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abuse, which may be translated by GIAN BIN GIAN, the Oberon of the the English word “ scoundrel, East; the king of the fairies. although its literal meaning is even GIDDH, the Bengal vulture, the still more gross. It is in very
vulture Bengalensis of authors, is frequent use where Turkish is spo- gregarious to the full extent of the ken, and is sometimes used jocu- word, not only flying and feeding in larly.
flocks, but also building its nest in GHOSAL KHANEH, a bathing room. company. The plumage of the male
The bath is naturally of much use is dark brown above, deepest on the in every house in India, where fre- wings and tail; under parts of a quent ablution is requisite. The lighter shade of brown, the shaft ghosal khaneh, however, is seldom any and middle of each feather being thing more than a small square dashed with a dirty white, or buffapartment, with a chunam or marble coloured streak; head and neck of floor, and a sink or gutter to carry a dirty livid colour, and destitute of off the water, which is obtained feathers, but scattered over with from large earthen jars (chatties) short hairs; at the bottom of the or shower baths.
neck a ruff of long, narrow, and GHURREE, an Indian hour, twenty- pointed feathers; the crop covered
four minutes; also, a gong, or copper over with short brown feathers, and plate, used to strike the hours, or as slightly overhanging the breast; bill, a signal.
strong, and black at the end, but GHUŽNEE, a fortified city in Afghan- paler at the base; nostrils, lateral;
istan, situated in Lat. 33 deg. 10 min. irides, dark hazel ; legs, thick and N., Long. 66 deg. 57 min. E. For blackish; claws, black and strong, nearly two centuries this place was and not much hooked. Length, 2 feet the capital of a powerful kingdom, 7 inches; breadth, 7 feet 5 inches. commencing with Subuktageen, in The female in length 3 feet 1 inch, A. D. 975, to the time of Mahomed and in breadth 7 feet 7 inches ; the Ghourie, in 1171, who subdued plumage above is much lighter, being the empire of Ghuznee, and burnt of a buff or pale fawn coloured the city. For many years after- brown ; under parts of a dirty wards, however, Ghuznee continued white; irides, dark hazel ; bill, to be one of the principal towns in strong, and dark at the end, but of Afghanistan, and has always been a greenish livid colour at the base ; regarded with veneration by the the claws are longer and more Mahomedans, in consequence of its hooked than in the male. containing the tombs of numerous GIRRA, the common teal found in distinguished personages of their
It is identical with the faith. About three miles from the British species, and is one of the city is the tomb of the celebrated handsomest of the duck tribe, as Sultaun Mahmoud. Ghuznee was well as one of the most delicate. taken by storm by the British troops The girra are generally found in in 1839. Upon the insurrection in flocks
of four to twelve on ponds and 1841, it again fell into the hands of jheels, but sometimes they congregate the Afghans, from whom it was re- in great numbers. They are birds of captured in 1842, when the English passage, and do not breed in India. entirely demolished the fort, and They are netted in various ways by carried off the sandal-wood gates of the natives, and sold in most of the Mahmoud's tomb, which had been bazars for a mere trifle. The most taken by him from the Hindoo usual way of netting them is, after temple of Somnauth in 1024. They having ascertained the place where also took away the Sultaun's mace they resort to feed at night, to suras a trophy of their conquest.
round it by a line suspended by
bamboos, to which are attached importance. Including Goa, and nooses, at intervals of a few inches. some small island connected with The teal alight outside of this line, it, the Portuguese possess in India and in swimming towards the place a small territory of about forty where they find their food, have to miles in length by twenty in pass the nooses, and in doing so a breadth. number are caught, and in general GOALPARA, a frontier town in this does not alarm the rest. They India, in the province of Bengal, are permitted to feed a short time and the principal trading mart beunmolested, when the person watch- tween Bengal and Assam, Lat. 26 ing the nets makes a slight noise, deg. 8 min. N., Long. 90 deg. 38 sufficient to cause the teals to swim min. E. back to the deep water, when they | GOANDS, or GONDS, or KHOONDS, have to repass the nooses. When a wild tribe of Indians, inhabiting as many birds are netted so as to the hills of Omerkantuk, at the create confusion, the birds are se- source of the Sone and Nurbuddah. cured in a basket, and all being The Goands are one of the lowest again quiet, the teals return again classes in the scale of civilisation to to their favourite resort for food. be found throughout India. The Another way is by using the flap manners and customs of these people net on an extensive scale, when a are peculiar to themselves, and their whole flock may be secured; but it physiognomy differs very widely is expensive, and the above is the from the usual characters found in most common method in use on small the natives of the Peninsula. Their jheels. To the gunner the teal pre- skin is much blacker than the ordisents a difficult shot, particularly if nary shade, their lips are thick, and the bird is fairly on wing, taking a their hair woolly, resembling that of sweep through the air. A small an African ; their forms are well charge of shot, and a good charge of proportioned, being strong and powder, is requisite to come up with athletic, and though steeped in the them, and do execution. In wild- grossest ignorance, there appears no fowl shooting, if a bird or two are reason to suppose that they are inwinged, it is a common plan to capable of mental improvement. stake them down in a favourite They had for a long time obtained resort in the jheel; the teal, when the reputation of being cannibals, flying over, will be attracted by before the unhallowed nature of
these birds, and afford good shots. their banquet was established be GOA, a Portuguese possession in In- yond a doubt. Unlike the general
dia, consisting of two towns, Old habits of those savages who devour Goa and New Goa, or Panjim, situ- human flesh, they are rather parated upon a small island on the ticular in their tastes, and will only Malabar coast, in the province of partake of a feast afforded by perBejapoor, in India, Lat. 15 deg. 30 sons belonging to their own tribe; min. N., Long. 74 deg. 2 min. E. the sacrifice of the victim, and the Old Goa, formerly the most splendid preparation of the abhorrent food, city in India, is now in ruins, the partaking somewhat of the nature of seat of government having been a religious rite. It appears that removed to Panjim, which is a hand- when any member of a family is some and well-built town upon seized with a hopeless malady, or the island of Goa, five miles becomes aged, and therefore of no nearer the entrance of the harbour further use to the community, he is than old Goa. Though still the forthwith killed and eaten, thus residence of the Portuguese viceroy, rendering his death a public benefit. it has ceased to be a place of any When closely questioned, no Goand
will deny this practice, but all indignantly exclaim against the supposition that they would partake indiscriminately of human flesh, and disgrace themselves by eating that of a stranger, or any individual not belonging to their own tribe. This singular and unprepossessing class of persons, who are scattered over the country about Omerkantuk, live in the most barbarous manner possible, upon wild roots and vegetables, and such animals as they can snare or kill, not troubling themselves with the care and cultivation of the soil, and being frequently reduced to great extremity. They construct rude cisterns of bamboo and mud in the most accessible parts of the forest, which, in the rainy season, are filled with water, each family congregating round one of these cisterns, and should all the water contained in it be consumed before the next fall, they wander to another of these rude reservoirs, which are formed at the distance of several miles from each other, and to which they also fly at the approach of an enemy. Partaking of the propensity common to all the inhabitants of India to divide themselves into separate communities or castes, they are tenacious of the customs of their tribe, yet they do not conform to any of the prejudices respecting animals held sacred by other classes of Hindoos; making no scruple of killing and eating the cow, when they can obtain a prize of such magnitude, and feeding without hesitation upon snakes, monkeys, or any thing else that may come in their way. These people have very little intercourse with Goands of different tribes, who live under chiefs in towns or villages, or, until lately, with the more civilised portion of the community residing in the plains, seldom venturing beyond their own districts, except when driven by necessity to barter any of the products of the hills for provisions. The difficulty of procuring the means of existence
prevents them from congregating in large numbers, and there are seldom more than eight or ten huts in one place. In sacrificing their aged or sick relatives to Devi, they consider that they perform a meritorious action,-first, by propitiating the goddess; secondly, by putting their friends out of their misery; and thirdly, by assuring to themselves an ample meal, in addition to the blessing which descends upon all who comply with the insatiable demands of that gloomy deity, who craves unceasingly for blood. Independently of a superstition at once so revolting and degrading, the result of the most barbarous state of ignorance, the Goands are a simple race of people, not addicted to the usual vices of the savage character. It is said, that a growing taste for salt and sugar is now bringing them into more frequent contact with the people of the plains, and could they be induced to estimate the blessings of civilisation, and take back with them the means of improving the condition of their fellow-tribes, they would prove valuable members of the community, since they alone can live throughout the year in the pestiferous atmosphere of their hills. These wild Goands recognise a chief, and many extensive tracts of country belong to their rajahs; the Rajah of Bustar, in the Nagpore country, being one. All the Goand chieftains are in the habit of propitiating the favourite deity, the goddess Devi, by the sacrifice of human victims; their sacrifices being distinct from the immolations before mentioned, which are confined to the more savage tribes, who only murder their nearest relatives. When they have the success of any undertaking very much at heart, they make a vow to Devi, promising a certain number of human offerings, should their wishes be fulfilled. This vow is religiously kept, the victims being selected, if possible, from the Jungum caste, on account of a supposition generally
entertained, that the smallest portions on the Ganges. He has particular of their bones and flesh will, if buried charge of the bow, where he either in fields, render the crops miracu- rows the foremost oar, or, when nelously abundant. If such persons cessary, keeps the boat from running are not easily obtained, others are against the bank, or upon shoals, by procured by the collectors employed means of a luggy, or long bamboo pole, by the rajah for the purpose, who first casting it out in the proper direcseize any strangers that may be tion, and then lappingit round several passing through. These practices times with the end of a strong tailwere brought to the notice of the strap, fastened to a ring on the foreBritish government, in consequence castle, so as to prevent the pole from of complaints having been made by returning. Often the fate of a boat dethe relatives of persons who were so pends on the certainty of the goleeah's unfortunate as to fall into such in- throw; especially under a cutchar, human hands, to the Company's or sand-bank, perhaps twenty feet political agent at Nagpore, and since or more in height, under which a then efforts have been made to put an strong current cuts away the founend to the horrible rites; but they still dation, occasioning immense bodies prevail to a very great extent, and it of the soil to fall in, attended by a is dangerous for natives of India from noise competing with thunder. distant parts of the country to ven-GOMASTAH, Hindostanee. A comture amongst a people addicted to missioner, factor, agent.
such frightful religious ceremonies. GONDWANA, a province of the GODAVERY, the. This river has its Deccan, in India, bounded on the
source in India, in the Western Moun- north by Allahabad and Bahar; tains, about seventy miles to the north. east, Bahar and Orissa; south, east of Bombay. It runs eastward Orissa, the Northern Circars, and through the provinces of Aurung- Hyderabad; west, Beder, Berar, abad and Beder; and turning to the Khandesh, Malwa, and Allahabad. south-east, flows between the pro- Of the numerous districts into which vinces of Orissa and Hyderabad, this extensive province is divided, which it separates, and through the the following may be considered the Northern Circars into the Bay of principal: Baghela, or BaghulBengal. Its whole course is about khund, Singrowla, Gurra-Mundla, 850 miles.
Sohajpoor, Sirgooja, and SumbhulGODOWN, a warehouse, or cellar, in poor, belonging to the British doIndia.
minions, and Deogur, Nagpore, GOGLETT, a small porous earthen Chanda, Chouteesgur, Wynegunga, jar or vase, used for the reception of and Bustar, belonging to the Rajah water, which it cools and depurates. of Nagpore. The rivers are the The goglett is much in use at Sone, Nurbudda, Gunga, or WyneBombay, where they are made very Gunga, Wurda, and Mahanudee, all, light and cheap.
excepting the Wurda, having their GOHARREAS, a class of Indians, sources in this province. The Gunga
whose profession is to hire themselves flows southerly, and joining the out for the purpose of fighting. They Wurda, falis with it into the Gousually stipulate for a certain re- davery. The greatest portion of this ward, and a provision in case they province presents a very wild apshould suffer imprisonment for any pearance, abounding with rugged affair in which, having been en- mountains, and covered with forests. gaged, they should be apprehended The eastern and southern districts, and punished.
particularly, are in an exceedingly GOLAH, Hindostanee. A warehouse.
Westward, though GOLEEAH, a member of a boat's crew traversed by ranges of hills, and in many parts thickly wooded, the general name of Gondwana, as being country is more open; and in Chou- the country of the Goand or Khoond teesgur and the northern districts tribe. The inhabitants are Goands, or there are large tracts of clear and Khoonds (q. v.), Hindoos of various fertile ground. The province in classes, principally Mahrattas, and general is poorly cultivated, and Telingas, from different parts of Hinthinly inhabited. The climate of dostan Proper, and the Deccan, and the hilly and wooded districts is re- a small proportion of Mahomedans. markably unhealthy, and usually The language is principally Gondee, fatal to the natives of other parts. Mahrattee, and Jelongo. Many The productions are rice, wheat, other dialects are spoken by the chenna, jowaree, and other dry various wild tribes. grains; sugar, hemp, cotton, opium, GOOLAL, a red powder, used during tobacco, arrow-root, pan, and bees'- the Hoolee festival to besprinkle wax, dyeing drugs, oils, gum, and people, after the manner in which coarse silk, of the description called bonbons are scattered by the Italians tussur. The forests yield a plentiful during the Neapolitan carnival. supply of teak, saul, and other large GOOLISTAN, the Rose Garden, or timber; and the lac insect abounds. the Land of Roses, the name of a Diamonds of a large size, and gold, celebrated Persian poem, written by are to be found in the vicinity of Musleh ud Deen, of Shiraz, surnamed the rivers, particularly of the Maha- Sheik Sadi. nudee; but the unhealthiness of the GOOLS, balls composed of pounded climate prevents their being much charcoal, mixed with water, and sought after. Iron, talc, limestone, baked in the sun. When ignited, coal, red-ochre, and marble, are also they are placed in the hookah bowl procured in different parts. The (chillum), and keep the tumaco (a district of Singrowla contains the corruption of “tobacco") constantly largest quarry of corundum in India. burning. Wild beasts are numerous, particu- GOOR, unrefined sugar. larly tigers, and bears of a large GOORAL, the_chamois of the size, with the gaour, mirjee, a Himalayas. This animal affords peculiar species of wild dog, and excellent sport to the deer-stalker. some others, very little known to He is to be found early in the mornEuropeans. The gaour is a very ing feeding among the long grass, powerful animal, of the ox kind, generally on the side of the steepest resembling the bison. The mirjee, mountains, but must be carefully or mouse deer, so called from its approached, as his senses are of a head resembling that of a mouse in refined order. When wounded, he form, is the smallest of the deer often leads his destroyer a chase of species, being about the size of a
many a weary mile down the jackal. Among the snakes, which steepest kudds, and over sharpabound in this province, is the boa pointed rocks, where the trail must constrictor. The towns are Ban- be followed by the signs of the doogur, Saipoor, Gurra, Jubbulpoor, mountain dew brushed from the Mahadeo, Chouragur, Choupara, surface of the grass, or the rocks and Mundla, Sohajpoor, Kurgom- stained by the ebbing blood of the ma, and Oomerkuntuk, Sirnadoo, stricken animal. Jushpoor, Gangpoor, Sumbhulpoor, GOORCHERAS, irregular horse, in and Patna, Deogur, Babye, Baitool, the service of the Sikh government. Jilpee-Amneer, Nagpore, Chanda, GOORGOORY, a very small kind of Ruttanpoor, Konkeer, and Byrgur, hookah, intended to be conveyed in Wynegunga, Wyragur, and Bustar. a palankeen, or to be carried about This province has received its a house ; the person who smokes