

natives of India, given by Euro- about twelve miles to the eastward peans to Hindoo temples; also to a of Deesa. It is a populous town, gold coin, in use at Madras, often and the capital of a small Mahomewith an image on it, properly called dan principality, tributary: to the hun, or hoon.

Gaikowar. It contains about 30,000 PAINA, bracelets of zinc, worn by inhabitants. Their counterpanes of the native women of India.

chintz are manufactured here, and PALAMCOTTAH, a town in India, in take their name from the place.

the province of Southern Carnatic, PALAR, the, a river in India, which situated on the eastern side of the rises in the hills near Nundydroog, Tumbrapoonee river, which divides in the province of Mysore, not far it from Tinnevelly. It is a fortified from the river Pennar. It flows town, and was formerly the princi- southerly, through Mysore, and Cenpal stronghold of one of the southern tral Carnatic, into the Bay of Bengal, polygars.

which it reaches near Sadras. PALANKEEN, PALANQUIN, or PALEMBANG, an ancient Malay

PALKEE. The latter is the word town on the eastern coast of the in most general use in India. The island of Sumatra, in Asia, and Papalankeen of the European, and in- dang on the western coast, now form deed of all the principal inhabitants the two principal settlements of the of the Presidencies, may be likened Dutch. to a wooden box, opening at the PALGHATCHERRY, a station in sides by sliding doors. It is about India, in the province of Malabar, six feet in length and four in situated inland, about seventy miles height, having a pole at either end, S.E. from Calicut, in Lat. 10 deg. which rests on the shoulders of the 45 min. N., Long. 76 deg. 38 min. E. bearers. Usually painted a dark Under Hyder Ali this was a place green, with sometimes the crest of of considerable importance as a milithe owner painted on the pannels, tary post. It is still a station for an English garrison. The surrounding what melon-like flavour when eaten

forests abound with excellent teak. with sugar and wine. As a tree, it PALI, one of the dead languages of is highly ornamental, few garden or

India. It may be considered as a orchard trees surpass it in gracefulsister to Sanscrit. In ancient times ness of appearance, in which indeed it was spoken in Behar, the cradle it approaches to the palm. The size of Buddha. Prior to the birth of and beauty of the leaf, and even of Christ, it was spread extensively in the leaf-stalks, are always much India, but when the Buddhists were admired when closely examined by expelled from India, the language those to whom the wonders of trobecame extinct, and for many ages pical vegetation are new. One of Pali has ceased to be spoken. Even the curious properties of the papaya yet it is the language of the liturgy, tree is, that it renders tough or and of the literature of the great newly-killed meat tender, when hung islands of Ceylon, Beli, Madura, and up amongst its leaves for a few Java, as well as of all the Indo- hours, which effect is also produced Chinese countries; and it is also the by some other trees. sacred language of the innumerable PAPOOSEES, Turkish. Slippers. worshippers of Buddha, both in China PAPUA, or NEW GUINEA, an island and Japan. The Pali language has of Asia, in the Eastern Archipelago. the strength, richness, and harmony It is a large island, commencing a of the Sanscrit. Its literature is little to the eastward of Gilolo, and very rich; its various dialects in slanting in a south-easterly direction different countries are written with as far as Lat. 10 deg. S., having the alphabets derived from the Devana- Pacific Ocean along its northern and gari.

eastern coasts, and separated by PĂLKEE GHAREE, a carriage in Torres Straits on the south from

use in India, the body of which is the continent of Australia. It apshaped like a palankeen, with a well pears to rise gradually from the for the feet of the occupants.

coast to hills of considerable elevaPANDUS, five heroes, or demi-gods, tion, covered with palm-trees and

descended from the ancient sove forests of large timber. It produces reigns of the countries of Hindostan both the cocoa-nut and bread-fruit bordering upon the Jumna, thus trees, but has no animals except dogs, called “ Panduan Raj, or the King- wild cats, and hogs. The western dom of the Pandus.” Pandu, the part of the island is inhabited by the father of these five heroes, was the Negro race, and the eastern by a son of Vyasa and Pandea.

people approaching more to the apPANSWAY, the smallest description pearance of the South Sea islanders,

of boat, next to the canoe, on the that is, having yellow complexions, Hooghly, or Ganges. It is the ordi- and long black hair. Such of these nary boat of the fishermen, and has Negro tribes as are known to Euroat the after-part an awning of mat- peans are in an entirely savage state, ting in the shape of a hood.

and some of them are said to be canPAPAYA, (carica papaya).

This nibals. They wear their hair bushed fruit, though abounding in India, is round the head to a circumference a well-recognised importation from of two and three feet, combing it the West Indies or Africa, where it out straight, and occasionally stickis found abundantly, and of far ing it full of feathers; and from this larger size than those of the common practice they have received from EuIndian growth. As a fruit, eaten ropeans the name frequently applied both raw and boiled, pickled or pre- to them of “mop-headed Negroes." served, it ranks high; the choice They understand the manufacture of ones being of a very rich and some- common earthenware and mats, and

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