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seat of the chief Rajpoot principal- | ALEEKOOM SALAAM, “With you ities of India. The inhabitants be peace!" the usual reply to the orare Rajpoots, Jats, Bhatteeas, Bheels, dinary Mahometan salutation, “ Saand a small proportion of Maho- laam Aleekoom.” medans.

ALEEWAL, a village on the banks of AJMEER, formerly the capital of the the Sutlej, which has acquired cele

province of Ajmeer, stands at the brity from its contiguity to the bottom of a fortified hill, in Lat. 26 scene of a great battle, in which deg. 31 min. N., Long. 74 deg. 28 min. Major General Sir Harry Smith, E. This was once a large and opu- with a division of the army assemlent city, and occasionally the resi- bled under Lords Hardinge and dence of the Emperor of Delhi. The Gough to oppose the Sikhs, in 1845, English had a trading factory here totally defeated an immensely suin 1616. It was nearly ruined during perior body of the enemy's troops. the disorders which followed upon ALEPPIE, in the province of Travanthe dissolution of the Mooghul em- core, is on the Malabar coast, about pire, and the establishment of the midway between Cochin and Nuilon. Mahratta power; but since its trans- It is the chief dépôt from which the fer to the British in 1818, it has Travancore government exports its greatly improved, and is now a hand

pepper and timber. some town. At Nusserabad, fifteen AL HUM ID ILLAH! Thanks be to miles from Ajmeer, is a British can- God! A Moslem ejaculation. tonment, and there is a British poli- | ALIGURH, a strong fortress, situated tical agent in the town.

about fifty miles to the north of AJUNTEE, in Lat. 20 deg. 34 min. Agra. In 1803 it was one of Dow

N., Lon. 75 deg. 56 min. E., is a let Rao Scindia's principal stronglarge town, but not populous. In holds, and was stormed by the the neighbourhood are some excava- British troops under Lord Lake. tions resembling those of Ellora. The town is called Coel. A regiment AKHBAR-NURVEES, news-writers, of Sepoys is quartered here, and

a class of men formerly employed at there is a civil court of justice and a the native courts of India to record collector of revenue. the proceedings of the princes and ALLAH, the name given by the Matheir ministers. The newspaper has hometans of all classes to the Alalmost superseded the functions of mighty. these court chroniclers.

ALLAHABAD, a province of India, AKHERJAUT AURUNG, Hindos- bounded on the north by Agra and

tanee. Expenses of an aurung, or Oude; east, Babar; south, Bahar and place where goods are manufactured. Gonduana; west, Malwa and Agra. Charges for transporting salt to the The divisions are Cawnpoor, Allaplace of sale; for weighmen, erection habad, Manikpoor, Juwanpoor, Beof storehouses, &c.

nares, Mirzapoor, Bundulkhund, AKYAB, the principal military sta- Rewa. It is watered by the rivers

tion of the British troops in Arracan. Goomtee, Ganges, Jumna, Tonse or AL, an Indian plant, rising(when fit to be Tunsa, Betwa, and numerous others.

dug) less than a foot above ground, and The Gogra flows along part of the having a ligneous root above eighteen northern frontier of the

province, diinches in length, and of a bright yel- viding it from Oude. This province low colour. It is grown only in the is one of the richest and most problack soil, and receives no watering. ductive in India. The surface of the It is an article of considerable traffic districts adjacent to the Ganges and in the Dooab and to the south, and Jumna is level and very fertile. In is used for dyeing the coarse red Bundulkhund and Rewa, the country cloth called Kurwa.

forms an elevated table land, occasionally mountainous and jungly, , ALLAHABAD, a city, and civil and and diversified with high hills; but military station in the province of for the greater part open and capa

Oude in Hindostan. It is situated ble of being made very fruitful. The at the confluence of the rivers northern frontier of the Rewa coun- Ganges and Jumna, 470 miles N. W. try consists of an abrupt front of of Calcutta, in Long. 82 deg. E., Lat.

ndstone rock, rising perpendicu- 25 deg. 45 min. N. Allahabad was larly from 200 to 300 feet from a founded by the Emperor Acbar, sloping base. A large proportion of who intended it as a defensive post; the water that falls during the rainy but the fortifications, of which remseason on the table land of Rewa is nants still exist, in spite of the subtle precipitated over this rocky margin and undermining assaults of the in numerous cataracts; amongst Jumna's waters, could never have which those of the Beyhar and Tonsa been of any importance. Allahabad rivers are of remarkable grandeur. is the seat of a superior court of The Beyhar cataract is one of the justice, and it has been sometimes highest in the world, forming a single contemplated to convert it into the unbroken fall of 360 feet. Wheat,

locale of the Supreme Government of barley, rice, maize, and other grains, India, a distinction for which it are the productions of this province, appears from its central position to as well as opium, sugar, indigo, be well adapted. cotton, and flax; in the hilly districts ALLAH HU AKBER! Persian. God are dyeing drugs and gums; chironja is great! nut, catechu, and iron-diamonds, ALLAH KEREEM! God is merciful! sometimes of large size, are found in A Moslem expression. the Punna district of Bundulkhund; ALMORA. In the province of Kuand in the district of Benares there maoon. It is situated in Lat. 29 deg. are extensive stone quarries. A great 35 min. N., Long. 79 deg. 44 min. E. deal of alkali is also supplied from It is the modern capital of the prothe country between the Goomtee vince, and the only place of any and Ganges, from Kurra to Benares. consequence in it. A regiment of The province has long been noted Bengal infantry and a detachment of for its cotton fabrics, particularly artillery are quartered here. At Almuslins and brocades. Carpets are morah there are five bungalows, also manufactured, and coarse cum- called sick bungalows, belonging lies. The towns are Rusoolabad, to Government; these are kept in Cawnpoor, Akberpoor, Futihpoor, good repair, and are exclusively for Kurra, Shahzadabad, Allahabad, the use of such officers as may go Manikpoor, Mahowl, Azimgur, Mow, upon sick leave, who are furnished Juwanpoor, Benares, Chunar, Ghazi- with one to live in, free of all cost, poor, Mirzapoor, Dittea, Jhansee, on application, through the executive Keeta, Banda, Kallinjer, Chuttur- officer, in whose charge they are, to poor, Punna, Maltown, Hutta, Dou- the officer commanding. These sick ree, and Rewa. By the Hindoos, Alla- houses are, of course, totally unfurhabad is named Bhat Prayaga, or, by nished. As to climate, Almorah is way of distinction, as the largest sufficiently cool and pleasant, and it and principal, simply Prayaga, and it is, unquestionably, a very healthy, is much resorted to by pilgrims; renovating one. In regard to soamongst whom suicide, by drowning ciety, likewise, there is a sufficiency. themselves at the spot where the Those who visit Almorah on leave, rivers unite, is a frequent practice. merely for their own pleasure, can The word Prayaga means the con- always procure bungalows for hire fluence of any two or more sacred to live in, there being more than are rivers.

needed for the accommodation of the officers of the regiment, and neat and well built, and manufactures others permanently residing at the large quantities of castor oil. On a place, and the rent charged is ex- mountain, at one side of the town, tremely reasonable. The military there was formerly a strong fort. cantonments are at the western ex- AMBOYNA, a spice island in the tremity of, and close to, the city of Indian Ocean, Long. 12 deg. 70 min. Almorah. Prior to our invasion E., Lat. 40 deg. S. Originally and conquest of Kumaon, Almorah occupied by English and Dutch was the place of residence of the settlers; the latter expelled the Goorka Viceroy, who was appointed former, but were in their turn from Katmandoo; and previous to driven out in 1796. It was subsethe Goorka invasion, it was the quently ceded to the Dutch, in seat of government of the Rajahs of whose hands it now remains. Kumaon. The town is built on the AMEER, (or Emir,) a nobleman. The top of a ridge, running east and term is Asiatic and African. Its west, at an elevation of 5400 feet origin is Moslem. above the level of the sea. From | AMEER UL OMRAH, noble of noble, the nature of its situation, the city lord of lords. of Almorah is principally composed AMHERST. See Ava. of one long street of nearly a mile in AMLAH, Hindostanee. Agents, offilength, though there are suburbs cers ; the officers of government which extend down a long way on collectively. A head of zemindary both sides of the hill. It is paved charges. N.B. It is sometimes writwith stone throughout, and the ten omlah, or umluh. houses are generally very good, none ANAM. See Cochin China. being under two stories, and many | ANARUSH (bromelia ananas), the three and four stories high; the pine-apple. As the name for this houses even of the poorest people fruit is Persian, and there being no are all built of stone, and have slated Sanscrit one, it is supposed to be an roofs, so that they are remarkably imported fruit in India, though comsubstantial. Indeed, those in the mon all over the country where the town of Almorah are unlike any climate is not too severe for its thing one ever sees in the plains of growth in the open air; a greenIndia, and reminds the visitor of house, hot-house, or cool-house for England, to a small town in which plants or fruits, being yet entirely country Almorah has altogether a unknown in India, even amongst greater resemblance than to one in Europeans. The common bazar pine Hindostan. The officer command- of India is a very inferior fruit to ing at Almorah has, also, the general the English hot-house pine, and command of all the troops in the even to those which have been raised district.

with care and under shade (which ALVAR, or ALWUR, is situated in they seen to prefer) in India. Those

Lat. 27 deg. 44 min. N., Lon. 76 of the eastern islands are very far deg. 32 min. E., at the base of a superior, the commonest Malay or strongly fortified hill. It is the Javanese anana being equal, it is capital of the Macheree rajah's said, to the best in India, except, territories.

perhaps, those of Goa and other AMANUT DUFTER, an office in In- Portuguese establishments on the

dia for deposits, or perhaps for western coast, where, as in the case recording the reports of Aumeens. of the mango and some other fruits, AMAUN! A Persian cry for “ Mercy!” we still find traces of the care which AMBOOR, a town situated near the the early Portuguese colonists be

eastern hills of the Baramahal, about stowed on them. This is probably 120 miles westerly of Madras. It is owing to peculiarities of soil and cli

mate, as well as care, though the Portuguese, like the Dutch, were good gardeners and paid attention to horticulture, which the English, hitherto, cannot be said to have done. It is said, and with much justice, that no fruit in India requires to be eaten more cautiously than this, both by new comers and old residents; it is accused, and with some considerable truth, of occasioning very severe and dangerous attacks of pseudo-cholera and dysentery. To the newly-arrived Europeans, especially of the lower orders, it is indeed a most tempting fruit, and its powerful acid and tough flesh may often make it dangerous to them. An exceedingly beautiful flax, of great fineness and strength, may be prepared from the leaves of this plant by simple maceration and beating. In the Philippine Islands dresses, equal to the finest muslin, are woven from it, and embroidered with extraordinary taste; and though expensive, they last for many years, being in duration, colour, and beauty,

equal to fine Flanders lace. ANATHEE, an Indian word, signify

ing having no lord, master, or owner; from natha, a lord or master, with the primitive a prefixed. Old waste land; lands not cultivated within the

memory of man. ANDAMANS. In the Bay of Bengal,

opposite to the Tenasserim coast, and a short distance from it, between Lat. 10 deg. 32 min. and 13 deg. 40 min. N., lie two islands, called the Andamans. The northernmost, or great Andaman, is about 140 miles in length by twenty in breadth.

Though considered as only one, the great Andaman consists in reality of three islands, as it is divided in two places by very narrow straits. In the centre of the great Andaman is a mountain named Saddle Peak, about 2,400 feet high. The southernmost, or little Andaman, is about twenty-eight miles in length by seventeen in breadth. There are no rivers of any size. These islands pro

duce various kinds of wood, amongst which are ebony, red wood, damoner, bamboo, and rattans. The coasts abound with fish of every description. In the woods are a few kinds of birds and fowls, and the shores abound with a variety of beautiful shells. There are no other animals, with the exception of swine. Within the caverns and recesses of the rocks are found the edible birds' nests, so highly prized by the Chinese. The vegetable productions are few, and there are no cocoa-nut trees. The inhabitants of these islands are a very singular race, differing entirely not only from all the inhabitants of the neighbouring continent, but also from the natives of the Nicobar islands, though not a hundred miles distant. In appearance, they resenible a degenerate race of negroes, having woolly hair, flat noses, and thick lips.

Their eyes are small and red, and their skin of a deep dull black. In stature they seldom exceed five feet, with large heads, high shoulders, protuberant bellies, and slender limbs. They go quite naked, their only covering being composed of a coat of mud, which they plaster all over their bodies, in order to protect themselves from the insects. Their heads and faces they paint with red ochre. They are an exceedingly savage and ignorant race, and have always evinced an inveterate hatred towards strangers, constantly rejecting all intercourse, and frequently attacking boats' crews landing for water. They do not appear ever to have made any attempt to cultivate the ground, but subsist upon what they can pick up and kill. They are armed with wooden spears, and bows and arrows, which they use with much dexterity. As far as can be ascertained, they have no distinct ideas of religion. They appear to pay some sort of adoration to the sun, and to spirits whom they suppose to rule over the woods, and waters, and mountains. They were formerly supposed to be cannibals,

that is, men who eat human flesh, place was immediately besieged by but there is reason to believe that cajah Sahib with an army of 10,000 this is not the case. As far as is men, assisted by 150 French and known of their language, it does not artillery; but after a hard struggle possess the least affinity with any of fifty days, Clive, with his handful spoken in India, or among the of men, entirely defeated them. On neighbouring islands. The total the north side of the river is an population is supposed not to exceed English cavalry cantonment, and a 2500.

large open town connected with it. ANJAR is situated in Lat. 23 deg. This, also, is named by Europeans

3 min. N., Lon. 70 deg. 11 min. E., Arcot, but by the natives it is about ten miles from the Gulf of usually termed Raneepet. Kuch. It contains about 10,000 in- AREKA, the betel nut. See Paunhabitants, and is the principal town SOOPAREE. of the British district of Anjar. It ARGAUM, a village in the province was much injured in 1819 by the of India, where the armies of Scindia earthquake.

and the Basla rajah were defeated ANNA PUONA DEVI, a Hindoo in 1803 by the British troops, under

household goddess, extensively wor- the Duke of Wellington, then Geshipped by the Hindoos. Her name neral Wellesley. in plies “ the goddess who fills with ARISTOO, the Persian pronunciation food,” and they believe that a sin- of Aristotle, whose works are highly cere worshipper of her will never esteemed among the Orientals. want rice. In the modern represen- | ARNEE is situated about twenty tations of this beneficent form of miles to the south of Vellore, in Parvati, she is described of a deep the province of Central, or Middle yellow colour, standing, or sitting on Carnatic. During the wars with the lotus, or water-lily. She has two Hyder Ali, this was a place of conarms, and in one hand holds a spoon, siderable consequence, and its forin the other a dish:

tress was Hyder's chief magazine. AOUL, or OOLOOS, Turkish. A It is noted for its clever workmansubdivision of a tribe or camp:

ship in cloths, which are held in AP, unleavened cakes, eaten in the great estimation by the natives of west of India.

this part of Hindostan. ARARAT, Turkish. Literally ARRA. Vide BAHAR.

place of prisons.” Purgatory, à mid ARRACAN. Arracan lies to the receptacle of souls between Paradise south-east of Bengal, between Lat. and Hell.

18 deg. and 21 deg. N., and is ARCHIPELAGO. See EASTERN Is- bounded on the north by the dis

trict of Chittagong, in the province ARCOT (Urkat) is situated on the of Bengal, from which it is separated

south side of the river Palar, seventy by the river Nauf; east, by a chain miles south-westerly from Madras. of mountains dividing it from Ava; This was the capital of the Carnatic south, by the district of Bassein in under the government of the Maho- Pegu; and west, by the Bay of medan nabobs, and it is still a favou- Bengal. It is divided into the disrite place of residence with Maho- tricts of Arracan, Ramree, Sandowy, medan families. The fort was for- and Cheduba. The district of Rammerly large, and tolerably strong, ree is an island separated from the but it is now in ruins. The cele- mainiand by a narrow creek. Chebrated Clive took it in 1751 with a duba is also an island in the open small party of 200 European and sea, a few miles from the coast of 300 natives, although the garrison Ramree. It is one of a small cluster, then consisted of 1100 men. The and is in length thirty miles, by



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